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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (July-Dec. 1888)"

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E0D7 Q50r2m 3 

California Stale Library 

WVi ™" • f — 

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mV. 1898. 




Vol. XXXVI.-No. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 7, 1888. 



I $3 a Year, In Advance. 

t Single Copies, 10 Ots. 



A Flour Trust. 

A convention of the flour millers of the 
United States met at Buffalo, N. Y., duriog 
the past month. It appears from the proceed- 
ings, so far as we have received them, that the 
millers have also fallen into the general desire 
to form a "trust." The proposition is to en- 
roll all the leading millers of the country into 
the organization. When that is done the or- 
ganization will be in a position to dictate the 
price of wheat and flour for home consumption, 
and another price, if deemed advisable, for ex- 
port. The plan also involves the abrogation of 
the present 20 per cent tariff on foreign wheat. 
Phis is simply a new movement to place the con- 
trol of the bread stuff of the country in the hands 
of a few speculators; a movement much more 
easily effected and involving far less capital than 
the "owners" in wheat heretofore attempted, 
that is, provided the proposed organization can 
be accomplished. 

The Gall of this city comments upon the mat- 
ter as follows: "They," the millers, "want 
the duty on wheat removed. It is not neces- 
sary to travel far a -field to discover what the 
obj ct of the last proposition is. The millers 
in convention ask no less than that the Amer- 
ican farmer shall be delivered over to them 
bound hand and foot. This is what the woolen 
manufacturers were encouraged to do with re- 
gard to the wool-growers — the fruit-canners in 
the matter of tin plate to the fruit-growers. 
The 20 cents per bushel now charged as duty on 
Canadian wheat saves our farmers from the 
clutches of the millers just to that extent. If 
the duty were removed they would have to 
oome down to Canadian prices, when transpor- 
tation charges were equal. Our farmers would 
lose what may be called the border trade in 
wheat altogether. Canadian wheat can be laid 
down more cheaply in Buffalo than wheat from 
the interior of the State of New York. 

But the special point to be noted is that the 
millers do not think that they can succeed in 
setting up their " trust " unless the duty on 
wheat is repealed. They want to use foreign 
wheat as a club to beat down the prices of our 
own farmers. But President Cleveland gave 
expression to the opinion in his last message 
that it is the tariff which has made "trusts" 
possible. Some of his defenders have asserted 
that it was the 75 cents per ton levied on coal 
which has sent the price in this city from $7 to 
$17 per ton. Other wholly wonderful results 
have been noted in other parts of the field. But 
the millers in convention have knocked the 
bottom out of the absurd notion. The "trusts " 
which are strongest in this country are those 
which are least protected. 



Monster Asparagus. — Some friend sends 
us a clipping from the New York Sim, de- 
scribing a moneter bunch of asparagus which 
was on exhibition in New York City. It was 
grown near Philadelphia. The bunch is nearly 
two feet in hight and is 36 inches in circum- 
ference. It weighs 40 pounds, or nearly a 
pound to each spike, all of which is edible. 
There is some doubt about the variety, but it 
is believed to be the new Southern soit known 
as the " Palmetto." Veteran gardeners admit 
there has never been an} thing like it seen 
around New York in the " garden sass " line. 
We suppose our friend Bends us the account as 
a challenge t) California asparagus growers. 
What will they do'about it? 



Agricultural Work by the Geological 
Survey. — We are in receipt of an issue of the 
Congressional Record from Hon. W. W. Mor- 
row, giving a report of the debate in the House 
on the appropriation for the classification of 
public lands by the geological survey as called 
for by the California State Grange. Mr. Mor- 



ernment lands, that their utilization aud de- 
velopment may proceed upon a more intelligent 
basis. 



When to Cut Raisin-Grapes. — E. H. 
Gould, the Davisville raisin maker, find? that 
grapes cat at maturity and before shrinkage be- 




WILD IPEOAC-Euphorbia Corollata 



row made a forcible address in favor of the 
measure introducing our State Grange resolu- 
tions, and the essay on the subject by Prof. 
Hilgard which was recently published in the 
Rural. The measure was opposed by Mr. 
Randall and failed, but the vote showed inter- 
est enough to warrant better success with it at 
another session of Congress. All that is needed 
ia that agricultural bodies should take early 
action upon the measure and members of Con- 
gress be individually impressed with the desir- 
ability of an agricultural survey of the (Jov- 



gins, yield 30 per cent more raisins in weight 
and of. better quality than those left on the 
vine until the foliage fails. The Dixod Tri 
bune adds: "It is through the foliage that the 
berries are nurtured, and as long as the foliage 
remains healthy the juices continue rich in sac- 
charine matter; but unhealthy and failing 
leaves produce a corresponding deterioration 
in the quality of the juice, and the shriveled 
skins and change of color noticeable in grapes 
left on the vines too long, he regards as evi- 
dence of decay." 



Wild Ipecac. 

The plant shown in the engraving on this 
page will interest our amateur botanists and 
probibly recall to our older housewives the 
" root and yarb " practice of the East. It is 
the wild ipecac (Euphorbia corollata) and is 
classed among native medicinal plants by Dr. 
George Vasey, Government botanist. It is an 
herbaceous perennial, belonging to the order 
Euphorbiacece, growing very commonly in sandy 
or gravelly soil in most of the States east of the 
Rocky mountains. It has a prostrate, knotty 
rhizoma or root-stock, from which are sent up 
one or more stems which rise to the hight of two 
or three feet. The stems are generally slender 
and unbranched, except near the top. They 
have numerous scattering leaves from near the 
base to the top. The leaves are nearly sessile, 
and varying in form in different varieties of the 
plant, but usually quite narrow and linear or ob- 
long, about two inches long, and yielding a 
milky juice when broken from the stem. At 
the upper part the stem divides into about five 
principal branches, surrounded by a whorl of 
five small leaves. These branches again sub- 
divide in threes and twos, the slender extremi- 
ties bearing each a small white flower. The 
flowers have the peculiar character of this order, 
being formed of a small, cup-shaped envelope, 
called involucre, with five conspicuous white 
lobes or appendages on the border. On the in- 
terior of the cup or involucre are several small 
stamens, and rising from the center of a stalk 
which rises out of the cup is the fertile flower 
with three styles and a roundish, three-celled 
ovary. The root of the plant is employed me- 
dicinally to some extent, having some of the 
properties of ipecac, for which it has been sub- 
stituted. In the engraving, Fig. 1, an enlarged 
flower shows the involucre in part, with the 
stamens, and the ovary raised on a stalk or stipe 
above the flower. 



Our Wool Industry. — To show what pro- 
tection has done for the wool induptry, we give 
below the returns of sheep in the last four na- 
tional censuses: 

Number of Sheep. Increase. Percentage. 

1850 21,723,220 2,412,220 12.50 

1860 22,471,275 748,055 3.42 

1870 28,477,951 6,006,676 27.60 

1880 42.381,389 13,903,438 48.82 

The figures 'of increase under 1850 show a 
part of jthe good effect of the protective tariff of 
1842. But before 1850 came, the mischievous 
tariff of 1S47 had begun to do harm. The sheep 
of the country in 1846 were estimated at 28,- 
000,000. It took the country ten years of Pro- 
tection to get back to where it stood when the 
horizontal tariff of 1847 was adopted. The fig- 
ures of 1860 show the paltry gain effected under 
the tariff of 1847, and the still worse tariff of 
1857. Those of 1870 and 1880 show how the 
American farmer has made use of the splendid 
opportunity the tariff offered him to enlarge 
and improve his flocks. The statisticians of 
the Bureau of Agriculture report that the coun- 
try had 49,237,291 sheep in 1883, and 50,626,- 
626 in 18S4. But, it is said, the lowering of 
the duties on wool and woolen in 1883 has 
caused a progressive decline from these high 
figures in the last four years. 



Thk Olive. — The report by Secretary Lelong 
on the Mission and Picholine olives and on bogus 
olive oil may be found on another page of this 
issue. It will be found very interesting. 



2 



pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS, 



[July 7, 1888 



B^UIT (IJa^KETING. 



Great Fruit Sales at the East. 

Just after the Kukal went to press list 
week there came to hand several interesting 
statements concerning the progress of auction 
sales of California fruit at the Ktst. 

It is well known that H. Weinstock of this 
city, one tf the directors of the California Fiuit 
Union, went to Chicago recently to inaugurate 
the selling of California fruits iu that city un- 
der the auction plan. The following letter, 
written by him on the 22 I iost. to P. K. Piatt, 
president of the Fruit Union, was published in 
the Record Union. It will be of much interest 
to all fruit-growers and the public generally: 

As you well know, my idea of the manner in which 
to start the sales of California fruit by auction in 
Chicago was to begin with the first carload lpt 
reaching here, at the beginning of the season, in or- 
der that the trade might gradually be educated to 
that method of sale, so that by the time larger quan 
tities began to arrive they would be ready to buy 
more freely. Instead ot the auction plan being in- 
troduced in that way, let me state to you the con- 
ditions that existed this morning when our fir.-t sale 
took place. 

To begin with, Earl Bros, had received a carload 
of fruit yes'erdiy, w hich they were offering atpriv&te 
sale; Butts & Co. were opening a carload this morn- 
ing from Reed, and likewise offering it at private 
sale; Porter Bros, had been loaded up to the neck 
all this week, with much stuff in a wasting condition, 
which had to be sold for very lilt'e, and nearly two 
carloads, which were remnants of Monday's, Tues- 
day's and Wednesday's arrivals, was yet on hand, 
most of it in very bad condition, and which was to 
have been put into the sale, with the two cars of 
fresh fruit that should have arrived early this morn- 
ing, but were delayed some hours. Under the-e 
conditions you can readily understand my feelings 
when the sale b?gan. The method was new, the 
buyers were timid, and the fruit on hand was bad, 
but notwithstanding all these disadvantages the sale 
went off well, and while some lots would doubtless 
have brought more at private sale, I am quite sure 
that the average would have been lower. 

Owing to the delay in transit, we were obliged to 
hold a second sale between it and 12 o'clock, of the 
two cars due here early this morning. Both cars 
were sold in a comparatively few moments, and there 
was realized nearly $1200 each. While at these fig- 
ures there cannot be a large margin led for the own- 
ers of the fruit, yet. on the whole, 1 think it well 
that the bidders were afforded an opportunity to 
make liberal profits at the stut. Their appetites 
have been whetted and an eagerness excited for 
future sales. 

Among the buyers present were some who had 
hitherto never handled California fruits, and who 
bought for the first time, and among the larger buy- 
ers were some who had handled Calilornia fruit in 
very small quantiiies only. The sale as conducted 
has given very general satisfaction among the trade, 
and we can safely count on an increased number of 
buyers with every sale. The trade in our (ruits is 
destined to ramify in all directions. 1 feel this clear- 
ly from remarks made by a number of the bidders at 
to-day's sales. Kor example one man said: "My 
business is to fill orders for out-of-town trade. This 
auction of California fruits opens out a new field lor 
me. I shall solicit orders from out-of-town joDbcrs to 
represent them here as their broker, and I am sure 
I can build up a nice lu-iness for myself, and at 
the same time do you good by interest. ng people in 
your fruits who hit'ierto have not handled them. 1 ' 

Another gentleman said: I am from Kalamazoo, 
and my friend here is from Terre Haute. We aie 
both fruit jobbers, though we have n ver handled 
California fruits. This new way of selling them is 
very acceptable to us; we see that it places us on an 
even footing with the most favored buyers, and we 
think we can now see our way clear, since we can 
now buy from first hands, to develop an extensive 
business in these goods, and so we propose to 
change off and come to Chxago alternate weeks and 
buv for each other." 

These gentlemen represent large families of deal- 
ers who will be influenced in the same way, and thus 
it can easily be seen how the channels of market will 
be widened for us, and how, in a short time, the de- 
mand for our products will be wonderfully increased. 
The most gratifying thing to me at this time is the 
verdict of Mr. Watson of Porter Bros. An hour or 
two after the sale he spoke to nie as follows: "I 
must acknowledge the corn, and am free to say that 
the results far exceed my expect itions. 1 had no 
idea that the sales would be as successful as they 
have been." 

Coming from one as conservat've as Mr. Watson, 
whose opinion I value highly, and from one who has 
expressed grave doubts as to the possible success of 
selling by auction, such an acknowledgement is cer- 
tainly most encouraging. By the t me this let t r 
reaches you several other sales will have taken place, 
and we will know more concerning the prospects of 
the permanent success than we can at this lime. 

H. Weinstock. 
Chicago Sales. 

Chicago, June 27 ch. — All the animation and 
rivalry and representative character of the 
national political convention were presented 
this morning in a line stretching from the rail- 
road depot, just across the river from where 
State street and South water street, the two 
busiest thoroughfares in Chicago, cross one an- 
other. The honors and attentions that were 
showered upon the Californians at the great na- 
tional gathering in St. Louis and Chicago had 
equally their counterpart here. California, in 
fact-, seemed the one sufject in which for the time 
being everybody present was interested. Huge 
piles of luscious-looking fruit in boxes, be- 
wildering in variety and extent, littered the 
floor of the depot in every direction. Still 
mora fruit was p mring in from heavily-laden I 
cars drawn up on the tracks beside the depot's 
many open doors, while on the other side of the 
depot, through other open doors, were seen 



swearing, yelling teamsters, with trucks and 
wagons, crowding each other for the first place 
in the general onsliught, evidently eager to 
commence among the stack of boxes on the 
floor. 

Little groups of business men were around, 
pencil and note-book in hand, carefully examin- 
ing and making calculations regarding the boxes 
that the stalwert porters about them were pull- 
ing open everywhere. No horn-blowing or 
cheering or speech-making was necessary to 
stir things up, and when a brisk young man 
mounted a stand and rapped for order the pro- 
ceedings began instanter, with a regular hop, 
skip and jump. It was virtually the 

Inauguration of the Auction System 

Of handling fruit in this market, for, though 
sales have been going on for nearly a week, the 
experiment was too unfamiliar to the buyers in 
attendance to be said, until this morning, 
to be really under way. Heretofore one firm has 
had practically a monopoly, so far aa Chicago 
and the vast territory tributary is concerned, 
of the entire product of the great California or- 
chards, purchased by private sale, and the re- 
sult was that the traffic here was stunted almost 
from its birth. 

Generally, money could be realized and profits 
or losses counted by growers in California, only 
after weeks of delay, when the final consignee 
in some outlying town from Chicago had been 
at last rounded up single-handed by the sole 
agent of the Californians in this city. 

Quick Sales and Small Profits. 

Hundreds of boxes were knocked down this 
morning in a minute, and the cash was by the 
terms of sale available on the spot. Everything 
in the depot had been disposed of within half 
an hour, and less than 60 minutes afterward the 
money for the product was ready on demand in 
the San Francisco banks for the growers of the 
Pacific Slope, wherever they might be located, 
to draw upon in an instant. 

Strangely enough, too, there was, so far as 
could be ascertained, no letting down in the 
average prices realized by the old system. Open, 
hot competition from at least 25 different firms 
was the explanation. Every man knew what 
his neighbor was doing and all took hold boldly, 
knowing as they did, that no favorite was to 
over-reach them by doing better secretly and in 
the dark. 

Three cars, the arrivals to-day, brought a 
gross average price of $142 per ton. A notice- 
able feature of the auction was that the sales 
were not confined to Chicago or the West, but 
large quantities were taken by agents for 
Canada, and even 1; .-ton, New York and Phil- 
adelphia, whenever the Cbicagoans proper failed 
to grab the low priced lot. 

The Two Systems Compared. 
Every one present whose attention could be 
distracted for a moment was interviewed as to 
how they regarded the new system and what its 
influence would be. S. Page, a well-known 
dealer, happened to be the first. He was very 
enthusiastic. 

"I think," he said, " that Chicago is now go- 
ing to be the market for California fruits. I 
have commenced issuing letters to all my cor- 
respondents soliciting trade. We can do some- 
thing now -build up a trade where before the 
market was all but closed to us." 

M a Ojtagg of Ostagg & Co., who was one of 
the livtliest bidders on the fljor, stopped long 
enough to say: "This beats selling one box at 
$1, and 100 at almost nothing. Why, where 
the people have one car of Calilornia fruit, they 
will soon eat ten. K /ery body will want it when 
they don't have to wait for it to be rotten before 
they can afford to buy it. Instead of a luxury 
for the few, it will be the staple for the many. 
The growers will be benefited more than any- 
body else, for they will get a fair average price 
for everything, with quick returns." 

S.milar views were expressed by the repre- 
sentatives of Garhaldi, Cuneoz k Co., F. A. 
Thomas k Sans, Dunley, Clapp & Dje, and 
many others. 

The firm which had a monopoly of the prod- 
uct of TOO California growers (Porter Bros.) in- 
timated that they first feared it would hurt 
their business, but were pretty well satisfied 
that the enormous increased traffic almost cer- 
tain to ensue before long would more than com- 
pensate them. 

Sales in New York. 
New York, June 27th.— One carloa-1 of Cali- 
fornia fruit was auctioned yesterday, and the 
following prices were obtained: Birtlett pears, 
83.70; peach plums, $3.25 to S3; peaches, 
$1.02* to $1.50; apricots, $150 to $1.13$ 
Tnis oar arrived too late for Saturday's sale, 
and had to hi held over. The weather is a 
little cooler and the fruit stood it well. 

The sale occupied 20 minutes. The trade iu 
these fruits is growing rapidly. All the towns 
within 50 miles of New York have regular 
supplies, v. here, in the past, California fruit had 
been unknown. 

Free Shipments Prom Sacramento. 
The Record Union ot Fr.clay has the to. low- 
ing: A gentleman who came down Irom 
Auburn yesterday said: "My goodness, I 
don't see what they can do with all the fruit 
that is rapidly ripening." If he had been down 
to the fruit d-pot last evening he could have 
had an oeular demonstration of what can ba 
done, is being doue and will I13 done with the 
surplns. Yesterday there was loaded at the 
fruit depot, at the foot of L street, 22 carloads 
of fruit for the East. At ten tons to the car, 
there were 220 tons of truit, representing the 



entire crop of several small ranches and a large 
amount of money. " What are we going to do 
with our fruit ? " Why, ship it East, sell at 
auction and get wealthy on the profits. 
" What are we going to do with our fruit ? " 
Why, ship so much of it E ist that it will cause 
such an immigration that the home consump- 
tion will be equal to the product. The trains 
shipped East last night will go through on 
passenger time. One was loaded by Strong k 
Co., Gregory Broe. & Co. and the Porter Bros.; 
the other by Wood, Kaed k Ci. One and two 
trains will now leave daily, and from present 
prices and the admirable auction plan, several 
trains per day will no doubt be the rule before 
the close of the season. 

In order to accommodate the increasing 
trains the railroad company is extending its 
fruit depot south over 300 feet, or from Front 
and L streets to almost N. This will give a 
fruit depot 30x500 feet, with a capacity for 
loading 15 care at once. 

What the Railway Manaeers Think. 

The Chronicle of Saturday morning says: "A 
fruit train a day is the promise of the present 
shipping season, so the railroad people say, and 
it is likely that this satisfactory increase in the 
shipments to the East will soon be witnessed. 
A prominent traffic official of the Sonthern 
Pacific Co. told a reporter yesterday, that the 
outlook was for an increase of at least 50 per 
cent over the volume of shipments made last 
year. He had no doubt that in a short time 
the daily special train system would have to be 
introduced. Two special 1 expedited ' trains of 
1 1 cars each started out over the Central Pa- 
cific yesterday, the first time that such a large 
shipment was made in one day. It is evident 
from the early rush that California green fruit 
is in good demand in the East. Preparations 
are being made to send oat another full train- 
load this week." 

"Our expedited trains," remarked the offi- 
cial referred to," go through on approximate pas- 
senger time. Sometimes we even beat the passen 
ger time, as in the case of a train leaving Sicra- 
mento last Saturday. That train went through 
to Ogden in 36J honrs, and from O^den to 
Omaha it made ti e ran in 41 hours. So you see 
we can rash it through in fine time when every- 
thing is favorable, 8 1. hough you know, freight 
trains cannot be handled aa easily as passenger 
trains on such runs. Fruit men shipping 10 
carloads of fruit to start at one time from Sacra- 
mento or o'her shipping points, can have them 
run on special time. The fast-train arrangement 
is open to any corporation, persona or firms act- 
ing in concert who assemble on a given day at 
Sacramento or other shipping point the requisite 
number of cars, but the expedited service is 
treated as a unit, and no cars will be taken into 
a train without the consent of the parties 
who have engaged and m*de up the train." 

The new rate of $1 .10 a hundred pounds on 
canned goods shipped fiom California terminals 
to E istern points was put in effVct yesterday by 
the Southern Pacific Co., instead of on July 5th, 
as at first intended. This was done to accom- 
modate the shippers, seme of whom have large 
quantities of stock to send K ist, and are de- 
sirous of getting it into the market there as 
soon as possible, owing to an apprehended 
shrinkage in prices. 

What the Union Pacific Proposes. 

A letter from General Superintendent E. 
Dickinson of the Union Pacific, received yester- 
day by D. W. Hitchcock, the agent of that line 
here, shows what is being done to improve upon 
the former records of time in overland fruit 
transportation. 

The fruit special which left San Francisco at 
0:20 p. m. June 20th was run from Ogden to 
Cheyenne as a section of No. 2. L ft Cheyenne 
at 10:30 a. m., June 231, and arrived at Council 
B uffs at 3:30 a. m. on the 24:h, and the cars 
were delivered to the Eastern lines without je 
lay. The run from Crand Island to the end of 
the double track, Omaha, was made in four 
hours and four minutes, which is the fastest 
time ever made over the first district with a 
freight train. The run from North Platte to 
Omaha, after deducting the time lost at Grand 
Island in changing engines, averages a little 
over 40 miles per hour. We will make better 
time than No. 2'a time with the next train over 
the Wyoming division. 

Fruit for the No theast. 
The Marysville Appeal saya that G. W. 
Peacock and several others are considering 
plans of organiz ng a fruit packing and shipping 
company in Marysville and shipping via the 
Northern Pacific to St. Paul and elsewhere on 
the northern route. 



DLThe Irrigator. 



A Mountain Artesian Well District. 

We have frequently alluded to the artesian 
well district of Sierra valley. A writer for 
the Reno Gazette gives an interesting account 
of the region and its well§, from which we take 
the following : The water question is a mo- 
mentous one here, and when solved will make 
Sierra valley one of the richest and moat 
populous (for its size) in the country. The 
valley is almost level, ita altitude at its eastern 
extremity (Summit) being 5200 feet, and at 
Bank, with 4870 feet, the intervening country 
being almost as level as a floor. In a good 
year the land is most productive, oats, barley 



and wheat yielding on an average thirty bash- 
els to the acre, the nutritious bunoh graaa and 
other native graaaea flonriab, while alfalfa, 

where properly cultivated, yields such results 
as would astonish the farmer of the Truckee 
meadows, were they known. The idea that 
alfalfa, to grow politically, needs an abund- 
ance of water, it exploded by the experience of 
a Sierra valley farmer, who has a thriving 
I thirty-acre patch of alfalfa, which is now nine 
years old and daring all that time ha« not re- 
ceived a drop of water except that which na- 
ture has bestowed from her reservoir in tbe 
heavens. It ia as well developed now as tbe 
average field of alfalfa in the vicinity cf Reno, 
and ita lucky owner never fails to harvest from 
100 to 120 tons from it each and every year. 
Artesian Wells. 
It ia probable that the method of securing 
water by means of artesian wells has never 
been more genertlly adopted by a farming com- 
munity than it has by the farmers of Sierra 
valley. Every owner of a ten-acre patch is 
artesian well mad, and the five machines in the 
valley are kept constantly employed in boring 
into the bowels of the earth in search of tbe 
life giving element. Nearly every boring ia 
attended with more or less success, tbe only 
failures recorded being where the boring 
has been made in the rolling hills or uplands 
at the base of the mountains which surround 
the valley. Some of the wells have proven 
veritable bonanzas to their owners, yielding aa 
high in some inetancea as 300 gallona of water 
per minute, but the majority range from three 
to twenty-five gallons f jr that length of time. 
There are about 250 wella in the valley, al- 
though it has been stated to your correspond- 
ent that there are 2000 here ; but the former 
figures are no doubt correct. In some of the 
wells there has been a noticeable falling off in 
the quantity of water aupplied, but thia ia at- 
tributed to the fact that but few of the wella 
are not " cased " more than twenty feet 
from the surface, the result being that many 
have become clogged with the dirt which haa 
caved in in loose formations. 1 be deepest well 
in the valley is 1040 feet in depth, tbe smallest 
100 feet, and the average depth is 800 feet. 
Tbe artesitn well ia slowly but surely solving 
the water question for the people of the valley, 
and aolesa the great subterranean reaervoir ia 
exhaused, it ia ou?y a question of time when 
water spouting frum thousands of wella will 
gladden the hearts of the farmers. 

A Storage Reservoir Discussed. 
Several of the enterprising farmers, however, 
are not satisfied to wait for the artesian well, 
and are discussing the feasibility of construct- 
ing a ayetem of reservoira in thenumerona can- 
yona in close proximity to .the farming lands. 
A noticeable instance of the great waste of 
water is apparent in the case of Adam's creek, 
which has its head waters in Last Chance, a 
section of country unexcelled as a summer 
range for stock, and generally becomes ex. 
hauated befjre it reachea its terminal point, 
which, in a hard winter when water is plenty, 
ia the Middle Fork of the Feather River. Were 
the waters of this creek properly hnsbanded, 
the artesian well borer would never have found 
employment, and inatead of being twenty 
years bthind the times Sierra valley would 
now be considered as the farmers' and stock- 
raisers' paradise, a distinction which ita many 
advantages as an agricultural country, and ita 
intelligent and wide-awake people justly en- 
titles it to. It is the waste waters of this 
creek which the enterprising men alluded to 
are contemplating impounding. A natural 
reservoir ia said to exiat in List Chanoe, tbe 
distance from the valley being only eight miles. 
The estimated cost is but slight, and thousands 
upon thousands of gallons of water could there- 
by be saved for tbe time when water, as it is 
now, is the great desideratum. 

West Side Irrigation. 

A meeting, which had been called early last 
month, was held at Hill's Ferry, Saturday 
afternoon, June 231, to make preliminary ar- 
rangements for building a canal sling the foot- 
hills, from a piint near Firebaugh's, Fresno coun- 
ty, to Tracy, Sin Joaquin county, taking water 
out of the San Joaquin river at the first named 
place. From a somewhat extended report in 
the Moieato New* we learn that there were 
fully seventy-five aubatantial farmers present, 
representing a territory extending from Tracy 
to Lis Banos in Merced county. 

The meeting organized by electing C. F. 
Lathrop, Chairman, and Simon Newman, Sec- 
retary. 

Hon. J. W. B-eckinridge, of Merced, spoke 
of the unquestionable benefits derived from 
irrigation, where the latter ia practised, and 
congratulated tbe farmera that the laat legisla 
ture hsd enacted laws which render full and 
comprehensive ayatems of irrigation posaible. 

J. R. MeD maid, of Grayaon, followed with 
a very sensible and impressive talk, in which 
be reviewed the different methods of obtain- 
ing what was sought by the meeting, and gave 
it as his judgment that the one provided for by 
the Wright law would be preferable to either 
a private corporation or a stock oompany. 

E. D. McCab; being called upon to explain 
the workings and mode of procedure to form a 
district under tbe Wright law, complied to the 
satisfaction of all. 

Mr. Manuel, engineer of the Tarlock Irriga- 
tion Distriot, then apoke at some length o( 
the practicability of the different systems, of 



July 7, 1888.] 



f AC1FK3 frURAb j^RESS. 



3 



irrigation practiced throughout the State. He 
stated that a prominent and legitimate objec- 
tion to a system controlled by private capital 
was that, after lands adjacent to the canal had 
been thoroughly soaked, it was fonnd difficult 
to sell water to the f irmers, because they al- 
ready enjoyed its beneGts by seepage, and 
thus the income was seriously impaired. Under 
the Wright law each land-owner benefited 
would stand his proportionate share of the ex- 
pense. He believed that of all the systems 
ever devised, that which is provided by the 
Wright law is the cheapest and most equitable. 

Judge Worthington, formerly of Modesto, 
but now of Los Banos, gave some figures of 
the extent of the territory comprising 
the district under discussion. There 
is a total acreage of about 250,000 
acres, extending from a point in Fresno 
county to a line near Tracy. There are 130,000 
acres in Stanislaus county, 80,000 in Merced 
and the balance in San Joaquin and Fresno 
counties. 

A committee of five, appointed to report 
npon a plan of action, favored a procedure 
under the Wright law, which report was 
unanimously adopted. 

A committee consisting of Z.G.Jameson, 
W. F. Draper and O. F. Lathrop, were ap- 
pointed to secure proper water rights for the 
district. 

Simon Newman was appointed a committee 
of one to see that a petition was properly pre- 
sented to the Board of Supervisors, for organi- 
zation under the Wright law, at their next reg- 
ular meeting. About forty free-holders signed 
the petition upon the adj jurnment of the meet- 
ing. 



JI[HE ~VYrEI^INARIjOrN. 



Veterinary Association. 

The California State Veterinary Medical 
Association, which was organized in this city 
last winter, held its second regular meeting 
June 13th, at 313 Bush St., with Dr. Thos. 
Bowhill, president, in the chair. 

Drs. Morrison and Whittlesey, of Los An- 
geles, and Klench, of Modesto, were admitted 
to membership. 

It was decided that measures be taken to 
incorporate. 

The following are extracts from the society's 
constitution and code of ethics : 

The objects of the society are : To promote 
veterinary science ; to propagate a fraternal 
feeling among its members, and protect the 
rights and privileges of practitioners, partic- 
ularly those of California ; to elevate the 
standard of the profession generally by scien- 
tific intercourse. 

The officers of the society shall be a Presi- 
dent, vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer and 
a Board of Examiners, all of whom shall be 
elected by ballot, the term of office to be one 
year. The Board of Examiners to consist of 
three members. In the event of the absence of 
one or all members of said board, the presi- 
dent shall have the right to appoint temporary 
examiners. 

It shall be the duty of the Board of Exam- 
iners to examine candidates on the following 
subjects : Anatomy, materia medica, physi- 
ology, pathology, principles and practice of 
equine and bovine veterinary medicine and sur- 
gery. 

It shall be the duty of the Board of Exam- 
iners to examine applications of those who may 
apply for membership, provided they present 
satisfactory testimonials that they are regular 
graduates from recognized colleges; and if such 
credentials are satisfactory they shall then re- 
port to the president of the society. 

The graduated practioners having practised 
for five or more years in the State, and desiring 
to become members of the sooiety shall present 
themselves before said Board and submit to 
such examination as the said Board shall re- 
quire, and if the examination be satisfactory 
the candidate shall then be admitted as a mem- 
ber of the society, and entitled to all its privi- 
leges. 

Code or Ethics. 

Sec. I. — No member shall assume a title to 
which he has not a just claim. 

Sec. II. — When a member is called to treat 
a case having been treated by a fellow graduate 
of veterinary medicine and surgery, or 
member of this society, he shall as coon 
as possible put himself in communication 
with attending - practitioner, and shall not 
further visit unless he (the lattei ) is willing 
to relinquish the cafe, but shall treat when 
called to any urgent case on bshalf of the at- 
tending practitioners until such time as he can 
be seen or heard from. 

Sec. III. — In case of consultation, the con- 
sulting veterinarian shall, so far as he conscien- 
tiously can, sustainjthe surgeon in charge of the 
case, and in no way either by word or action 
promote his own interests at the expense of 
his brother practitioner. 

Sec. IV.— While it is essential for the veter- 
inarian consulted to ascertain the trne nature 
of the case, he should carefully withholi all 
discussion of the subject till bis brother prac- 
titioner and himself meet in private for deliber- 
ation. 

Sec. V.— When a conclusion is arrived at, it 
shall be the duty of the attending veterinarian 
to state the results to his client in the presence 
of the consulting veterinarian, and no opinion 



shall be delivered which is not the result of 
previous deliberation and concurrence. 

Sec. VI. — When diversity of opinion exists 
it may be proper to refer the case to several 
veterinarians in good standing, or a court med- 
ica), but in most cases mutual concessions 
should render this unnecessary. 

Sec. VII. — It shall be deemed a breach of 
the Code for a consulting veterinarian to re- 
visit a patient without special invitation or 
agreement. 

Sec. VIII. — Any member who shall adver- 
tise or otherwise offer to the public any medi- 
cines, the composition of which he refuses to 
disclose, or propose to cure disease by any 
such secret medium, shall be donounced as an 
unworthy member of this society, and be ex- 
pelled therefrom. 



J\ORTICULTUflE. 



Pruning Fruit Trees. 

Editors Press : — In the Rural of June 9th 
I gave some points gathered from growing mill- 
ions of young fruit trees in nursery in a severe 
climate, and from planting thousands of them 
in orchard. I will now give my personal views 
on pruning fruit trees when planted in, and 
afterwards in orchard, gathered from the care 
and very careful study of the whole probLm 
during 45 years. The questions were how to 
prune an orchard of 25,000 or more apple, pear 
and cherry trees, and at what point it was best 
to start their heads so as to get from that or- 
chard the largest possible amount of dollars and 
cents. I did not set out to grow an orchard for 
looks, i. e.j to look pretty or to bring all the 
trees to a certain ideal form, all with a certain 
hight of head, etc., but simply to grow an or- 
chard that would produce the greatest possible 
amount of fine salable frnit that would bring 
the most monev. Money was the sole object in 
planting, and I believe that is the object with 
all of u,? 

I had grown to manhood in one of the largest 
orchards in the early days of Illinois and had in 
a great measure had charge of that orchard. In 
it had been planted nearly every obtainable 
fruit that we thought could be grown in that 
climate. There were thousands of seedling 
apple trees and thousands of budded and grafted 
ones — trees of every shape and form — and they 
were on nearly every kind of soil and exposure 
that could be found in the great State of Illi- 
nois, and with one of the most trying climates 
for fruit trees in the world to contend with. 
Eventually, too, nearly all noxious insects and 
di- eases reached it; therefore I had a rare op- 
portunity to learn orcharding. 

When I branched out for myself I established 
a large commercial nursery and planted from 
25,000 to 30,000 fruit trees in orchard. When 
these orchards were planted the most import- 
ant question I found necessary for me to 
solve was how to prune and train them so as to 
get the greatest returns from the fruit, and 
also to keep the trees in health and vigor for 
the greatest number of years. I began this in- 
vestigation from a neutral stand-point. I 
could see various mistakes in my father's sys- 
tem of pruning. I read carefully all that 
Downing, Thomas, Barry, Elliott, Warder and 
other great horticulturalists had written on 
the point. I could agree fully with none of 
them ; at least no nearer than they agree with 
each other. I carefully examined the systems 
of my neighbors and those of other states and 
climateB, and from them all I could formulate 
no system for any pruning in an orchard that 1 
was willing to adopt. 

In the meantime my orchards were growing 
fast under careful cultivation, and I was doing 
no pruning whatever, except shortening in, 
when dormant, shoots that had made to great 
a growth. 

Planting. 

We will now go back a little to the planting. 
When I began I thought I knew how to plant a 
tree so that it would live and grow. The result 
showed that I was right, for I did not loose 
one-tenth of one per cent of the whole 30,000 
trees planted in orchard, and they all grew 
the first season after planting far beyond what 
I had ever seen before. Before planting I pre- 
pared the land thoroughly; was careful to keep 
all the vitality in the trees nntil they were 
planted; every tree was very carefully handled, 
quickly planted with one-tenth to one-fiftieth 
the labor of 'en expended in planting fruit trees. 
I cut back the young trees very severely when 
planting. The whole planting was in some 
measure somewhat experimental, therefore, I 
planted some with very low, and some with very 
high heads, and such trees as are called the 
very best and such as are called very poor. As I 
have said, all grew, and grew finely, and with 
the result that I found on my hands an im- 
mense orchard, with no definite plan of how 
best to prune it, so i determined not to cut a 
branch, except as above, nntil I had matured a 
method of pruning satisfactory to myself, one 
in which I could see no faulcs. 

Perplexities In Pruning Systems. 
And I will now give my trouble in trying to 
formulate such a method. As said above, I had 
carefully studied every one's method within my 
reach, and had seen no instance where any one 
had pruned an apple orchard but what such 
pruning had eventually done more harm to the 
tree and its future crops of fruit and the longev- 
ity of the tree than it had done good, In the 



meantime my orchards were growing very fast; 
they began to bear fruit; the fruit was very 
large, high-colored and flavored, and brought 
a much higher price in the market than any 
fruit from my neighborhood. And best of all, 
the first orchard I planted of 1150 trees six 
years after planting was given the first premium 
by a committee of horticultural experts over all 
the orchards in the Slate of Illinois, for health, 
thrift, productiveness and fine quality of fruit. 
Yet that same orchard had never had a twig 
cut from it, except as mentioned above, the cut- 
ting back of some twigs that bad made too 
great a growth, nor was it ever pruned, and it 
continued to bear great crops of the finest fruit 
until it passed from under my control, or for a 
period of 20 years, Then what the need to 
prune a young orchard? My mature judgment 
is, there is no need whatever. No one can 
point out to me a good excuse or necessity for 
cutting a branch from a young fruit tree, ex- 
cept as instanced, the cutting back of too rank 
shoots, and it is a question whether it would 
not be best to withhold culture somewhat the 
first few years of orchard growth so that such 
rank growths shall not occur. 

I think I learned some most valuable facts 
from my care and study of these and other 
orchards — facts that I wish I could make the 
world of fruit-tree planters understand and be- 
lieve. But it is a hard, very hard task to do. 
The first great point I learned was that nature 
knows her own laws best, and that she does not 
take kindly to too great an interference with 
her design on our part. Particularly is this so 
when we attempt to change the whole natural 
form of the head of a tree, or throw it out of 
equilibrium by heading it to high. I cannot 
say by beading it too low, for I am not sure 
that that can be done. When one will show me 
a tree that has not been interfered with in any 
way grown singly in the open ground from the 
seed that is not branched from the ground, with 
its trunk completely protected from the ground 
up with branches, then I will say that some, 
fruit trees may do well with naked trunks sev- 
eral feet long planted singly in orchard as we 
plant them. But it is net nature, nor in the 
line of natures laws. When nature builds a tree 
from the seed in the open field, uncrowded by 
other life, she clothes it from the ground up like 
a young cypress or spruce. 

I also learned this fact, that the different va- 
rieties of fruit trees, of all the species, cannot 
all be made to conform to a certain height of 
head without destroying the value of most of 
them. Especially is this the case with aople 
trees. The man who plants an orchard cf 20 
varieties of apple trees, and insists that they 
shall all form their heads six to seven feet from 
the ground, so that they may all look nice and 
uniform, will find that he has forever spoil- 
ed the usefulness of fully half of his varieties. 
For I found the facts to be as follows, not from 
the study of a few trees for a few years, but of 
hundreds for many years. Naturally dwarfish- 
growing trees like Wagner, Early Harvest, 
Summer Rose, Summer Pearmain, R. I. Green 
ing, Rawle's Janet, etc., are worth trom 5 to 20 
times as much for fruit with heads 12 to 
18 inches from the ground, as they will be if 
headed five to six feet high. The extra strong 
growing varieties will do fairly well with 
beads six to seven feet high. The same rule ap- 
plies to all other fruit trees. Nature says pos 
itively and most emphatically that the bright 
sunshine of California and the Western S -ates 
should never reach the trunk of a fruit tree, 
especially of a young one. 

I also learned the other very important fact 
that never for any seeming reason should a 
branch, twig or bud be cut from the inside of 
the head of a fruit tree; or in other words, no 
main branches shoull ever be cut from the 
head of a tree after it is once started, or no 
small branch from near the base of these main 
branches during the whole life of the tree. 
Keep knife, saw and ax entirely away from 
that part of the tree; let the branches ' cross 
and recross at their own sweet will, but let 
them alone. Nature designed them to grow 
in that way for the future welfare of the tree. 
If you cut you spoil. 

In my next I will give my conclusions of a 
life-long study of pruning in as few words as 
possible. D. B. W. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

[Our correspondent writes, as he says, from 
Eastern experience. He does not seem to 
look upon " shortening in " as pruning, for he 
several times says he would do that on shoots 
which grow too fast, etc. We imagine in hand- 
ling Calfornia fruit trees he would find nearly 
all the shoots growing too fast, and would, 
therefore, be obliged to shorten it, not upon 
occasional shoots, but upon nearly all of tbem. 
This, in fact, comprises the chitf part of what 
we call pruning in this State, and if that is not 
done faithfully we g<t a tree which cannot hold 
itself together in the wind, nor sustain its fruit 
in qaiet weather even. However, we will not 
undertake to discuss the matter until we hear 
the closing partion of the essay. — Eds. Prbss ] 



When vessels or timbers sink to great depths 
in the ocean, the pressure is so great that the 
water is by this means forced into the pores, 
and the wood becomes too heavy to rise again. 
It is the fact of this same pressure that makes 
it impossible for divers, to descend to any great 
depth. 



JI[he X) aif \Y- 



Adulterated Milk. 

Editors Press:— In a recent issue of the San 
Francisco Examiner 1 read an article on adulter- 
ated milk, which, to say the least, contains 
some startling statements, and I am surprised 
to learn that the authorities, and especially the 
city Board of Health, will tolerate such a state 
of affairs, and that what seems to be everybody's 
business, in this case appears to be nobody's 
business. 

The article in question says that one of the 
large milk producers says: " We are allowed 
by law to mix one gallon of water to every five 
gallons of milk." If such be the law it is a 
most pernicious one, and opens a veritable flood- 
gate for watered milk. The unscrupulous pro- 
ducer might add two gallons, or three, and not 
one of the purchasers would be able to detect 
the additional amount of water. Such a law 
should be repealed forthwith. If this is true, 
it is the only section in the United States where 
water is allowed by law to be mixed with milk, 
and in nearly all the cities the authorities watch 
the milk offered for sale more closely than they 
do any other food product. 

It is a well-known fact that milk is an ab- 
sorbent and the least taint will adhere to it and 
seriously affect it. In the milk-condensing es- 
tablishment, and the creameries where the finest 
butter is made, how carefully the milk is 
watched to see that no impurities get into it; 
how the milking utensils are cleaned; the oows 
cared for; the stables inspected; and even the 
milkers instructed, and all for the purpose of 
having the milk as nearly absolutely pure and 
fiee from taint and odor as possible. 

The mixing of clean, wholesome water with 
milk may not add any impurity, but when the 
chalk, burnt sugar and other adulterants are 
added who knows the amount of impurities that 
go in and are taken into the stomach, there to 
breed disease and death ? 

Some years ago the city of St. Louis waged 
a war of extermination against the milk of swill- 
fed cows because it was breeding disease and 
death to a frightful extent among the children 
of the city, and in some cases to the adult popu- 
lation as well. So alarming was the death-rate 
among the children that the city authorities, 
the board of health, physicians, newspapers and 
citizens arose as one man and by force prohib- 
ited the sale of milk from cows fed on swill, 
garbage, or any questionable food, or that were 
too closely confiued in stables where they could 
not get plenty of fresh, pure water and air and 
have some exercise. The board of health and 
the mayor wrote me inquiring how milk was 
cared for, the cows fed and watered, and the 
effect on the milk of swill fed cows, etc., and 
after giving my views on the subject, together 
with the effect on persons who partook of swil- 
fed milk, the city dairymen and those in the 
vicinity of the city who fed distillery slops were 
prohibited from selling milk in the city, and 
soon after there was a marked decrease in the 
death-rate among children. 

Pure milk is a natural, wholesome food, but 
when adulterated, carries death in its train. 
In pure milk there should not be more than 87 
per cent of water, while the remaining 13 per 
cent should be composed of butter, fat, caseine, 
ash, etc. In New York, Chicago and some 
other cities, milk with more than 87 per cent 
water is confiscated and destroyed; Boston pro- 
vides that if more than 85 per cent is water, 
the milk shall be declared unwhdesome and 
cannot be sold. The water herd referred to is 
from the natural secretions from the cow, and 
not any that may be added after the milk is 
drawn from the cow. 

Our E jftlish cousins are far ahead of us in ex- 
ercising care over their food products, and the 
penalty for adulterating any food articles is 
very severe. In some portions of our own coun- 
try the English law has been adopted, and for 
the protection of health and life, it would be 
better if laws relating to these matters were 
more general. Not one in a thousand can de- 
tect the adulteration of food, and there should 
be competent inspectors appointed, whose duty 
it should be to s- e that no adulterated food is 
sold or effered for sale. 

In an address before an Eistern Dairymen's 
Association, an eminent physician gave it as 
his opinion that the large increase of insanity in 
this count) y was largely due to the fact that 
so much of ihe food, drink and drugs now used 
were adulterated, and that in addition to in- 
sanity, death and disease had also greatly in- 
creased from the same cause. 

I hope the Press will raise its voice against 
adulterated milk or watered milk, and cease 
not until it has driven the adulteration and the 
adulterators out of all the markets. 

R. P. McGlincy. 

San Joie, Cal., June 23, 1888. 

[The above timely article from the pen of 
Col. McGlincy, who for more than 20 years has 
been prominently connected with the dairy in- 
dustry of the Northwestern States, will be 
read with interest by all classes. — Eds. Press.] 



The bay shore from Alameda to Alvarado is 
lined with salt olaims, and Alameda sends out 
more salt than all the rest of this State. All 
this salt is controlled by the American Salt Co., 
which orders no more salt than is necessary. 
That is the reason salt is high in price. 



fACIFKB RURAId press 



[July 7, 1888 



J?ATROfJS OF J^USBANDF^Y. 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Oranees are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

GraDge Work and Progress. 

[Contributed by Mortimer Whitehead, Lecturer 
National Grange, P. of H.] 

Trusts and Dealing in Futures. 
Representing the organized farmers in all 
parts of our country, the National Grange, 
at it* annual session for two years past, has 
spoken in plain terms upon the question of 
" trusts " and dealing in " futures," as ap- 
plied to the products of our American 
farmers and the food of the people, pro- 
ducers and consumers being alike injured. 
The National Grange, at its last meetiDg, 
took steps to have these questions properly 
presented to Congress, with a request for 
such legislation as would prevent these 
growing evils that effectually overthrow the 
laws of supply and demand, restrict and in- 
jure honest business, and enrich the few at the 
expense of the many. The influence and 
work of the Grange in this direction is be- 
Hon. B. A. Enloe, of 



tion so as to give Congress the necessary 

power." 

The " beef corner " or " trust " is to be 
investigated. An Illinois senator states that 
last year five Chicago firms bought over 
-•"•'•mm. rut i it- at an average price of .*.">■ ».2S 
per head, and realized a profit therefrom of 
£30 per head, thus dividing among them- 
selves the enormous sum of $54,000,000, a 
profit entirely disproportionate to that made 
by the farmers and cattle breeders. Not- 
withstanding these enormous profits, the 
prices of live cattle have been falling stead- j 
ilv for years, and farmers and ranchmen 
now get but scanty returns, finding beef- 
giowing unreniunerative. With the heavy 
decline in the price of live cattle, the price 
of beef to the consumer shows but slight 
falling off. Either the beef ring, the rail- 
roads or the retail butchers are realizing a 
larger proportion of the profits of the busi- 
ness than belongs to them, while the stock- 
grower fails to secure his share. In fact, 
the producer's profits have been reduced to 
the minimum, rates are kept up on the con- 
sumer, and evidence exists of an organiza- 
tion among the middlemen, which is really 
oppressive both to the producer and to the 
consumer. 

Senator Vest, of Missouri, has offered a 

g made manifest. Hon. B. A. Enloe, of resolution in the Senate for the appointment 
Tennessee, in an address delivered before j of a select committee of five senators to ex- 
the Congressional Committee on Agriculture, ; amine fully all questions touching the meat 
presented, in a clear and forcible manner, j product of the United States, and especially 
this subject of vital interest, especially to i as to the transportation of beef and beei- 
farmers. A few of his points are here cattle, and the sale of the same in the cattle 
given : j markets, stock-yards and cities, and whether 

"The buying and selling of ' futures ' is ; there exists, or has existed, any combina- 
a species of speculation which injures not tion of any kiud by reason of which the 
only the unsuccessful trader, speculator or I prices of beef and beef-cattle have been so 
gambler, as you may choose to call him, but | controlled or affected as to diminish the 
when the products of the soil are the sub- 1 prices paid to the producer without lessening 
ject-matter of the transaction, it injures , the cost of meat to the consumer ; the com- 
both the producer and the consumer, and it mittee to be permitted to hold its sessions 
seriously interferes with the regular and during the recess, at such times and places 
legitimate exchange of these commodities as it may determine, with power to send for 
through the established channels of com- , persons and papers, to employ a ste- 
merce. Combinations representing millions I nographer and sergeant-at-arms, and to re- 
of dollars of capital are formed. Some port at the next session, 
product of the soil, sometimes one and 



sometimes another, is accumulated in the 
hands of the combine, and soon after they 
begin operations they virtually fix the price 
at which the producer must sell by bringing 
their own purchases in competition with his 
product when he enters the market, and de- 
pressing prices until he is forced to sell. 
They come between the producer and the 
consumer, and, by shrewd manipulation, 
they fix the prices for both. With the 
combined power of combined capital they 
dictate to the producers in detail the market 
prices of their products, and then in turn 
they dictate to the consumers the price 



Questions for Discussion in Granges. 

The fanner and the trusts. Are any- of 
the various trusts affecting the price of our 
farm products in this locality? What eflect 
are they having upon what we purchase? 
Ought we to have State and national legis 
■ation restricting and prohibiting the forma- 
tion of "trusts," "corners,'' dealing in 
" futures," etc.? 



A Stopper to the Little Giant. 



Advices from Marysville, under date of 
June 28th, note an important move in the 
which they shall pay for the product by 1 anti-slickens war. After speaking of the 
virtue of the same power. They break the hydraulickers' continued and systematized 
market by flooding it when the producers violation of legal injunctions, and the injury 
would sell, and they iorce it up by with- 1 and losses entailed upon dwellers in the 
holding their accumulations from the mar- ' valley, the dispatch goes on to say that 
ket after the producers have parted with the hitherto all the anti-debris actions, except a 
great bulk of their crops. These are the j few suits brought in the name of the State, 
actual transactions where delivery is actually ! have been in the name of individuals or 
made, but the actual transactions constitute counties. Some months; ago the Anti Debris 
only a small part of tbe business of one of Association induced Assemblyman George 
these combinations. The fictitious trades Ohleyer to go to Washington and lay the 
afford the richest part of the harvest, and ; facts of the situation before the War De- 
they represent every year many times the partment, which is charged with the care 
aggregate of any and of all of the products of navigable streams, and was authorized 
that are made the subject of speculation. and directed by the River and Harbor 
These fictitious trades frequently result Act, passed a number of years since, to take 
in the locking up of the great bulk of the i legal action against ihe further filling of 
crop of the particular kind embraced in the j the rrver channels by hydraulic mining de- 
speculation, which is thus withheld from bris. 

the commerce of the country at the will of No proceedings had been instituted in the 
a combination of speculators, interrupting matter by U. S. District Attorney Carey, 
for an indefinite period the free and natural and the result of Ohleyer's labor "at Wash- 
interchange of commodities among the | ington was the appointment of A. L. Rhodes, 
States and with foreign nations. of San Francisco, as Assistant U. S. District 

If Congress should intervene and pro- Attorney, specially charged with the prose- 
hil.it the making of these gambling con- , cution of anti-debris actions in the name of 
tracts, and provide adequate punishment the United States. Upon affidavits duly 
for every violation of the law, the induce- made and presented, a complaint was filed 
ment to make these combinations and cor- last Monday in the Circuit Court in an action 
ners would not exist, and commerce would entitled: "The United States, by A. H 
not only be relieved of this obstruction, but Garland, Attornev-General vs the North 
the agricultural industry would be protected : Bloomfield Gravel Mining Co in equity 
against one of the greatest evils that at setting forth injury to the navigation of the 



forerunner of others to be brought against 
offenders of the same class. There is an 
ample Government fund to defray all the 
expenses. This onslaught by the Govern- 
ment is expected to deal the finishing 
stroke to hydraulic mining upon the trib- 
utaries of the Sacramento river. It lifts 
a great burden of expense from the people 
of this section, and it is believed must 
strike terror into the camps of the hy- 
draulickers. 

In a leader, congratulating the people of 
the Sacramento valley on this new depart- 
ure, the Bee remarks: " In spite of the ut- 
most vigilance, the injunction of Courts, and 
the watchfulness of regularly employed 
agents of the association, the hydraulickers 
have continued in their vandal work of 
choking the rivers and endangering the 
homes and even the lives of thousands in 
the valley. We shall see how they will 
proceed, now that they will have to deal di- 
rectly with the Government of the United 
States. The enormous expense of maintain- 
ing prosecutions will be removed from the 
people who suffer most from the cruel wrongs 
of these mountain pirates and assumed by 
the General Government. 

In the general rejoicing over the prospect 
of absolute and speedy cessation of hydraulic 
mining and the consequent deliverance of 
the valley from threatened ruin.it is well to 
remember our friends. Among these, George 
Ohleyer, of Sutter, must stand first. If there 
are any 'old Romans' in America, he is one. 
Fearless and indelatigable, he has stood as 
the champion of the valley, as persistent and 
brave when the enemy seemed the strongest 
as when the signs of approaching triumph 
cheered him on. He went to Washington, 
and it was through his effective work there 
that the United States is to-day the foe of 
the hydraulicker." 

We were favored with a call from 
Mrs. E. B. Richardson, of Millis, Mass., 
last week. Sister Richardson is correspond- 
ing editress of Our Grange Home*, and is 
very enthusiastic in the Grange cause. We 
hope she will be able to visit some of our 
Granges while on this coast. 

Brother L C. Steele, chairman of the 
Spiritualists' Camp - meeting Association, 
has just been re-elected by a very popular 
vote. The camp at Oakland this year seems 
to have been a financial success, being much 
more largely attended than on any former 
occasion. 

We have received a letter from Brother 
A. P. Merritt, Master of Tulare Grange, 
saying that Grange matters are moving 
along steadily, two applicants having been 
initiated lately. 

The Sixth Degree will probably be 
conferred at the next session of the State 
Grange at Tulare. Attend and get it. 



present afflict us 

The agricultural industries of the country 
are confronted by great combinations of 
corporate and individual interests, under 



avigatt 

Sacramento and Feather rivers by hydraulic 

mining operators, defendants." 

Judge Sawyer issued an order to show 
cause, and -a temporary restraining order has 

the indefinite and irresponsible name of been served upon L. L. Robinson, President 
trusts, which have for their object the limi [and William A. Bradford, Superintendent 
tation of all other production except agr ; - | of the company. The injunction is very 
cultural production lhe effect of this is stringent, restraining from sale, as well as 
to enhance the cost of everything the farmerj use, the water for hydraulic mining by 
has to buy. On the other haud, this indus- , which debris could be discharged into the 
try is assailed by combinations of capital rivers named. The injunction also forbids 
organized to come between the producer the company from selling, leasing or in any 
and the consumer and hxthe prices for both, manner conveying, transferee or disposing 
so as to levy tribute upon both the producer \ of mines or mining ground for the purnosl 
and the consumer of being worfce<1 g , he fa , ,. ' > ' 

[ hope that the power to crush out and This latter provision prevents resort to the 
destroy these robber trusts and these rubber favorite method of hydraulickers to evade 



Loading Fecit Cars. — To those who have 
not before witnessed the loading of a oar with 
fruit for shipment to the Kistern market, the 
operation is a most interesting one. Not the 
least interesting feature of the work is the ex- 
pedition with which it is performed. We wit- 
nessed the loading of a fauit car by the New- 
castle Frnit Company on Saturday evening 
which was accomplished in just one hour and 
40 minutes. This work comprised the loading 
of the boxes upon the trucks in the fruit house, 
its removal to the shipping platform, its trans- 
fer to the car, its proper adjustment in regular 
courses, and its thorough bracing. Three men 
transfer the boxes from the trucks to the re- 
cesses of the car, keeping the boxes passing 
in a quick, steady, uninterrupted stream from 
one to the other. 1 aside the car six men (three 
at each end of the car) receive the fruit and 
place the bixes in regular rows across tbe car. 
A slender (lit about three-quarters of an inch 
thick is tacked across the upper edges of the 
row, and then another layer of boxes is placed 
directly above those in the row beneath, and 
another slat is nailed on. This operation is 
repeated until the boxes reach the ceiling of the 
car, when a new row is started. Id this ar- 
rangement of the frnit there is no contact of 
the boxes, a free circulation of air is maintain- 
ed all around the fruit, and there is no possi- 
bility of the boxes shifting position in transit 
After the load is all in the entire cargo is thor- 
oughly braced. The proper loading cf a fruit 
car is a science in itself, and is well worth wit- 
nessing. There is something over 1000 boxes 
of peaohes in a carload. — Newcastle Neici. 



'combines' will be found under the clause 
of the Constitution I have quoted, and if it 
does not exist I would amend the Constitu- 



responsibility for illegal operations by the 
transler of their properties. 
It is understood that this action is the 



Mr. J. G. H. Lampadius, who has for some 
time past been our agent and correspondent in 
the southern coast counties, has decided to quit 
roving and settle down in the grocery business 
with B. H. Base, at 137 Turk street, in this 
city. Our good wishes will follow Mr. L. in 
his new position. 

C. W. McAfee, who has been appointed 
Commissioner to the Paris Exposition of 1889 
for this State, is busy soliciting exhibits for the 
exposition. Tbe Viticultural Commissioners 
have been called upon to send an exhibit. 



State Horticultural Society. 

At the meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society Juns 29:h, a Urge number of members 
were present. Vice-President Hatoh called 
the meeting to order. 

W. M. Bramhall was elected a member of 
the society. Fred. Russell of Haywards was 
proposed for membership. Chairman Hatch 
exhibited the St. Atnbroise apricot, which he is 
disposed to regard very highly because of its 
size and even ripening, and because it seems to 
be a regular bearer with what experience he 
has had with it. The St. Ambrnise was also 
shown from A. Montpellier's place at Vacaville, 
from James Shinn's at Niles, and from the 
University orchard at Berkeley. Mr. James 
Shinn also showed the Botan, a Japanese plum, 
very handsome and likely to be of much vslue 
for shipping; the lcquat and Schmidt's Black 
Bigarreau, a fine, large cherry, but a shy bear- 
er with Mr. Shinn. Mr. Collins, of Haywards, 
brought some fine service cherries. 

A latter was read from Rev. J. C. Burgees 
! of Danville asking an explanation of the blight 
] on his pear trees. Secretary Wick son thought 
from Mr. Burgees' samples that the blight was 
the same that is troubling orchardists, especial- 
• ly near the coast. It is usually known as smut, 
and is checked by the sulphide of sods wash, 
prescribed in Mr. K lee's bulletins, as already 
published in the Rural. 

A letter from Prof. C. H. Dwinelle of Santa 
j Rosa, recommending that the society discuss the 
advisability of holding auctions of fresh fruit in 
San Franoisco, was read, and a resolution re- 
questing the professor to present his views on 
the matter at tbe society's next meeting, was 
adopted. 

Chairman Hatch, by request, gave a few 
brief details of his recent trip to Chicago. He 
found that the fruits shipped Bast this year had 
arrived in far better condition than thoae which 
had been shipped for some years past. He also 
found that about three times as mnch bad been 
shipped this year as in any previous year, and 
that prices were about 25 per cent better. 

Regarding the auction plan of disposing of 
fruits, he was of the same opinion that he had 
always been, that it would be successful if 
placed in the hands cf neutral auctioneers and 
not merely cried off at auction by a sole agent. 
This oourse had been adopted and the events 
had warranted it. One of the strong points in 
the scheme, he thought, was the fact that fruits 
could be disposed of quickly and thus be saved 
from being damaged. 

The subject of the day, " Labor Supply and 
Libor-Saving Devices," was then taken up and 
discussed at length, but mainly individual ex- 
perience was described. W. M. Bramhall 
spoke at length on the subject of African labor, 
which ha* recently been largely imported from 
the Carolinas and Georgia. The success of Mr. 
j Bntler's experiment at Fresno with negro labor 
j has plainly shown that a desirable class of 
workmen can be obtained from the South by 
the payment of expenses incurred in coming to 
I this coast. Dr. May, traveling agent of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, has agreed to fur- 
nish all this labor required at an expense not 
f-xceeding S63 per head, to any portion of Cali- 
fornia. 

There was a conversational discussion on the 
use of lye in pet ling peaches, and the use of 
sulphur. To the latter Mr. Tompkins of S rj 
Leandro made strong objection. 

On suggestion of Mr, Mosher of San Jose, 
" Drying and Curing Fruits" was selected as 
I the snbject for the next meeting, and Mr. Bram- 
hall was requested to submit an essay. 

Cattle From Hawaii. — The Hawaiian 
minister lately asked the Secretary of State 
that neat cattle imported into San Fraucisco 
from the Hawaiian islands may be exempted 

1 from tbe prohibitory laws and admitted to 
entry without undergoing quarantine. The 
matter having beeD referred, through the 
Treasury Department, to the Commissioner of 
Agriculture, who has charge of quarantine 
matters in connection with the importation of 
cattle, Ass't Secretary Maynard has notified 

\ the collector at this port that the department 
suspends the operation of the statute, with tbe 
understanding that the animals upon arrival 
shall be taken directly from the importing 
vessel to the abattoir for slaughter, and that 
none of them shall be disposed of for any other 
purpose. 

Auction Sales of FRriT. — We have re- 
ceived from R chard M. Montgomery ft Co. of 

| Chicago, auctioneers of the California Frnit 
Union, a bunch of sale catalogues of fruit sold 
by them from June 21st to' 26th. The cata- 
logues give the shippers' names, description of 

1 fruit and prices realiz'd, and are of much inter- 
est. Readers will remember that we puh'iehed 
a circular from Montgomery & Co. describing 
the methods of sale, etc., in our issue of Jane 
30th. The firm seems to be taking bold of the 
business well. 



DcRiNo the past six months 231,000 immi- 
grants have landed at Caatle Garden. This 
beats the record for the same period last year 
by 2i>,000. Thirty-eight thousand Italians ar- 
rived this year. 



Enclish Gooseberries. — We are indebted to 
our friends, A. and Millie Stafford of Lidell, 
for a box of large English gooseberries, whioh 
came by express in good order snd proved uioe 
eating. 



July 7, 1888. 



fACIFIG RURAb pRESS, 



5 



jjGr^lCULTUI^AL J^OTES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Butte. 

Trod os a Shovel.— Biggs Argus, Jane 2S : 
A valuable young mare was killed on the Andy 
Savage farm a few days since in a manner that 
should be a warning to the owners of tine ani- 
mals to put away their tools. Three fine four- 
year-old horses had been turned out in the cor- 
ral to exercise, [and one of the animals in frisk- 
ing around stepped on the blade of a shovel, 
carelessly left lying in the yard, causing the 
handle to fly up against its body. The colt be- 
ing frightened, gave a lunge forward upon the 
handle, which entered the body back of the 
forelegs, causing the animal's death in a few 
hours. The horse was valued at §200. 

The Chico Canner v, owned by Gen. Bid* 
well, says a Chico dispatch of June 30th, has 
now in its employ more than 300 white em- 
ployes. Ten thousand can9 of apricots have 
already been shipped to fill a New York order. 
Fully 1, 500,000 cans will be put up this season. 
The cannery is overwhelmed with orders, and 
cannot rill one-half of them; orders have been 
on tile since early spring from London, England; 
Paris, France; New York, Chicago and ail large 
Eastern cities. Tons of fruit are going to waste 
in the orchards of the Rancho Chico, owing to 
the fact that enough laborers cannot be secured 
to handle it, only white labor being employed. 
Tne fruit crop throughout the surrounding 
country is very large, but much is going to 
waste. Another cannery will be established in 
a few days. 

El Dorado. 
Specimen" Products. — Record-Union, July 2 : 
The El Dorado County Board of Trade, on 
Friday last, sent to the Permanent Exhibit 
building, in this city, a large box containing 
samples of grasses, grain and fruits, grown at an 
elevation of 4000 feet and consisting of timothy 
five feet six inches, wheat six feet two inches, 
red clover five feet nine inches, large clusters of 
Lawton blackberries, a stem of Muscat grapes 
11 inches long, plums, peaches and apples that 
will compare favorably with those grown any- 



owned by his brother. Some time last summer 
during the warmest part of the season, while 
at work in a field near the dwelling house, 
the workers heard the peep, peep, of a little 

! chicken. But on looking around, no chicken 
was in sight. Again and again they heard the 

| little voice, and it appeared to be close about 
their feet. Finally, upon turning over some 

( clods and plowed ground, they discovered some 

, hen's eggs that had been accidently covered up 
while plowing a few weeks previous. The lit- 
tle chick making the noise was about half out 
of a shell, and the other eggs had live chickens 
in them. The name of our informant, which 
is a guarantee of the truth of the above state- 
ment, can be had by any doubting Thomas. 
Los Angeles. 
Pomona Cannery. — Progress, June 28: The 

j Pomona cannery began active operations on 
Monday. It will be two or three weeks before 
the whole cannery is finished, but enough has 

I been done for the beginning of business there. 
The apparatus for the evaporation of fruit is in 

j perfeot order, and hundreds of bushels of apri- 
cots from Azusa, Glendora and Lordeburg have 
been evaporated there during the past few days. 
Over 50 men, Women and boys are employed. 
Oranges Promising. — Unless all signs fail 

I the orange crop in this locality next winter is 
going to be much larger than at any time in 
several years. The fruit, which is now green 
and about the size of marbles, is growing un- 
usually well. 



products and for the accommodation of the land- 
owners. 

Melon Shipment.— C. A. P. telegram from 
Lodi, July 2; The first melons for the season 
were shipped to-day. The crop promises to be 
large as there are 1500 acres planted around 
here. 

Thrashing Barlbv. — Stockton Independent, 
June 30 : On Wednesday Frank Bell thrashed 
1969 sacks of barley with a Minnesota Chief 
machine on Union Island, and moved his ma- 
chine twice. He claims the best day's work 
ever done with a steam thrasher. The barley 
crop on Union Island is turning out 30 bushels 
to the acre, and 7000 acres of wheat will aver- 
age from 25 to 30 bushels. 

San Luis Obispo. 
Apricot Blight.— L. A. Tribune: A pe- 
culiar blight has made its appearance in the 
apricot orchards of San Luis Obispo, and the 
orchardists there are worried considerably as 
to its cause and its ultimate effect. The blight 
attacks the blossom end of the young fruit on 
heavily laden trees and a sort of dry rot de- 
stroys the young apricots and causes them to fall 
from the branches. It does not, as a rule, at- 
tack more than one-third of the green fruit on 
any one tree, and it may be that this is nature's 
method of preventing over-production. 

San' a Barbara. 
Wind Breaks. — Lompoc Record, June 23: 
The good effect of wind-breaks in our valley is 
fully demonstrated in a five acre field of corn 



Homing Pigeons.— Los Angeles Time; July w ,thin the town plat, a portion of which is 10 



1: Some weeks since we noticed certain ex 
periments, more or less successful, made by L. 
Thorne nf this city with Antwerp carrier pig- 
eons. Under the arrangement made between 
Mr. Thorne and this office, a more ambitious 
journey was planned, to wit, from San Diego to 
Los Angeles. The story of the liberation of 
the brave little messengers at San Diego, on 
Friday last, is told by the Sun of that city as 
follows: " Dr. Nugent received the pigeons by 
express this morning from L. Thorne of Los 
Angeles. Five messages were written on nar- 
row slips of tissue paper, which were neatly 
foiled and wound around the leg of each bird, 
and carefully sealed with wax. Dr. Nugent 
then placed the pigeons in their basket and pro- 
ceeded to the roof of the Backesto block, fol 



where; variegated cedar, hazel nuts and other | lowe <i by the Mayor, representatives of the 



fruits and evergreens useful for the table and 
pleasing to the eye. These specimens were 
taken from the ranches of Dr. O. M. Taylor 
and B. S. Crocker, 12 miles east of Placerville, 
on the old Carson road. The face of the coun- 
try where the specimens referred to above are 
grown is rolling, the soil a red loam from 10 to 
30 feet in depth, the water supply is abundant 
and the country heavily timbered. 

Fresno. 

Another Sad Accident. — Fresno Repub- 
lican, June 29 : Yesterday morning Oriel A. 
Cole, a son of S. H. Cole of this city, met with 
a terrible accident while assisting in the man- 
agement of a combined harvester and thrasher. 
The yonng man, who is just of age, was run- 
ning the machine with his brothers on a ranch 
on Red Banks creek, about 15 'miles from this 
city. The machine had been stopped and was 



press, and others who had gathered to witness 
the interesting experiment. No sooner had the 
strings been cut and the cover removed from 



feet high and from two to three ears well set to 
the stalk. This corn was planted April 12 :h 
and is the common white variety. Corn un- 
protected from the wind in the same neighbor- 
hood, planted before this field, is not half as far 
advanced. 

Cherries at the farms of Mr. Carter and 
W. J. Robinson are abundant, large and finely 
flavored, which demonstrates that L mpoc is an 
exceptionally fine locality for growing this 
fruit. These trees are from eight to ten j ears 
old and are now in full bearing, yielding from 
300 to 600 pounds per tree. 

Mustard. — Our best judges of mustard place 
the crop at about one-fourth the usual yield per 
acre. Where there is one crop that will yield 
10 sacks per acre there are five that will not 
yield five sacks. We considered a crop poor 
heretofore that did not yield 15 sacks and many 
went from 20 to 25 sacks. Wm. Fisher has a 



the basket, than the four beautiful birds cr0 P tn at is said to be up to the best grown in 
bounded into the air as with one accord for our valley at any time. Mr. McKay says it is 



freedom. For a few moments they flew in 
graceful circles overhead, and then started 
toward the northwest, circling over that part 
of the city and bay for fully two minutes, when 
they took a course directly north, and were 
quickly lost from vi»w." Three of the birds 
arrived home, at Mr. Thome's place on Los An- 
geles street, Friday afternoon, but the precise 
hour could not be ascertained, as Mr. Thorne, 
not expecting their arrival till the following 
day, was absent from home when the birds 
struck their cote. Unfortunately not one of the 
pigeons brought in his message, a fact probably 
attributable to some defect in fastening the 



just starting again when the young man noticed sheets upon the legs. One thing is certain, the 



the feeder leading into the thrashing machine 
was stopped up. He stepped over to the feeder 
and kicked the rod with his heel, thus loosen- 
ing the choke. In so doing his left foot, on 
which he was standing, nsing his right foot to 
jar the rod, slipped, and his right foot shot 
down into the machine, was caught by the rap- 
idly revolving cylinder, drawn clear under, 
mangling the foot and ankle horribly. So great 
was the strain on the machinery that it stop- 
ped, although there were some IS or 20 head of , 
horses pulling it. The men on the machine 
were compelled to take it to pieces to get his 
foot out. * * * His sufferings must 
have been terrible, but he never moaned. Upon 
his arrival here the young man was taken to his 
father's house, and Dr. Peddlar, with the aid of 
Drs. Parker and Hayden, amputated the 
wounded member about half-way between the 
knee and ankle. Mr. Cole stood the operation 
remarkably well, and at a late hour last night 
.was resting easily. 

Inyo. 

Up Owen's Vallet. — Inyo Independent, 
June 30: The crop of wheat, oats and barley 
on the farm of G.~ Sanger, at Alvord, is very 
heavy. About 300 acres are now covered with 
as fine grain as ever came out of the ground. 
Where alfalfa was sown last Septemb r there 
is now a fine crop. This is the only place 
where farming has been done on the east side 
of the river for a distance of 50 miles from the 
lake, and is interesting as proving what the 
soil is capable of. Mr. Sanger got some seed 
of esperset, the much-talked-oi forage plant, and 
sowed it this last spring. It has made fine 
growth and promises to be very valuable fod- 
der. 

Honey. — Virginia Enterprise: Honey from 
Lone Pine, Inyo county, Cal., is on sale in 
this city. It is very fine. Some native flower 
of that region gives it a beautiful golden tinge. 
It is as pure in flavor as the honey of Hybla 
and Hymettus, so highly esteemed by the an- 
cients, or the honey of Chamouni, which is the 
favorite of the moderns in Europe. 

Lake. 

Mother Earth ax Incubator. — Petaluma 
Couritr: A gentleman residing in this city 
and reliable in all his statements, informs us 
that last summer he spent considerable time on 



faithful little feathered messengers did their 
duty, coming home as true as the needle to the 
pole, with one exception— the fourth bird had 
not got in up to Saturday afternoon. It may 
have become the victim of some sportsman's 
gun. 

Napa. 

Fair Postponed. — Napa Register, June 29: 
The agricultural fair to be held in Napa this 
year under the auspices of the Solano and Napa 
District Association will be among the last held 
in the State instiad of the first. Last Satur- 
day the directors reconsidered a previous vote 
and set October 1st to the 6th, inclusive, as the 
time for holding the fair. This was done pur- 
suant to a very generally expressed opinion 
among prospective exhibitors that the first week 
in August would be altogether too early. 
Placer. 

Crawford Peaches. — Auburn Republican, 
June 27: The Newcastle Fruit Co. received 
two fine boxes of Crawford peaches from P. W. 
Batler on Monday which are thought to be the 
first of that variety shipped this year. The 
Hales Early are neatly all picked, and peaches 
will be short for about a week. 

San Joaquin. 
Reclaiming. — Lodi Sentinel, June 23 : 
Aloert Woods, who owns the land upon which 
is located Wood's lake, has built a levee across 
the foot of the lake, and has commenced the 
arduous undertaking of pumping out the water, 
thus reclaiming about 25 acres of excellent 
land. The pump used is a Weber centrifugal 
and throws 3000 gallons per minute. Mr. 
Woods says he expects to have the water out 
by July 1st, and that as soon as possible there- 
after he will plow the land and plant the same 
in vegetables. 

Land Sales on Roberts Island. — Independ- 
ent, July 1: E as ton, Eldridge Jt Co.'s second 
auction sale of small tracts on Roberts island 
was a greater success than the first, which 
netted $94,000. Yesterday's sales aggregated 
2068 acres, at an average price of $4S 90 an acre, 
netting $101,173. The highest price bid for 
choice tracts was $66 an acre and the lowest bid 
accepted in a sale was $40 an acre .... Mr. Easton 
said a contract had been agreed upon to 
strengthen the levee around the island at an 
early day. A large warehouse would be erected 



the best he has ever seen, as a whole, in this 
section. There are crops within half a mile of 
Mr. Fisher's that are a total failure. 

A Mighty Murphy. — Santa Ynez Argus: 
" E. P. Raymond ot Santa Birbara, Cal., is vis- 
iting his brother E. H. Raymond of this city. 
Last evening Mr. Raymond brought to this 
office a potato that would make an Irishman 
smile out loud. It weighed just nine pounds 
and was picked out of a lot of 5000 bushels 
raised on 20 acres of land, and was of the Peer- 
less variety — well named." The above was 
taken from a Grand Rapids, Michigan, paper. 
The pototo was grown by Jack Preston of Santa 
Ynez, and he has lots of them just as large. 
Santa Cruz. 
Devouring Swarms — Santa Crnz Courier- 
Item, June 30: From Mr. A. G. Rose, who 
has a ranch on the Ben Lomond road above 
Cowell's lime kilns, our reporter learns that 
grasshoppers hatched out in Cowell's grazing 
land and made their appearance in swarms 
about three weeks ago. They attacked the 
I grain fields and reduced the crops to about one- 
half. They went from field to field, and, as 
most of the grain is cut and dry, the devouring 
insects have now attacked and are devouring 
the pumpkin, corn and potato crops. The 
suffering ranchers are afraid that when these 
crops fail, the grasshoppers will attack the 
fruit trees, and are preparing to put Paris 
green upon them. Mr. Rose is protecting his 
pumpkin vines from the pests by spreading 
slack lime on them. 

Sonoma. 

Grain Samples. — Petaluma Argus: James 
Bloom, who lives west cf Petaluma, has made 
the finest exhibit of cereals that we have seen 
this year. He left some specimens of oats, 
wheat and barley at McGuire's drug store that 
attracted a great deal of notice. Among the 
lot was a bunch of barley containing 110 heads 
from one seed of grain, and each head averaged 
over 50 grains, making over 5500 from one 
grain. 

Sutter. 

Bartletts Bound Eastward. — Appeal, 
June 29: The first Bartlett pear shipment 
made from this section to the East this year 
came from the Briggs orchard in Sutter county 



bors, amounting to several hundred pout Is at 
least, added to those sold in the cannery, 
a result more gratifying.] 

Tulare. 

Potatoes for Chicago. — Visalia Times, 
June 21 : Six carloads of potatoes were ship- 
ped from this city last week direct to Chicago. 
The freight on them was at the rate of S5 cents 
per 100 pounds. A number of our potato- 
growers are negotiating the sale of thair crops 
to be shipped East, some to Missouri River 
points and others to cities farther East. 

Goshen Radishes. — Peter Mai loch brought 
to this city on Monday last a sample radish 
grown on his Goshen ranch, the seed of which 
was put in[ the ground April 27th. In the six 
weeks it had to grow it attained a length of 17 
inches and its largest circumference was nine 
inches. When cut it proved to be remarkably 
firm and of excellent flavor. 

Black Leg. — Visalia Times, June 28: A 
disease has been prevailing among the cattle in 
the vicinity of Tulare that has proved quite 
fatal. Mr. Ingham has lost 12 head. But for- 
tunately a remedy has been discovered that has 
proved quite efficacious. The malady is black- 
leg and the remedy is vaccination with a pill 
consisting of equal parts of assafoetida, salt 
peter and garlic. All the cases have recovered 
where the remedy was used. 

Blackcaps. — Visalia Delta : It has often 
been said that raspberries will not grow in this 
valley. It may be true of some kinds, but the 
Blackcap variety grows and bears as well here 
as anywhere in the State. B. C. Anderson, 
who lives five miles east of Farmersville, 
brought to this office a box of these berries, 
which for size and flavor are equal to the best 
we have ever seen. 

Yolo. 

Coyotes too Numerous. — Woodland Demo- 
crat: John Hanselmann brought to town the 
scalp of a coyote, which he killed near Mr. 
Gallop's sheep ranch, 10 miles west of Dunni- 
gans. He Bays he has been living on the ranch 
14 years, and never saw so many coyotes in the 
mountains as " there are this year. Several 
sheepmen have quit the business on account of 
them. 

Yuba. 

Marysville Items. — Appeal, June 29: Up 
to the present the drier at the Marysville can- 
nery has put out about 1650 trays of apricots, 

on which there are about SO tons of fruit 

John Palmer was down from Brown's valley 
yesterday. He says that his crop of cultivated 
blackberries is almost gone. " From my 3£ 
acres," said Mr. Palmer, " I will clear over 
$1000, but I cannot give the exact figures at 
present. "... .Several wagon loads of water- 
melons came to town yesterday and the prices 

ranged from 15 to 50 cents Farm hands in 

this vicinity are plentiful for harvesting. 

Hay About Smarisville. — Cor. Wheatland 
Four Corners, June 26: An average hay sea- 
son. The Excelsior Co. will cut about $6000 
worth of hay. Supt. Wheaton has ordered a 
large improved hay press. From 13 acres John 
McQaaid has cnt 17 tons for his first crop of 
alfalfa, and will cut it twice more. John Pear- 
don of the Smarteville hotel has cut 36 tons 
from 12 acres for first crop. Mr. Pryor has 
cut nine tons from two acres for first crop. 

ARIZONA. 

Ostriches. — Phivnix Herald, June 28: The 
ostriches expected by M. E. Clanton duly ar- 
rived by train on Saturday evening and are now 
enjoying the country air and sweet alfalfa in a 
large enclosure at the Fiesta grounds. To one 
seeing them for the first time they certainly are 
a most curious and novel sight. There are 16 
in all — two of them a male and female folly 
grown. These latter, the parents of the brood, 
came from Africa. Mr. Clanton says they are 
hardy, though in California the young are diffi- 
cult to raise until two months old. This is no 
doubt on account of the damp weather, and Mr. 
C. is positive that he will have no such diffi- 
culty here. We wish the enterprising gentle- 
man good luck. 

OBEGON. 

Crop Prospects. — Oregonian, June 29*T'Two 
gentlemen who have very recently returned 
from a trip through portions of Eastern Oregon 
and Eastern Washington state that the grain 
outlook is very encouraging, especially so in 
consideration of the fact that there had been a 
protracted dry spell. Crops, particularly those 
late sown, were suffering badly for rain in 
many sections before the late generous down- 
pour. But these rains were like " drops of life 

to a thirsty land." H. E. Battin returned 

Monday from a visit to Southern Oregon. He 
reports that section as looking fine and every- 



The consignment consists of 420 boxes careful- thing prosperous. They have had lots of rain, 



a ranch in High Yalley, Lake county, Cal., at St. Catherine's for the storage of island 



ly packed by employes of Earle & Co., Sacra 
mento, who are the consignors, and fills a fruit 
car specially prepared for the purpose. 

Coin in Apricots. — R. C. Kells in the Sutter 
-Farmer: As to the apricot crop this season, I 
will give you figures of what 67 trees have pro 
duced for me this year. I have just finished 
delivering the crop to the Sutter Canning and 
Packing Co.. and their weigats give me for the 
67 trees 18.271 pounds, or at the cannery prices, 
a yield of $408.75 per acre. [Mr. Kells informed 
the Farmer that the above trees comprise all 
on his lower place, hence are not selected; and, 
furthermore, being all that grew there, those 
used by the family and by the men employed 
on the place in addition to some given to neigh- 



but not enough to hurt. There will be a big 
crop of peaches, plenty of the better varieties of 
apples and an abundance of pears. 

A new Cherry. — Oregonian, June 29: W. 
S. Failing of the Railroad nursery has left in 
this office samples of a new cherry, named by 
the State Horticultural Society, "The Oregon." 
It was produced by Mr. Prettyman from the 
seed of the Royal Ann, and is larger than that 
cherry; firm, of a dark-red color, and exceed- 
ingly fine flavor. It is fit to eat earlier than 
the Royal Ann but comes to maturity some- 
what later. It is an excellent cherry for ship- 
ping, a vigorous grower and a prolific bearer. 
Mr. Failing has the entire plant of this stock, 
and will put the trees upon the market this fall. 



6 



f ACIFI6 f^URAb p RESS. 



[July 7, 1888 




Paid His Way. 

I ain't complain' any. 

I'll go if y' think it's rig) t. 
1 don't ask nary a bite n'r a penny, 

More n'r less'n jest what's whit?. 
But Steve, bimeby. when the old man's laid out 

Remember the words I say, 
Yo' don't like t' have me round h'yere, 

But I reckon I've paid my way ! 

I'm eighty-one next Janooary — 

Born in the Buckeye State — 
I've opened two farms on the prairie, 

An' worked on 'em early an' late. 
Come rain r come shine, a-craping' t' earn 

Evtry mouthfte we eat, an' I want to say 
That I never rode in no Iree concern 

That I didn't pay m' way ! 

Your mother an' me worked long an' hard. 

How hard you'll never know ! 
Biarin' the heat and standin' guard 

T' keep off the rain and snow. 
The morgidge kep' eatin' in nearer l' bone. 

An' the war it come along, too— 
But I went — left nv ther alone 

With Sis in the cradle an' you ! 

Served m' time and agin commenced 

On an Ioway prairie quoiter — 
An' then I plowed an' sowed and fenced 

And nigged as no human oner 
T raise m babes an' feed m' wife; 

An' mother scrimped till her hair was gray. 
We didn' lead no joke of a life, 

But 1 reckon we paid our way ! 

No high-toned Uvern ain't good enough 

F'r a man like me t' die in; 
The work that's made me crooked an' rough 

Should a earned me a bed to lie in 
Under the roof of my only son — 

If his wife is proud an' gay — 
F'r I boosted you into the place y've won. 

Oh, I reckon I've paid m' way ! 

V'r wife I know is powerful set 

An' mighty handsome t' see; 
But 1 c'n t-rll it's a tumble fret, 

This havin' t' eat with me. 
She never speaks and never seems 

To be liMenin' t' what I say; 
But the children doos ! and never dreams 

Their " gran'dad's '• in the way. 

An' so you're wantin' to board me round. 

Well— mother's heart 'd be broke 
If she warn't safe sleepin' underground. 

Not hesrin' the words y' 've spoke. 
She'd allow I'd ought to live here 

What time I've got t' suy — 
For Stephen. I've traveled I'r fifty years 

An' I've always paid m' way ! 

I ain't goin' t' bother y' long, 

F'r soon I'll pioneer further weft 
Beyond the river, where God'll say, 

" Take it easy, Amos, you've earned a rest." 
So, Steve, I want to stay with you! 

An' I want to work while I stay; 
Jert give me a litt e sumpin' t' do — 

I reckon I'll pay m' way I 

— Hamlin Garland, in America. 

Darby and Joan. 

A Spring rain was falling gently, continuous- 
ly, on Mrs. True's garden. The lately trans- 
planted geraniums and petunias lifted their 
heads gratefully to the warm shower, and the 
fuchsias and sweet alyssum brightened under 
its influence. 

If their mistress could have seen them, she, 
too, would have rejoiced, for the flowers were 
her children, petted darlings, for whom no care 
could be too great, no attention too painstak- 
ing. She had housed them in winter, set them 
out in summer, trimmed, guarded, hung over 
them year after year. 

Involuntarily one looked for her mild face at 
the window, smiling out upon them, but she 
was not to be seen. For the second time only 
in her life Mrs. True lay iD her chamber, too ill 
to heed the pattering rain, or to think of the 
plants growing so fast in the sweet, moist air, 
even though, through the open window of her 
room, both sounds and scents entered freely, 
the peaceful sounds and healthful scents of the 
country. 

It was very still in the room where she lay; 
very still and orderly. The ol \ furniture was' 
polished and speckless; the linen as white as 
snow; against the pillows, which had been a 
part of her bridal outfit, rested the gray head, 
still neatly cared for, and the face, with its 
pallor, still wore a look of kindly patience. 

At her side sat her husband, giod Djacon 
True, with bowed head and sad eyes; and in his 
work hardened hand he held her feeble one. 

Presently a footstep sounded on the muddy 
sidewalk outude. Then the gate latch clicked. 
Some one walked up the path and tapped softly 
on the house door, and waa as softly admitted. 

But the two, with their faces turned toward 
each other, took no Dotice. 

"How is she?" said the neighbor down stairs 
who had "dropped in." 

" Failin'," answered Fidelia Perkins, the 
maid-of-all-work, temporarily engaged for the 
emergency. 



" How's he f 

" Fairly beat out with grievin'. 8eem's if 
he hadn't no heart for eatin' or drinkin' or 
notbin'. Just settin' up there along o' her and 
holdin' her hand. I never did see folks set 
sech store by each other as they do." 

" Well, they haven't nobody else to set store 
by, you see," said the visitor, establishing her- 
self by the fire and holding out two substantial 
feet to the blaze. 

" No, that's so," assented Fidelia, taking out 
her knitting. "Now you just make yourself 
comfortable, Mis' (Jlapp. I'm real glad to see 
somebody. It's dreadful lonesome here. Jest 
those two still critters upstairs, and me and the 
cat downstairs, and nothin' on earth todo. Why, 
there ain't so much as a teaspoonful of dirt to 
clean up nowhere in the house. I never did 
Bee such houeekeepin'." 

"She was a master hand for cleaning'," said 
Mrs. Clapp, shaking her head thoughtfully, 
" and, as I say, there warn't no children to 
make dirt." 

" No, there warn't, but them plants is about 
as bad, to my thinkin', cluttering up the place 
half the year and havin' to trail around with a 
waterin' pot and weedin' and stewin' over 'em 
the rest of the time. She took a sight of com- 
fort in 'em, though." 

"She was a real good woman, Mis' True 
was," sighed Mrs. Clapp, speaking already in 
the past tense. 

" And he's a powerful good man." 
"There ain't no better." 
" (> iecr such good folks hadn't a family." 
" Well, they did have one child." 
" Do tell? I never heard of it before. Boy 
or girl ? " 

" Boy, I believe. L*w, Mis' True ww most 
tickled to death about it. Sie was as proud as 
an old hen with one chick, but it didn't last 
long. I was sent for to nurse her, and she was 
a dreadful sick woman, out of her head, just 
raving about that baby — goin' on about what 
she was meaning to do for it. She had it all 
planned out for a lifetime how she waa agoin' 
to rock him to sleep nights, and how, by and 
by, he was agoin' to set to the table in a high 
chair alongside of her, and, finally, how he was 
to take the firm and live with them always. 
My ! she was ramblin' on so fast and aamiling 
away to herself, while the rest of us — me and 
the doctor and the deacon— was jest afighting 
for that baby's life. And, at last, when she 
come to herself, there warn't nothin' but a 
dead baby to sbow her." 

" Dear, dear ! did she take on much ? " said 
Fidelia, dropping her knitting in her Up. 

" Take on ? Well, not like some folks. She 
didn't screech nor cry; but she jest turned 
anful white, and her eyes got big and bad- 
lookin'. It was enough to ha'nt you to see 'em, 
and she never said nothin' to me — jest moaned 
and caught ahold of the deacon's coatsleeve as 
if she needed somethin' to comfort her. It did 
seem's if her heart was broke sure. She never 
had no more children." 

" I guess that's why they've been so set on 
each other," mused Fidelia. 

" Well, as to that, there ain't no tellin'. 
Some few folks are so, — considerate and feelin' 
—but mighty few. Moat married folk get tired 
of livin' together, or, at any rate, they appear 
so to home. The deacon and Mis' True they's 
been like they was a-conrtin' all these years. 
He's done all the chores for her that a mortal 
man could do, and she's been as sweet to him — 
well, as sweet as one of them doves a-cooin' 
away out there on the barn." 

" Hark ! What's that? " said Fidelia, hold- 
ing up one hand warningly. 

It was only the sound of a weak voice above 
and a deeper voice trying to answer sooth- 
ingly. 

While the two women had talked the afternoon 
had waned. Tne rain seemed like fast-falling 
tears. The flowers, some of them, were closing 
drowsily. The shadows were deepening. The 
light green foliage of a birch tree near the 
house looked gray in the twilight. Through 
the open chamber window above sounded the 
sleepy trill of a bird, safely snuggled in his 
neat under the young leaves. 

Curiously enough this tender note alone had 
the power to rouse the dying woman. She had 
always been in close sympathy with all fair 
helpless things, flowers, young birds and in- 
fants. Now, in her extremity, this weak cry 
pierced to her heart and woke her. 

" Where's the biby ? " she whispered. " Why 
don't they bring the baby to me ? " 

She was living over again her only sickness. 
She fancied herself young once more, young, 
and filled with a strange great happiness. 

The years between had vanished. They 
were happy years, too, happier than most peo- 
ple enjoy, for her desires had been easily grati- 
fied, her ambitions were of the simplest kind. 
To live within their small means; to lay aside a 
little each year; to keep the house immaculate 
and the flowers thriving; to know peaceful 
nights and quiet, uneventful days; to help a 
neighbor in trouble; to sit in the village 
church regularly on Sundays, and to be sure that 
the grass grew green and the white violets 
flourished over a certain small mound in the 
graveyard; these were the utmost limits of her 
hopes. 

Her one great grief had grown to be a tender 
memory, and all the days since had been pros- 
perous and serene, unclouded by one harsh look 
or word. 

Now, Buddenly, she was young again, a young 
wife in her new home, with all her humble 
household treasures new about her, and this 
shrill of expectation in her breast. 



" Where's the baby? Why don't they bring 
the baby to me?" she repeated, eagerly. 

Her husband leaned forward, pressing her 
hand in both of his. 

" The baby ?" he said ; "what baby?" For 
him the sad present had swallowed np the past. 

" Our baby," she whispered, with a look of 
rapture in her faded eyes. 
"Oh, Lois !" 

He bent his head still lower. That shadowy 
child of theirs seemed hardly more than a 
dream to him. He had never held it or played 
with it, or talked to it in imagination, as she 

had. 

" His name is Josiah, for you," continued the 
dying woman, trying to tighten her clasp of 
the hand holding hers, and looking up earnestly 
at him. 

" He will be little Jo. Perhaps his eyes are 
like yours; and he will be a good man like you, 
I hope. We will teach him to be good, won't 
we t 

" Yes, yes, Lois." 

" But why don't they bring him to me? I 
want so much to held him, only once, for a little 
while. I won't keep him long. I want to feel 
his little hand on my face and kiss his little 
cheek. Please tell them to bring him." 
" Hush, hush, Lois, dear." 
" Ptrhapa they don't know where his clothes 
are. I laid them all ready in the top drawer of 
the bureau in the spareroom, his little blue 
socks, and his shirt, and the white slip — they 
said he must wear slips at first, not dresses. 
Everything's ready. A boy, you said. Oh, do 
let me bold him now." 

The old man groaned aloud and tried to quiet 
her, but without success. Oat doors a wind was 
rising, a soft wind, fragrant with the bitter- 
sweet breath of blossoming peach trees. It 
sighed at the open window, and swept a branch 
of the birch tree against the upper panes. 

The deacon tried to rise to close the glass, 
but she moved uneasily as if to sit up in bed. 
He put his arms out to support her. She hard- 
ly seemed to see or feel them. Slowly her face 
grew radiant with surprise and delight. 

" Ah, you have brought him to me at last," 
she cried, with hands outstretched. "Qaick, 
give him to me here, close to my heart. Oh, 
how dear, how beautiful he is. I had not 
thought he would be half so beautiful." 

She held her arms as if they encirclsd a little 
form, and bent her face over them in tenderest 
mother fashion. 

"My baby I my baby!" she whispered. 
Then, with a sign of utter content, sank back 
upon her pillows. 

The women downstairs listened for the sound 
of voices to begin again, expecting to be sum- 
moned, but no such summons csme. 

Night and darkness fell in the garden and 
closed about the house. Fidelia pnt a lamp 
outside the chamber door and shut the door 
quietly. She glanoed toward the bed where 
Mrs. True seemed to be asleep, her husband, 
with his face buried in the pillow, near her. 
She left all the necessary articles for the night 
and moved away with a noiseless step. 

The hours went on slowly and silently. 
The stars shown out in the sky at last, while 
the flowers slept down in the shadows, and the 
little bird was gently rocked in bis soft c-adle. 
All was still in the house where children's feet 
had never pattered up and down nor children's 
voices echoed. 

When morning, calm and sunny, brightened 
the quiet room, it showed the woman's face 
glorified with a smile of absolute peace. Who 
knows ? Perhaps, indeed, her baby had been 
brought to her. 

Biside her, white and wan in the sunshine, 
lay her faithful companion. Whether hearts 
do break or not I cannot tell. Heaven at least 
had mercifully let them Hie together, qnietlv, 
as they lived.— Grace Wiathrop in N. Y. 
News. 

Planting a Sequoia. 

A pleasing incident in connection with the 
graduation of the 34'h class from the State 
Normal School at San Jose last week, was their 
planting of a sequoia gigantea on the grounds. 

V. M. Lane, president of the graduating 
class, delivered an address in the course of 
which he said: "The benefits we have here 
received are not ephemeral, but renewed on 
every day of our lives. * * * We are un- 
able to leave behind us anything that will ad- 
equately show our appreciation. Yet we feel 
that something should be done in that direc- 
tion to be a meaning reminder of the past and 
suggestive of the future, and we have, there- 
fore, left a sequoia tree, which grows up as 
quietly and unostentatiously to its immense 
amplitude and altitude as has this normal 
school, which has sent out thousands of grad- 
uates to all points of the compass; being, as re- 
gards its surprising capabilities of disseminating 
knowledge, the guardian angel of education in 
the State." 

Prof. I. S. Holloway, in behalf of the faculty 
of the school, accepted the tree " as a visible 
token tending to keep growing the bonds of 
sympathy between ynu and us. * * * As 
the tree at present affects but little the general 
landscape, so your influence is as yet nnfelt; 
but as the tree grows, so we hope your influence 
will enlarge. As the tree is ever green, so we 
hope that you may be ever fresh and vigorous, 
retaining sympathy for and interest in the 
young, never becoming dry, barren, useless 
slips of pedagogy. So we accept the tree, hop- 
ing that you and it may grow to a stalwart, vig- 
orous maturity." 



Practical Paper flanging. 

The following upon this timely topic is from 
one of our contemporaries. It says: "The 
primary essential to commence a job of paper 
banging is to have the tools. Any 1 Jack ' can 
work with a full set of tools, but it takes a good 
mechanic to work with poor ones. The best 
tools are the cheapest in the outcome, and are 
the most satisfactory. 

An 8 or 10 inch bristle smoothing brush, a ti 
to 8- inch paste brush, a 14 to lb inch pair of 
shears, a paper knife, seam roller, smoothing 
roller for borders and decorations, a straight- 
edge, plumb bob, chalk line, paste pail, size 
kettle, paper boards, trestles, and Btepladder. 
These are the necessary tools for general work, 
though it is necessary, to save time and trouble, 
to have besides these tools a good-sized kalso- 
mine brush and a double-width putty knife. 

The next we need to proceed with a bucket 
of paste. Use flour paste, except on very rare 
occasions, when the tints are very delicate. 
The best patent flour is the most adhesive, and 
retains its consistency much better than starch. 

Take a common patent pail and put in one- 
half gallon of flour. Stir in enough cold water 
to mix a flour batter, work out all the lumps thor- 
oughly, have ready three gallons of absolutely 
boiling water, and stir this in until you have 
enough to cook it. Now pour a little cold 
water over the top to prevent skinning over 
until you are ready to use it. You can thin it 
down at pleasure. 

If the paper put on is not a metallic ground, 
put in four or five ounces of alum in the paste. 
This will prevent its turning sour and hasten 
drying. Should the paper be metallic, use a 
little carbolic acid in place of alum, as alum is 
liable to turn gilt dark. 

If the room you are to paper is a hard finish, 
and not very badly smoked up, all that is 
necessary to prepare the walls is to brush them 
with a broom. Should they be smoked and 
dirty, it is best to go over them with a weak 
solution of glue and alum. If the walls have 
been papered before, it is necessary to go over 
them again with a putty knife and cut the old 
paper off, pull out all nails, and with some 
plaster of paris mixed with paste heal all the 
bad places. 

If the walls have been whitewashed, doctor 
them with a strong solution of vinegar. Hav- 
ing the walls ready, lay a roll of paper on the 
boards, and with your straight-edge, which 
shonld be six feet long, measure the higbt to 
where the border will come and about an inch 
below the base boards, and cut the strips off. 
Match the next strip to the top of the previous 
one and cut enough strips to cover the room. 

To ascertain the number of strips required, 
take a roll of paper and count the number 
around the room. Now turn the paper over 
if you have trimmed it; put the trimmed edges 
toward you and pull the first over, so that it 
covers the other strips. This is to prevent tbe 
paste from forming on the trimmed edge and 
making bad work. 

Some paper-hangers never trim the paper till 
after it is pasted. This procedure has some 
good features and some bad ones, which 
we will not discuss here. Beginners will find 
it better to have the paper trimmed before- 
hand. Commence at one end of the room and 
hang the strips as nearly perpendicular as 
you can. 

Always brush the paper from the center down 
and at either side. If you have wrinkles in tbe 
paper, pull it off to where the wrinkle is, and 
brush out from the center. Run the shears 
along the paper at the top of base boards, and 
cut off nice and even. Never allow the paper 
to look haggled or uneven around the base, and 
cut it close down but not overlapping. 

When you come to an opening let the paper 
overlap, and trim with the paper knife as you 
work a saw. Yon will next need short strips, 
but do not run them beyond the opening unless 
the piece cut out of the other aide will till up 
the opposite; rather lap back again to be sure 
of a perfeot match. 

When you come to a oorner never lap the 
paper around it unless the space is vety narrow. 
Fold up the strips at both ends, measure tbe 
distance with your ruled shears, lay the straight 
edge on the paper, mark the distance just a 
little beyond the corner and cut. In this man- 
ner you will always have corners that will be 
square and stay in position. 

Use the same roller and roll down the seams 
nicely as you go. Cut the border in such 
lengths as can be easily reached to put on, paste 
and double up at both ends, so that the lines 
meet exactly, and cut." 



The Earth Crust Under the Sea.— The 
attention of the French Academy of Sciences 
has been drawn by M. Faye, the eminent as- 
tronomer, to the apparent geological law that 
the cooling of the terrestrial crust goes on more 
rapidly under the sea than with a land surface. 
From this he argues that the crust must thick- 
en under ooeans at a more rapid rate, so as to 
give rise to a swelling up and distortion of the 
thinner portions of the crust; in other words, to 
the formation of mountain chains. 



Teacher— Now, children, here we have the 
word " intuition " — Who can tell what it 
means? Phenomenally bright scholar — Intui- 
tion is that faculty of the human mind which 
enables a person to distinguish at a glance a 
patent medicine advertisement from a real 
news article.— Judge. 



July 7. 1888.] 



fACIFie f^URAlo PRESS 



7 



California Rural Homes. 

Editors Press: — As a con tant reader of 
your paper I find much that interests me; and 
your extract from an Oregon paper, published 
within the past month, on the subject of " not 
keeping the houses and places of farmers up to 
the standard of neatness and beauty of those 
living in towns," should attract the attention of 
all who live in the colonies and new settlements 
in your State. 

I have recently passed through portions of 
California, and have some landed interest there 
that has been somewhat improved and upon 
wh'ch I hope to reside ere long. Daring my 
trip I Baw many places to which the article 
mentioned above would apply very forcibly, and 
it seems strange to me that owners can stand so 
much in their own light and interest as to al- 
low their land to be kept in a slovenly manner, 
their houses unpainted and out of repair, grow- 
ing worBe from year to year, and giving every- 
thing an unwholesome and uninviting appear- 
ance to those who may be looking in that lo- 
cality with a view of selecting a home. They 
stand in their own light, as they destroy half 
the pleasure of life in one of the finest climates, 
by not keeping their home up in a neat and 
tasty style that does not neoessarily carry with 
it much expense or extravagance; and they are 
against their own interest, since, by neglecting 
to improve their holdings, tbey reduce the value 
of their property. A settlement of neat, well- 
ordered houses, tastefully painted, with the 
land kept clean and always in order, will at- 
tract double the number of new comers that a 
locality of the opposite character will. 

I hope the subject will attract attention' and 
evoke a discussion that will tend to awaken an 
interest among the people and excite a little 
emulation as to who should have the neatest, 
prettiest place in the different settlements. 

In connection with this I would like to say I 
shall— when I am ready to go upon my place— 
ba called upon to decide as to the kind and size 
of a house to put up to accommodate my family 
in comfort, and at the same time be of such 
character as will keep them contented in the 
change from a home in the city, with all its 
conveniences, to the quiet life of the country. 
I believe it to be our duty to make the country 
home especially attractive to the family, and am 
satisfied it can be done without much more ex- 
pense than attends the ordinary way many 
people live in the country. To this end I 
should be very glad to find in your paper sug- 
gestions on the subject; also designs of houses 
adapted to the wants of families living in the 
colonies of your State. I have been reading up 
on that subject in the architectural publications 
of the East, but they are mostly adapted to our 
climate, which is so different from that of the 
Pacific Coast. I recall seeing in your paper 
some time ago articles on this subject, and an 
especially good design of the house of Mrs. Carr 
of Pasadena, but have not seen anything of late. 
(I would be glad to know the date of the paper 
which contained the illustration of the above- 
named house). I hope this article may draw 
out 8om" responses and suggef t'onp. 

New York City L. E. Townsknd. 

[The engraving of Mrs. Carr's house was pub- 
lished in the Rural of Sept. 29, 1883. We will 
try to present views of other California houses. 
Meantime the discussion of the points advanced 
by our correspondent will be in order.— Eds. 
Press ] 

Not Ashamed of the Tag. 

Not long since, while taking a trip through 
Mendocino county, I dropped into a prominent 
newspaper olfice, and while chatting with the 
editor, a well-to-do stock-raiser of that county 
dropped in and planked down the necessary 
amount for two year's subscription in advance 
for the paper, and at the same time remarked : 

" I want the tag on my paper to be in such a 
shape that I need not be ashamed, when a 
friend calls at my house, to let him see it. You 
may believe me or not, but its a fact all the 
same," he continued, " that a little matter like 
that has already saved me considerable money; 
and one particular instance I want to tell you 
about. I had some dealings with a certain 
man," said he, " and one day, while at his 
house, for the purpose of selling him some sheep, 
I chanced to pick up his newspaper. I observ- 
ed by the tag upon the margin that he was 
terribly in arrears for it. The fact that a man 
would allow his newspaper account to run on, 
year after year, to such an extent, set me to 
thinking, and I resolved that should he ask me 
for credit — he already owed me for 50 head of 
fine sheep— I would respectfully decline his re- 
quest. As I had anticipated, he did ask for time, 
which I not only refused him, but demanded the 
amount already due me. lie was unable to 
meet the obligation just then, he said, but 
would do so very soon. I sold my stock else- 
where, but I never got the money out of the 
man for the sheep I had previously sold him, 
nor do I expect to. Had I not seen that tell- 
tale newspaper tag he might have stuck me 
still further. Now, when I'm in doubt as to a 
man's responsibility, all I want to enable me 
to accurately size him up is to get my optics 
on his newspaper tag, and nine cases out of ten 
I'll never be mistaken in my estimate of him." 
—Cloverdale Cor. 



*Y"0'JNG H 0LKS ' QoisUMfJ. 



Oar Picnic. 

Dear boys and girls of the Rural:— You 
know it is very natural for a mother to think 
her boys and girls are smarter and prettier than 
her neighbors, so we think our picnic was just 
the best and merriest one anybody ever had, 
and I want to tell you about it. 

In the first place, the morning of the picnic 
Uncle Henry came to the breakfast table feeling 
sick and cast a cloud over us all by saying he 
didn't feel well enough to go. The children who 
were visiting us said it wouldn't be any fun at 
all if he didn't go, and I assured him he would 
feel all the better for going, so at last he yielded 
to our entreaties and we started— a merry 
party of four grown people and two boys who 
have fun and miscbief enough in them for half 
a dozen boys. 

We had a three-seated spring wagon and a 
pair of large young horses, and we "just went 
flying," as the boys say. Under the seats were 
ample hampers packed with all sorts of good 
things for the " inner man," and a " Foong 
Sow," a Chinese " wind-stove," which is a 
shallow clay jar or pot in which to make a fire 
of chips (by the way, I make all my jellies and 
preserves on it under a big apple tree instead 
of in a hot kitchen). Well, we took everything 
we could possibly need and had a lovely ride of 
six miles in the early morning air, through cool 
shady woods and past grain-fields yellow and 
ripe waving in the clear morning breeze, and 
Sam and Rowdy just trotted along as if it was 
as much fun for tnem as for us. 

When we reached Santa Cruz we stopped and 
took in a lot of "sisters and cousins and 
aunts," and their lunch baskets, babies and all ; 
then other friends joined us on the lovely 
"Moss Beach," till all told we numbered fourteen 
big people and ten little people ; some were 
very big, and some were very little, and some 
were middling sized, like the bears in the story. 

We found a lovely sheltered place, some 
little way from the water, where an old oak 
tree leaned over in away to make most delightful 
phade for a picnic. Then came the unpacking. 
We put the jars of milk and cream in the cool 
earth of the bank, at the root of the tree, 
started the fires, one in the "Foong Sow" for 
coffee, and one between two big stones for a 
kettle of sweet corn. An amount of good 
things finally found their way upon the tables, 
or I should say upon the tableelotht, for we 
spread them on the sand. We took the seats 
out of the wagon for the grandparents, and 
everybody was comfortable and had a good 
lunch. When no one could possibly eat any 
more, we packed up the dishes, then the boys 
tried to see who oould make the longest jump 
and the loudest noise, till all were tired. Then 
when told they could take off their shoes and 
stockings and wade in the ocean, what a shout 
they all gave, and how fast little shoes and 
stockings came off ! so much faster than at bed 
time, when mammas are tired and in a hurry ! 
The boys and girls all waded but the dear little 
baby boy who was sound asleep on coats, 
shawls and blankets beside Grandma.. Such 
fun as the children had ! And I must confess 
it was too much for cousin Fanny and myself, 
for we got outside of our shoes and stockings 
and supei tioue skirts in a very few moments, 
and ma>be we did'nt have fun, and maybe we 
did ! The more sedate grown people stood on 
the beach and laughed at us, but we didn't 
care. We just had lots of fun, and the children 
enjoyed it all the more, because we were with 
them. 

A cunning little dog named "Squee," who 
was just about the color of the sand, ran here 
and there and in and out of the water, had a 
good time, but still seemed to beg for some one 
or something to play with, and was very quiet. 
At last Aunt Sopia threw a stick in, and how 
he scampered after it and barked and tossed it 
up. Afterwards he found grandpa's glove on 
the dry sand and took it to him. If the grand- 
parents didn't do as many silly things as the 
rest of us, they enjoyed the day very much. 

When we had enough of it (which wasn't 
very soon) we went baok to camp and ate 
berries with cream and cake. Then some of 
the party went off a long way over the rocks 
and found such lovely sea anemonies and star- 
fish and crabs. Some of the latter walked side- 
ways and some went all sorts of ways, and all 
of them were very much afraid of creatures 
that needed only two legs, and scrambled off 
to the water as fast as their numerous legs 
could carry them. We also found sea urchins 
and mosses and shells and no end of curiosities ; 
but by this time the sun was getting low and 
little folks were very tired, so we all piled into 
the wagon and were packed almost as close as 
" sardines in a box." But a picnic wagon is 
like a horsecar and always has room for one 
more. Small parties were left here and there 
till only four grown people remained to come 
back to the ranch. 

The ride home in the gloaming was cool and 
delightful, the horses had a good lunch as well 
as ourselves, and felt fresh and full of life. 
Here and there quail flew out from the grain- 
fields, where they had been for supper for their 
little ones, and now and then a little cottontail 
rabbit scampered across the road from one cool, 
shady bush to another. Perhaps they had been 
on a picnic too, and were just going home ! 
The sweetbrier roses were all the sweeter in 



the evening air, and the four-o'clocks were still 
out in their pale yellow dresses, down in the 
creek, next to the cat-o'-nine tails, which, by 
the way, are in their green dresses now, and 
look very fresh and pretty. The lovely wild 
convolvulus had gone to sleep to wake fresh and 
beautiful with the rising sun. 

At our gate our good faithful dog. Jack, was 
waiting to welcome us home, and we jumped 
from the wagon, tired, of course, but with the 
satisfaction ot knowing we had given pleasure 
to the children and had a good time ourselves. 
Nothing happened to mar the pleasure and mer- 
riment all day. Now, don't you agree with 
me that we had just the very nicest picnic 
that ever was? Unless some of you have had 
one just as good. 

I have sent a good many stories to the Rcral 
Press, and I often wonder if you boys and girls 
enjoy them, and if any of you would like to 
write to me, and call me " Aunt Susie," I shall 
be very glad to hear from you and promise to 
answer, and if the editor is willing, I will write 
you some more letters for the Rural, and tell 
you about other good times we may have this 
summer. The little showers we have had this 
month have left the crop fresh and green. The 
sweet scented hay is curing in the sunshine, 
and the apricot trees are loaded down with 
Royals, (Jut will soon be yellow with a red 
cheek. Our neighbors laughed at us when we 
set them out, and said we would never have 
more than one crop up here 750 feet above the 
ocean, but they have made a wonderful growth, 
and borne more and more each year, and now 
" good bye.' 1 Very much love to you all, from 

Aunt Susie. 

Box 114, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



GfoOED J^E/VLTH. 



State Board of Health. 

The report of the State Board of Health for 
May furnishes returns from 00 cities and towns, 
which give a mortality of 1035 in an aggregate 
population of 723,950. This average of death- 
rate indicates a very favorable condition of 
public health throughout the State, being a per- 
centage of only 16.8 per annum. When this is 
contrasted with the aggregate mortality of the 
Eastern States, the great salubrity of California 
becomes notably favorable. 

In the list of fatalities consumption leads, 
numbering 174. Of course a large proportion 
of these cases owe their origin to an Eastern 
climate, the parties having come to California 
to improve their condition. 

Pneumonia comes next, numbering 72, a de 
crease from the last report, but giving more 
than a general average for the month of May. 

Diphtheria claims 36 deaths, 15 of which oc- 
curred in S in Francisco, but not more than its 
proper average according to population. 

Bronchitis was fatal in 25 cases; congestion of 
the lungs, 14; croup, 12; scarlet fever, 9; 
typhoid fever, 28 — a slight increase over last 
month's report. The dreaded and deadly 

Cancer 

Is charged with 30 cases, 23 of which are 
placed to the ciedit of this city. The very 
large excess of cancer cases in this city over 
other portions of the State is due to the fact 
that nearly all persons who are attacked with 
this malady, and who can afford the means, 
come to San Francisco for relief, but generally 
too late to be of any avail. 

Cancer Can be Cured. 

We are in the frequent receipt of letters and 
inquiries asking if the party in this city, to 
which we have made such frequent reference, 
still continues in successful practice, and 
whether we still have as much confidence in her 
skill as ever. We invariably answer in the af- 
firmative, for cases of successful cures are con- 
stantly coming under our notice — some of which 
are fully as remarkable as any which we have 
heretofore noticed. 

A few weeks since we met a lady from Vic- 
toria who was then under treatment for cancer 
on the tongue. The case had been pronounced 
one of unmistakable character by the leading phy- 
sicians of Victoria, who could give the patient 
no assurance of relief. By the advice of friends 
who knew Mrs. Dr. Cook she came at once to 
this city, and in due time returned home 
a well woman, without submitting to either 
the knife or plaster. Constitutional treatment 
with some simple healing salves were the only 
remedies employed. It stands to reason that a 
cancer thus cured is cured for all time, while 
the application of the knife or plaster, without 
constitutional treatment, simply aggravates the 
trouble in 19 cases out of 20. 

There is a gentleman from Victoria now 
under treatment for cancer under the tongue, 
sent here by this same lady. His malady has 
made great progress, and but little encourage- 
ment was first given of any possible help; but 
the symptoms have since became highly favor- 
able, and there is now a strong probability of a 
successful issue. 

There is another case to which we would 
briefly allude of a very elderly lady in New 
Bedford, Mass., in a family in whose welfare we 
have long felt a deep interest by reason of old 
acquaintance. Contrary to her usual custom, 
Dr. Cook allowed herself to be persuaded to do 
what she seldom does — send remedies with 
written instructions for use without personal in- 
terview. The caBe was one of long standing — 
the patient, in the opinion of her physician, be- 



ing too old and feeble to endure a surgi 
operation. The remedies were sent, and h 
physician had the manliness to watch the cas 
and when he saw it was fully cured, had the in 
dependence to say bo and write to that effect in 
a letter of congratulation which he addressed to 
Mrs. Dr. Cook. There was no hesitation in 
pronouncing it a case of unmistakable cancer. 

If the physicians of this city would drop their 
cruel and antiquated system of medical ethics 
and adopt the course pursued by the New 
Bedford physician, the monthly reports of death 
from cancer here would dwindle to the very 
lowest ecale of mortality of any in the long list 
of human maladies. But how can we expec' 
such a result so long as respect for medical 
ethics is held more sacred than that for human 
life? 

If the faculty would let patients exercise 
their own discretion in chosiog a physician in 
this special malady it would soon almost dis- 
appear from this city, and in this connection 
we would repeat the statement which we have 
before made, that no person has ever applied 
to Mrs. Cook in the early stage of the disease 
who has not been permanently cured. We have 
had several such cases of failure reported to us; 
but in every one we have found them to be with- 
out foundation. We will publish any such case 
of failure that is proven to be genuine. It is 
true she has lost many cases, but not one 
which has not been treated for a greater or 
less length of time by other physicians, while 
she has cured great numbers who have been 
given over to die by others. We have given 
these three cases as a sample of the many re- 
cent ones to which we have not yet made any 
reference. We dwell at this length upon this 
subject because of our interest in humanity, 
and we know we have the secret sympathy 
of many physicians, who dare not speak out 
their honest convictions because they know if 
they do so they go counter to the ethics of the 
profession, and will be made to suffer for it. 
What we have done is without pay or hope of 
reward. If the press would take up the mat- 
ter much good would be done. One of our 
leading dailies recently sent a reporter to in- 
terview us. He was introduced to the doctor 
and a number of her patients, was thoroughly 
Bath tied that we were correct in this discus- 
sion, and wrote out a column fully endorsing 
the same. The article was submitted to the 
managing editor of the daily, who refused to 
insert it without the payment of one hundred 
dollars. He was refused even one hundred 
cents, consequently the article never saw the 
light. Many lives might have been saved by 
such an endorsement. But no, the almighty 
dollar was more to that journal than human 
life. 



X)ojviESTie Qeoj^oiviY. 

Grating a lemon, says Harper's Bazar, is 
a simple operation, and it may seem that every 
one must know how to do it; but this is far 
from being the case. As many dishes of curdled 
custards and sauces are caused by this fact, 
the right way in this case is very important. 
The object of using grated rind of lemon is to 
obtain the fragrance and flavor, which differ 
very greatly from any extracts, however good. 
Now the whole of the oil which contains this 
fragrance is at the surface — is, in fact, the yel- 
low portion of the rind; therefore this, and only 
this must be removed with the grater. The 
white part underneath is bitter, and will cause 
milk or cream to curdle, but it contains no par- 
ticle of lemon flavor. Yet when lemon flavor 
is called for, the lemon is often grated 
right down to the pulp in parts, while the 
yellow rind is left on in patches. A lemon 
should be grated evenly, beginning at the end 
and working round it, using as small a surface 
of the grater as possible, to prevent waste. 
The habit of turning the lemon as you grate 
comes as easily as to turn an apple under the 
knife when peeling. Generally twice across 
the grater and back between each turn will re- 
move all the essential oil, but, while guarding 
against grating too deeply, care must be taken 
to remove the whole of the yellow surface. A 
well grated lemon should be exactly of the 
same shape as before, having no deep scores into 
the pith, and have an oily-looking surface. 

Vegetable Oyster Cake. — Select good, 
large-sized oyster-plant roots, gratethem andadd 
milk and flour sufficient to make a stiff batter, 
about a gill of grated oyster plant, two eggs, 
one pint of milk and fljur to make a batter, 
and salt. Drop it by tablespoonfuls into hot 
lard. Fry till brown. 

Oyster Omelet. — Stew half a dozen large, 
plump oysters over a clear fire in their own 
liquor; take them off*at the first boil; drain 
them, cut them in halves, and spread over the 
omelet before turning. If large and solid, the 
half dozen will suffice for two small omelets. 

SpongeCake. — Four eggs, two coff j ecupsof 
sugar, beaten together, two cups of flour, two 
teaspoonfuls cream tartar, one teaspoon of soda, 
two-thirds of a cup of boiling water. Flavor 
with lemon. Add water last, a little at a time; 
pour into buttered pan and place in a well- 
heated oven. 

Water-Cresses. — Wash well, pick off decay- 
ed leaves and lsave in ice water until you are 
ready to eat them. They should then be 
shaken free of wet and piled lightly in a glass 
dish. Eat with salt. They are a piquant 
appetizer on a sultry morning and very whole- 
some. 



8 



pAClFie RURAb PRESS, 



[July 7, 1888 




A. T. DEWEY. 



W. B. EWER. 



Published by DEWEY & CO. 

ee, 220 Market St., N. E. eor. Front St., S.F. 
tr Take tlie Elevator, Ho. It Front SL"» 



Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscmftioh Ratks iki tiirbk dollars a year, in 
advance. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ing $S in advance will receive 13} months' (one year and 
llz weeks) credit. For $1.50 in advance, six months and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the 
list without payment in advance. Our premium offer- 
ings are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. S Months. I Year. 

Per Line (agate) $ 26 $.80 $2.20 $6.00 

Half Inch (1 square). .. 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One Inch 2.00 5.00 .4.00 45.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions ire rated In a month 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AijESCT. 
DEWEY & CO., Patiht Solicitors. 

A. T. DBW1Y. W. B. RWK». 8. B. 8TR0NO 



Our latest /orms go to preen Wednesday evening. 
Registered at S. F. Post Office ss second-class mail matter. 



SAN FRANG1SOO: 

Saturday, July 7, 18S8. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ED1TORIA 18- — A Flour Trust; Wild Ipecac. I. The 
Week; Fruit Values; 1,'se of Sulphur; Wattle Orowing, 
8. 8cenes in East Oakland, 9- 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Wild Ipecac— Euphorbia Corol- 
lata. 1. Washington Squaro, or Clinton I'.aza, East 
Oakland; Olipse of EaBt Oakland Harbor, 9. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— Great Fruit Sales at the 
East, 2. 

THE IRRIGATOR. -A Mountain Artesian Well 

District; West Side Irrigation. 2 
THE VETERINARIAN.— Veterinary Association, 

3. 

HORTIOULTURE.-l'runing Fruit Trees, 3. 

THE DAIRY.— Adulterated Milk, 3. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY— Orange Work 

and Progress; A Stopper to the Little Giant, 4. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From ine various 

counties of California, 4-5. 
THE HOME CIRCLE. — Paid His Way; D'rby and 

Joan; Planting a Sequoia; Practical Paper Hanging, 

6. California Rural Homes; Not A-hamed of the 

Tag, 7- 

YOUNG FOLK8' COLUMN. -Our Picnic 7. 
GOOD HEALTH. — State Board of Health, ?. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.- Various RerioeH, 7. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES. -Oak dealings for 
Walnuts, 9. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS — Our Local Interests in Tariff 
Ketrom, 11. 



Business Announcements. 

[NEW THIS I98UR.) 

New Music— Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. 

Fodder Cutters— Small.v Mfg. Co , Manitowoc, Wis. 

Trinity School— Rev. E B Spaldiog. 

Halsted Incubator Co.— Oakland. 

Warner's Safe Cure. 

Real Estate — Thntuis R Bard, Huencme, Cal. 

Wine Maker Wanted— R. Q Terry, CUjton, Cal. 

Snell Seminary— R. B. Snell, Oakland. 

Bowens Acdemy — Berkeley, Cal. 

St. Matthew's Hall -A. L Brower, San Mateo. 

Artificial Limbs— Merzo 8pr!ng. 

Real Estate— Joseph H. Dorety. 

Sewing Machines— White Sewing Machine Co. 

tS" See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

We close our forma on the eve of the Glorious 
Fourth. This year's preparations for an ebul- 
lition of patriotism are unusually extended, 'and 
a creditable observation of the National Birth- 
day is foreshadowed. 

Notes from the agricultural districts indicate 
unexpectedly good returns from parts of the 
State where the plant was not utterly done for 
by the spring drouth. The cool weather and 
showers have brought fine growth to the coast 
valleys for a considerable distance south of San 
Francisco and to the bay region. The same 
agencies have rescued a good part of the Sac- 
ramento valley from the failure which seemed 
at one time imminent, and on the east side of 
the San Joaquia comparatively good reports are 
also received. Generally speaking, we are 
coming out of a dry year with much more grain 
and hay than was thought possible, for all of 
which we should be thankful. 

Real estate bales during the week in Sonoma 
and San Joaquin counties indicate that the in- 
vesting and improving spirit is still active, 
though it is a season of the year w hen enter- 
prise usually slackens up. 

The fruit business continues at high-water 
mark, and every one engaged therein is busy 
beyond description. The beauty of it is, too, 
that the activity is well repaid by the spirit of 
the markets. 



Fruit Values. 

We congratulate ourselves that the Kural 
Press is credited with bulling the fruit market 
so successfully that those who planned to get 
cheap fruit this year by dismantling canneries, 
and thus endeavoring to create the impression 
among growers that there was going to be no 
outlet for their crop, are now obliged to come 
forward and pay high prices for what fruit 
they need. We do not claim that we accom- 
plished this excellent result, for that would not 
be a true claim. The price has been raised by 
the facts, first, that notably in the case of japri- 
cots, the crop was short; second, that Eastern 
shipment has been unusually profitable and 
large, and thus the fruit has quietly slipped out 
from under the hands of those who had com- 
bined to bear it down; third, that growers 
wisely and resolutely decided to dry their apri- 
cots rather than sacrifice them for less than 
a fair price. Of course the Rural Press did 
not accomplish all these things, but it did do 
just this : At the time when the great can- 
neries were dismantled and the screws were 
being put on to force the growers to contract at 
ridiculous figures, the Rural Press declared 
that the crop was short; that there was some- 
thing significant in the breaking up of a large 
cannery while the claim was made that it was 
bought to be run, and that the conditions war- 
ranted apricot-growers in drying rather than to 
sell a pound at a low price — these things are 
what the Rural did, and this is why certain 
parties in the city are growling against the 
Rural. They cannot pay us a higher compli- 
ment. 

We rejoice in the success of the canning in- 
terest. We like canneries so well that we 
wish there were 50 more good ones in the State, 
and there will be ere long. But we do not like 
the idea of combinations to get fruit-growers 
into the corner. We do not believe in journals 
which counsel growers to sell at less than the 
fruit is worth, and enlarge upon the hard- 
ships of the canners, with the idea of making 
growers believe that their owners are martyrs 
to the public good. Canners do have troubles 
we 'admit, and we wish they could be spared 
from them. The beauty of the thing is that 
they can be. They bring most of their own 
troubles upon themselves by their over smart- 
ness. If those who planned the squeeze on 
apricots early in the season are now obliged to 
jump in and save their bacon by paying high 
prices for the remnant of the fruit, whose fault 
is it? If they had been content to contract at 
fair prices, and to do an open and straight busi- 
ness all along, they would not be in their pres- 
ent dilemma. We really wish some canners 
had more sense. Some of them have been try- 
ing for years to introduce gamblers' methods 
into the fruit market, and they have got left 
nearly every time. And so they will always 
he. California fruit-growers are too intelligent 
to be hoodwinked and California fruit has too 
many profitable uses to be cornered by any one 
set of manufacturers. That is the way the 
matter stands and it will be a hard thing to 
tip over. 

The State Board of Horticulture. 

The State Board met at its office in this city 
on Monday of this week. The office presented 
a very pleasing appearance with its draped flags 
and new furniture, and the proceedings were 
enjoyed by quite an audience. 

President Ell wood Cooper occupied the chair, 
and there were present Commissioners Block, 
Peck, Chapman, Boggs and Vallejo. Secretary 
Lelong and State Inspector Klee presented re- 
ports which were very interesting and well re- 
ceived. 

Committees were decided upon to present the 
subject of new laws and the need of increased 
appropriations to the next Legislature. 

The tests of olive oil by Secretary Lelong, 
which are described on another page, were re- 
ferred for examination to a committee composed 
of Etlwood Cooper, E. J. Wickson and W. G. 
Klee. The report will be presented at the next 
meeting of the Board. 

Chico was selected as the place for the Fruit- 
Growers' Convention in November. W. G. 
Klee was re elected State Inspector of Fruit 
Pests and B. M, Lelong secretary. 

A Wood-pulp factory has been started at 
Gridley, Butte county. Marion Briggs is pres- 
ident of the company. 



The Use of Sulphur. 

There is just at the moment no subject of 
more importance to the fruit grower than the 
proper use of sulphur in his drying operations. 
There has been much harm done by the im- 
proper use of snlphur. Poor and discolored 
dried fruit has been resurrected by soaking and 
bleaching, but this is an abomination, and for- 
tunately but little practiced. We do not refer 
to this practice at all in the comments we make 
at this time. The proper use of sulphur is not 
bleaching at all in the ordinary sense of the 
term. It consists in exposing the freshly cut 
fruit to the fumes of -burning snlphur for a short 
time before the drying proceeds either by the 
sun or in the evaporator. This does not bleach 
but prevents the discoloration of the fruit by 
the action of the air. There are various ways 
of making the application, but in ordinary 
orchard practice it consists in placing the trays 
of frnit, one above another, in a closed cabinet, 
and burning sulphur beneath the oabinet. The 
time of exposure varies somewhat according to 
the kind of fruit or condition of it, and accord- 
ing to the practice of different parties, from '20 
to 46 minutes, the average being about 30 min- 
utes, and this constitutes a moderate sulphur- 
ing, whicb, in our opinion, is not a detriment 
to the fruit, but is the key to the production of 
a handsome marketable fruit. Opposed to 
proper and moderate sulphuring is the over- 
exposure of the fruit to the fumes, by which it 
is charged with sulphur to the destruction of 
natural flavors and the formation of sulphur 
acids, which are detrimental to the health of 
the oonsumer. This wrong use of sulphur we 
believe will grow less each year as fruit-driers 
become better informed in the use of the agent. 

As there has been much discussion on the 
effect of exposure of fruit to the fumes of burn- 
ing sulphur, we give herewith an allusion re- 
cently made by Ellwood Cooper, president of 
the Stat9 Bsard of Horticulture, to the subject: 

I have taken some pains to investigate what 
does result from the fumes of sulphur. I give 
below the statement of an analytical chemist of 
Philadelphia, a warm personal friend, to whom 
I wrote for information : 

" Sulphur, when burned, combines with the 
oxygen of the air, forming sulphurous acid— a 
combination of one of sulphur with two of oxy- 
gen. It is a gas and passes up among the fruit 
practically unchanged. Sulphurous acid is fur- 
ther oxydized by the action of air and moisture 
forming sulphuric acid — a combination of one 
of sulphur and three of oxygen; this last pro- 
cess is, however, slow, unaided by stronger oxi- 
dizing agents. The quantity therefore formed 
in the process of fumigating would be very 
small and hardly appreciable, and what little 
would be formed would enter into combina- 
tion with the fruit and not be in the free 
state. The effect of sulphurous acid on vege- 
table and animal matter is manifold. The 
changes that concern your present inquiry are 
as follows : 

" First, bleaching caused by the deoxidizing 
of the coloring matter oontained in the fruit. 
In this action the sulphurous acid combining 
with the oxygen of the coloring matter forms 
sulphuric acid, which combines with the veg- 
etable matter of the fruit. 

"Second, sulphurous acid has the quality 
of combining with nitrogenous organic com- 
pounds (albuminous bodies) contained in 
the fruit and preventing the decomposition 
of these easily decomposed bodies, there- 
by preserving the fruit in an unaltered con- 
dition. Sulphurous acid is therefore an 
antiseptic. Furthermore, the presence of a 
small quantity of sulphurous acid in the fruit 
aids in its preservation by preventing the 
action of parasites. Iu fine, the presence of sul- 
phurous acid destroys spores and prevents the 
formation of fungi, thereby checking putri- 
faction and fermentation. The process of putri- 
faction is a complicated one; it may be con- 
sidered as a slow combustion, commencing when 
fungi form on the surface with sufficient access 
of air; the fungi appear to transfer the oxygen 
of the air to the body; oxidation takes place, 
converting the elements of the body into car- 
bonic acid, water and ammonia. By alooholic 
fermentation the sugar of the fruit is split up 
into carbolic acid and alcohol. I have examined 
some dried fruit from California with the view 
of determining whether any free Bulphuric acid 
was contained in the frnit. The result of my 
examination proved the entire absence of free 
sulphuric acid. There was a fraction of one per 
cent of sulphuric acid in combination with the 
fruit, amounting to only .05 per cent. I am of 
the opinion that the fumigating process instead 
of being injurious to, or leaving any poisonous 
substance in the fruit, is, on the contrary, bene- 
ficial, improving the quality of the fruit by pre- 
venting the formation of substances n:ore or less 
injurious to health." 

This testimony is given for what it may be 
worth as to the moderate use of sulphur on 
fruit immediately after paring and cutting. 
The presence of free sulphuric acid has been 



detected by Prof. Hilgard, and very properly its 
occurrence in dried fruit has been seriously 
condemned by him; but this, as we understand 
it, has resulted from the bleaching of dried 
fruit or by use of sulphur on green fruit, both 
of which should never occur. 

Wattle Growing. 

So many Californians have the wattle acacia 
growing either from seed obtained from the 
State University or otherwise, that we have no 
doubt that information of the wattle industry 
of Australia will be of interest. We have sev- 
eral times before alluded to the subject, but the 
matter is evidently so important that onr Aus- 
tralian exchanges frequently mention it. 

South Australia has done official forestry for 
15 years, the last decade under the Conservator- 
ship of J. E. Brown. The Adelaide Observer 
says there are 180,000 acres dedicated to for- 
est purposes, which have been leased for 14 and 
21 years at rents ranging from 3d. to 2l, BcL 
an acre. From the rents accruing £4500 is an- 
nually obtained, while from the sales of timber, 
comprising sleepers, telegraph posts,, fencing 
posts, rails, etc., about £6000 is yearly added 
to the general revenue. Altogether this year's 
revenue will exceed £11,000. Against this is 
an expenditure of about £7500, so that there 
will be a profit of £3500. In addition it must 
be remembered that the department has planted 
a million trees this season, which, in 15 years 
time or less, will be worth at least 10s. apiece. 
Speaking approximately, the Forest Depart- 
ment has expended £00,000 and received £70,- 
000, or a profit of £10,000. Of the 180,000 
acres referred to, 40,000 represent natural for- 
ests, and S000 the area that has been planted, 
the remaining 132,000 representing reserves on 
which the lessees are allowed to run their sheep 
and cattle. Six million trees have been planted 
in the various reserves during the last 10 or 11 
years, and during the same period the Govern- 
ment has given away about two and one-half 
millions to farmers, landlords, and others, of 
which two millions have been reported as 
alive. 

This statement does not include wattle-grow- 
ing, which seems to be mainly undertaken by 
private enterprise, though the Government 
issues " stripping licenses " to those who de- 
sire to take wattle bark from natural groves. 
Australian writers criticize the government for 
allowing cattle to run in these groves and on 
other lands which would spring up with wat- 
tles if freed from stock. Objection is made to 
premature removal of wattle bark. One writer 
says : 

The system of issuing stripping licenses in- 
discriminately has been very destructive, the 
wattles being stripped when not half matured, 
and just at the time when they unnually nearly 
double their weight of bark. Our Conserv- 
ator of Forests should make experiments yearly 
as to the annual increase of growth in hight and 
girth; also as to the quality and quantity of 
the bark, thus ascertaining the best age to 
strip. From experiments I find that it is waste- 
ful destruction to strip wattles that are still 
growing freely, for it is after the wattle at- 
sains some size that the weight of the bark in- 
creases rapidly. 

The way of securing large plantations of 
wattles is different from anything practiced in 
this State and is described as follows: 

Men will be set at work to burn the rubbish 
and clear the new growth upon 6000 acres, 
which are to be sown broadcast with wattles. 
The seed will first be thrown broadcast over the 
land, and then a large flock of sheep will be put 
on to tread the seed into the ground. This is 
a better plan than harrowing it in upon such a 
loose soil, because the harrows bury the seed 
too deeply. In burning some of the seed may 
be destroyed, but most of it will escape, and 
the heat to which it has been exposed will cause 
it to germinate quickly. A block of land that 
was treated in this way last season is now cov- 
ered with strong young wattles, some of them 
over 10 inches high, and as thick as a finger at 
the base. The variety to be sown will be that 
known as the broad-leaf or golden wattle 
(Acaoia pyenantba). 

Another account says: There is a great deal 
yet to be learned about the cultivation of the 
wattle. Being liable to damage by frost and 
hot winds they are partial to shelter when 
young, and sudden exposure to the sun almost 
kills them. Like forest trees they want to be 
sown thick, and gradually thinned out. If left 
too thick they exhaust each other and cease to 
grow. A peculiarity about the wattle is that 
it is quite independent of other timber, the 
finest wattles frequently growing close against 
the stock of a large gum or stringybark. 

These points are of interest and may prove 
suggestive to California wattle-planters. 



July 7, 1888.] 



pACIFie I^URAlo pRESS. 



Scenes in East Oakland. 

We present herewith two pretty scenes in 
East Oakland, and attend them with a few 
remarks on the charms of the location, condens- 
ed from a full description recently prepared for 
the Illustrated Pacific 
Stales, by Mrs. M. G. C. 
Edholm: 

No more beautiful site 
for a city can be found 
than Oakland, and East 
Oakland is the most pictur- 
esque part of it. Embrac- 
ing all the country east of 
Like Merritt and north of 
the estuary tf the San An- 
tonio, it will include soon 
— by extended city limits — 
Fruitvale, Melrose, Laund- 
ry Farm and the Seminary 
Park tract. The glistening 
bay, the towering hills, 
the gentle slopes, the roll- 
ing uplands, the undulat- 
ing meadows, the luxuriant 
orchards, the waving wheat 
fields, the dense forests, 
the canyon crags, and the 
magnificient sweep of the 
country round about as far 
as the eye can reach, com- 
bine to give Oakland scenic 
beauty, perfect drainage, 
and yet the agricultural 
support for a city of a mill- 
ion of inhabitants. Her 
commercial and manufact- 
uring prospects when car 
and ship meet — which is an 
assured reality of the not 
distant future when the 
United States Government 
has rendered Oakland har- 
ber deep enough for sea 
vessels — will give her ad- 
ditional tens of thousands of citizens, and 
hundreds of millions of wealth. Some idea of 
this quiet and beautiful harbor may be formed 
from the view on this page. 

The scenery of East Oakland is beautiful. 
Standing on one of her highland summits, the 



brown is relieved by fields of brightest green or 
groves of dark fir trees. 

But East Oakland has more than lovely 
views. Architecture in its most beauteous and 
varied forms greets the eye. Massive business 
blocks, beautiful churches, stately university 



from the solemn, lofty cedar to the dancing 
feathery acacia, toss their branches in,t he wind. 
One of the beauty spots of East Oakland is 
Washington square or Clinton plaza, as it is 
more frequently termed, a beautiful little park 
under a good degree of cultivation, as shown in 



Queries aj^jd Replies. 



Oak Clearings for Walnuts. 

Editors Press: — I see in one of the daily papers 
that Mr. Ellwood Cooper is quoted as having said 




WASHINGTON SQUARE, OB CLINTON PLAZA, EAST OAKLAND. 



and college buildings, elegant residences, costly 
mansions and cozy cottages, rise like monu- 
ments to artistic skill and workmanship from 
the midst of trees and shrubs and flowers. 
Landscape gardening expresses in subtle lan- 
guage the love of the beautiful, and exquisite 



the engraving on this page. Its winding paths 
are yellow as gold under the noontide sun, and 
the contrast with the deep green is strikingly 
pretty. Ornamental trees and shrubs adorn it, 
and will increase year by year its natural beauty. 
Its great attraction in the summer time is the 




GLIMPSE OF EAST OAKLAND HARBOR. 



breath quickens, the nerves thrill, and the 
blood tingles in the veins at the view spread out 
before the inspired vision. The " leonine " 
hills, whose massive shapes of earth are clothed 
in masses of tawny grass, which swept by the 
summer breeze seem indeed the pulsations of 
life as though a heart biat beneath, rise tier 
upon tier encircling the city. The sombre 



taste is displayed in the arrangement of lawns 
with their serpentine paths bordered with the 
choicest gifts of Flora in gold and scarlet and 
blue and green and purple till the very air is 
roseate with their radiant hues and odorous 
with their sweet perfume. Every form of 
shrub, from the frozen Arctic to the torrid trop- 
ics flourishes in our magical clime, while trees, 



weekly band concert. The bewitching strains 
of music from the golden-throathed instruments 
make a promenade concert whose moving 
throngs of gay gallants and fair lidies under 
the brilliant electric light form a rare kaleido- 
scope. Our view of this charming square rep- 
resents an average pleasant afternoou when the 
little shavers are out tor an airing. 



that it is useless to plant an orchard on land that 
has lately been cleared of live oak. That it must 
prove a failure. The paper to which I refer, com- 
menting on the remark, undertakes to say Mr. Coop- 
er is mist iken. I have been expecting to see some 
notice in your columns of what appears to me to be 
a very vital question to many of us. That Mr. 
Cooper should have published such a statement in 
ignorance of the subject on 
which he wrote, I cannot be- 
lieve. In the foothill counties 
there is much of this oak 
land, the value of which de- 
pends almost entirely on its 
adaptability for fruit. The 
question is, therefore, an in- 
teresting one. — P. L. M. Ak- 
BUTHNOT, Lou>er Lake, Cal. 

There was some discus- 
sion at the Santa Barbara 
Convention on this sub- 
ject, and this probably in- 
spired the remarks to 
which our correspondent 
refers. We desire to place 
upon record just what was 
said by Mr. Cooper, as it 
will be seen in the official 
report of the convention 
soon to appear. We quote 
from Mr. Cooper's optning 
address: 

" I have noticed in the vi- 
cinity of Santa Barbara quite 
a number of English walnuts 
and other fruit trees being 
planted on land recently cov- 
ered by live oa'<. These or- 
chards can only result in fail- 
ures which the owners can ill 
afford. I call attent on to an 
essay on the English walnut 
in the biennial report, pages 
332 and 333. The precau- 
tions there 1 1 id down shou'd 
not be disregarded until it is 
praciically drmonstrated that 
they are without any found i- 
tion.'' 

In his essay in the bien- 
nial report to which Mr. 
Copper refers he said: 

"The area of land suitable 
for successful walnut growing 
is very limited. It requires 
well drained, deep, sandy, 
bottom land, well protected, 
and where no live oak trees 
have b?en grown within the 
last century. Everywhere 
where the live oak has been 
recently rooted out the walnut tree will die about 
ths time it bears the second crop, perhaps earlier. 
The second planted to replace will die in about the 
fifth year; the third, in the first, second or third year. 
I doubt if any fruit trees will do well where an oak 
forest has recently existed. The elder Piiny, in his 
natural history, written nearly 2000 years ago, 
speaks of this fact existing on the northern coast of 
the Mediterranean. 

At the Santa Birbara convention exception 



10 



PACIFIC t^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jclt 7, 1888 



was taken to these remarks by Mr. Russell 
Heath, as may be seen in his address on the 
walnut which we published in last week's 
Rural. We do not presume to settle the issue 
between these two well-known walnut grow- 
ers, but it is a fact that both trees and vines 
sometimes suffer from proximity to decaying 
oak stumps, and when planted in the immedi- 
ate spot whence an oak has been removed. The 
subject of the effects of planting fruit trees on 
lands from which oaks have been removed is an 
interesting one, and the best way to decide it 
is to call for the experience of many planters 
on such lands. Our columns are open for dis- 
cussion of the subject. 



Glaced and Crystallized Fruits, 

The following essay was submitted for the 
prize offered by B. M . Lelong, secretary Cali- 
fornia State Board of Horticulture, and is fur- 
nished for publication in the Pacific Rural 
Press: 

The prooess of preserving fruits in a crystalliz- 
ed or glaced form is attracting considerable atten- 
tion at the present time. This process, though 
comparatively new in California, has been exten- 
sively operated in Southwestern France for 
years, the United States having been heavy 
importers, paying fancy prices for product. 

The process is quite simple. The theory is to 
extract the juice from the fruit and replace it 
with sugar syrup which, upon hardening, pre- 
serves the fruit from decay and at the same 
time retains the natural shape of fruit. All 
kinds of fruit are capable of being preserved 
under this process. Though the method iB very 
simple there is a certain skill required that is 
acquired only by practice. The several suc- 
cessive step? in the process are about as follows: 

First, the same care in selecting and grading 
the fruit should be taken as for canning; that 
is, the fruit should be all of one size and as near 
the same ripeness as possible. The exact degree 
of ripeness is of great importance, which is at 
that stage when fruit is best for canning. 
I'eaches, pears, etc., are pared and cut in halves 
aa for canning; plums, cherries, etc., are pitted. 

The fruit having thus been carefully prepared 
is then put in a basket or a bucket with a per- 
forated bottom and immersed in boiling water. 
The object of this is to dilute and extract the 
juice of the fruit. The length of the time the 
fruit is immersed is the most important part of 
the process. If left too long it is overcooked 
and becomes soft; if not immersed long enough 
the juice is not sufficiently extracted, which 
prevents a perfect absorption of the sugar. 

After the fruit has been thus scalded and al- 
lowed to cool, it can again be assorted as to 
softness. The next step iB the syrup, which is 
made of white sugar and water. ' The softer 
the fruit, the heavier the syrup required. Or- 
dinarily about 70° Killings saccharometer is 
about the proper weight for the syrup. 

The fruit is then placed in earthen pans and 
covered with the syrup, where it is left to re- 
main about a week. The sugar enters the fruit 
and displaces what juice remained after the 
scalding process. 

The fruit now requires careful watching, as 
fermentatiou will soon take place, and when 
this has reached a certain stage the fruit and 
syrup is heated to a boiling degree, which 
checks the fermentation. This heating process 
should be repeated as often as necessary for 
about six weeks. 

The fruit is then taken out of the syrup and 
washed in clean water and is then ready to be 
either glaced or crystallized, as the operator 
may wish. If glaced, the fruit is dipped in 
thick sugar syrup and left to harden quickly in 
open air. If it is to be crystallized, dip in the 
same kind of syrup, but is made to cool and 
harden slowly, thus causing the sugar which 
covers the fruit to crystallize. The fruit is 
now ready for boxing and shipping. Fruit thus 
prepared will keep in any climate and stand 
transportation. J. J. Pratt, 

Supt. Sutter Canning and Packing Co. 

To Start a Balky Horse. — I will tell you 
of a way that I have never known to fail of 
starting a balky horse, no matter how obstinate, 
and even if bis mind be occupied with reflec- 
tions upon the inordinately heavy load behind 
him. Draw the lines from the turret rings and 
carry them out straight in front of him as far 
ae they will reach. Then pull on them, and 
not infrequently he will at once start toward 
you; but if be does not, then you must walk off 
at one side and pull his head over that way; 
then walk back and pull his head over the 
other way, always operating upon him from the 
extreme length of the lines. In a few times, 
seldom more than two or three of such pullings 
to right and left, you will start him. He will 
seem to be so curious about what you are do- 
ing, that he wishes to go to you and investigate, 
and then he goes right along, forgetting his 
balky humor. But while you are doing this, 
do not let anybody click the tongue at him and 
tell him to "get up," or flick him with a whip, 
or push the wagon against him, or build a straw 
tire under him. — N. Y. Sun. 

Two or more saw-mills are being established 
in the timber belt on White river, says the Tu- 
lare Timet. The machinery for two of them 
have already been delivered on the ground, and 
it will not be long before they will be sawing 
timber to supply the new towns that will be 
built along the east side railroad between Deer 
creek and Kern river. 



The Olive in California. 

The following interesting information con- 
cerning olives and olive oil in California is from 
the annual report of B. M. Lelong, secretary of 
the State Board of Horticulture, which was 
submitted to the board on Monday of this week, 
and furnished for publication in the Pacific 
Rural Press: 

There is, perhaps, no branch of the fruit- 
growing industry that is more prominent before 
the people than olive culture. New plantations 
have been started nearly all over the State, and 
many others would have been started if the 
trees or cuttings could have been obtained. 

The culture of the olive has become one of 
the regular industries of this State, and of 
the great future which awaits it, there is no 
doubt; olive-oil making cannot be overdone. 
As the production increases so will the demand, 
and there cannot be enough produced to supply 
the demand for many years to come. I am con- 
stantly receiving letters asking where pure Cali- 
fornia olive oil can be got in the East. This 
goes to show that the Eastern consumers of 
adulterated oil are beginning to rebel against it, 
and seek for that which is pure and healthy. 

Professor Thos. Taylor, Microscopist U. S 
Department of Agriculture, writes to Mr. Ed- 
ward E. Goodrich of Quito olive farm, under 
date of June 4, 1888, which I quote as follows: 

At present I am working up tests for all food and 
medicinal oils and find it very difficult to procure per- 
fectly pure samples; you will readily perceive that it is 
impossible (or any one to define what the correct test of 
olive oil is, unless he has a pure sample by which to 
establish his test; for this reason I send to you for 
about one ounce of your manufactured olive oil. 

This is not at all surprising, as it is well known 
that large quantities of seed oils and lard have 
been annually consumed in the United States as 
olive oil. 

Pure Olive Oil Producers In California. 

The following are those that are engaged at 
present in the manufacture of pure olive oil in 
this State: Hon. Ellwood Cooper, Santa Bar- 
bara, Santa Barbara county ; Frank A. Kim lull, 
National City, San Diego county; Col. Geo. F. 
Hooper, Sonoma, Sonoma county; Edward E 
Goodrich (Quito olive farm), San Jose, Santa 
Clara county; J. R. Wolfskill, Winters, Yolo 
county; Juan Gallegos, Mission San Jose, Ala- 
meda county; E. W. Holmes, Riverside, San 
Bernardino county; Gen. John Bidwell, Chico, 
Butte county; D. H. H. Clark, Auburn, Placer 
county. 

There are others who have large plantations, 
and many others who have in reoent years em- 
barked in the business, and have largely planted 
olive trees, but as yet they have made little or 
no olive oil, the fruit being used for pickling 
purposes. Many new orchards have been 
planted in the interior valleys; these trees are 
young and many have begun to baar fruit this 
year. There is no doubt that in a few years 
there will be an abundance of olive oil produced 
in this State, and all these plantations are doing 
exceedingly well and are planted on soil well 
adapted to their culture. 

Mission vs. Plcholine. 

Considerable has been said of late concerning 
the Picholine olive. Mr. L. Burbank cf Sinta 
Rosa had been credited with having made the 
statement that the Picholine was the larger of 
the two. and in answer to a letter directed to 
him on the subject sent the following: 

Santa Rosa, Cal., Jun; 14. 1888. 

Dear Sir: — In conversation with a reporter 
several months ago I mentioned some of the good 
qualities of the Picholine olive, but stated distinctly 
that it is much smaller than the Mission. The 
article was copied by several papers to some of 
which I seot a note of correct on. 

1 will here state the opinion which I have formed 
about the two ol ves mentioned. Both hive ad- 
vantages. The Mission will perhaps grow on a 
drver and poorer soil than the Picholine olive. This 
statement, though not fully proven, seems probable 
from experiments in this and several of the southern 
counties. The Picholine, however, grows with great 
vigor on any sandy soil. 

The greatest fault with the Mission in this part of 
the State is the late and uneven ripening of the 
fruit. . Last fall a large portion of the crop was de- 
stroyed bv frost. The early and even ripening of 
the Picholine alone would be sufficient recommenda- 
tion, but in addition to this it bears a regular annual 
crop which is very easy to gather, as the branches 
droop with the weight of the fruit, which separates 
easily and may be stripped on cloths at a slight 
expense. 

Having made no oil from either variety (using all 
I had for pickling), I can only say t tat whenever 
the Picholine has been tested with the Mission it has 
in every case which has come under my notice both 
in Calitornia and in F.-jrope proved to be the best 
for either oil or pickling. 

The Mission is w thout doubt identical with the 
one called " wild olive '' in parts of France where it 
is so shy of bearing that it is considered worthless. 
The Picholine makes roots much more rapidly than 
the Mission. Out of 800,000 cuttings which we put 
in last winter, over 700,000 are now heavily rooted. 
Out of 100.000 Mission put in at the same time, not 
over 5000 or 6oco have formed roots. 

Of the 12 varieties which I grow it is the slowest 
and most unceitain in making roots, generally pro- 
ducing one or two roots on one side of the cutting 
while the Picholine is producing a mass of vigorous 
roots in every directijn. Yours respectfully, 
Luther Burkank. 

Col. Geo. F. Hooper of Sonoma furnished me 
with these facts, viz: In 1875 he rooted about 
100 trees of the Mission variety; they com- 
menced to bear fruit in 1879. That year he 
picked a few berries from them. In 1880 he 



set ont rooted trees of the Picholine variety 
from W. B. West of Stockton, and the first 
trees to bear was last year, when about a pint of 
berries was picked from each tree. Trees of 
the Mission variety planted the same year and 
time that the Picholines were planted are three 
times the size of the Picholine; both varieties 
are on the same kind of land and receive the 
same treatment. 

Mr. C. T. Hopkins of Pasadena in his reply 
as to the best olive, said: 

Pasadena, Los Angeles Co., Cal., 

May 28, 1888. 
Dear Sir: — Replying to your queries of the 23d 
inst., I have to say that I have cultivated both the 
Mission and the Picholine olive or what is sup- 
posed to be the Picholine (being B. B. Redding's 
importation propagated by Wm. King of Sacramen- 
to) having planted about 900 of the latter to 300 of 
the former in 1880, the trees being two years old. 
The orchard is'now in full bearing. 

The Picholine is a regular and abundant bearer, 
but the fruit is no larger than a cranberry, and very 
tedious to pick. It is not good for pickles, the stone 
being too large in proportion. But it is a sweet 
olive when ripe and the stone is full of oil, and I 
doubt not it would be found profitable for oil. The 
Mission fruit is much larger, perhaps four times the 
weight of the Picholine and makes splendid pickles. 
I have not tried it for oil. 

I have found the tree disposed to bear largely 
when kept free from smut and scale by two washings 
per season, and irrigated. 

Notwithstanding the talk to the contrary, the 
olive here is as sensitive to irrigation as the orange. 
The Mission olive is a shy and uncertain bearer. 
Yours truly, C. T. Hopkins. 

Mr. F. Closs of Auburn, in bis reply, referred 
me to an article written by him in the Rural 
Press, January, 1888, in which he says : 

The comparative value of the Mission and Pich- 
oline vaiieties was discussed at the Santa Rosa con* 
vention, where Mr. Butler said : " I would give 
the preference decidedly to the Mission. While 
there are not many more on the Mission, the Pich- 
oline are so much smaller it gives a decided advan- 
tage to the Mission." 

My opinion about that is quite different. I never 
heard it proved that the Mission will have more berries 
than the Picholine, but know some facts to the con- 
trary. At the place of Dr. Clark there are two eight- 
year-old trees, a Mission and a Picholine, standing 
only 1 5 ft. apart, and having had always the same care, 
last season the Mission yielded 49 pounds of berries, 
while the Picholine gave 63 pounds. This season 
the Mission has hardly any fruit, while the 
Picholine was considerable more loaded than last 
year. 

There is another big advantage for the Picholine. 
Dr. Clark commenced to gather the ripe Picholines 
in 1887 on November 1st; the Missions he gathered 
just before Christmas and then they were but 
three-founhs ripe. The late ripening. I think, will 
interfere with the growth of next year. 

I expressed this opinion a few days ago to Judge 
C. A. Tuttle here. "Well," he answered, "this 
accounts for a fact which so far I could not explain. 
I have on my place two Mission olives, one of which 
had a fair crop last year, while the other had only a 
few. This year it is just reversed. The poor one 
of last year has a good crop, while the other one has 
hardly any berries." 

The Judge picks his olives when they are dead 
ripe— that is. in February — and is for.d of eating 
them then as they are, because they . have lost all 
bitterness. 

Prbably climatic conditions may account for 
the productiveness of this variety in some sec- 
tions more than in others, and I would be 
thankful if those who note the conditions would 
furnish me with necessary data. 

I received a bottle of pure Italian oil from 
the efficient secretary of the Italian Chamber cf 
Commerce, Mr. Dodero, with the following 
note : 

The olive from which this oil is made produces 
from 35 to 45 per cent of good oil. while the kinds 
of olives so far planted in California does not, to my 
knowledge, produce above 10 or 12 per c»nt. It 
seems to me, therefore, that the introduction of such 
s'ock would be a very precious addition to the wealth 
of this State. 

There is also in Italy an olive for pickling of much 
larger size than the Spanish, of very small kernel and 
of much finer flavor. Imagine the size when 1 say 
that in certain localities the fruit grows so large that 
it must be sliced in order to be preserved. I hope 
to have a sample before long to present to you. 

There is no doubt in my mind bnt that the 
varieties mentioned by Mr. Dodero would prove 
a valuable acquisition, and those who can onght 
to experiment in that direction. 

Mr. L. P. Rixford of Sonoma has an olive of 
a distinct variety growing at this place, which 
was imported from France some 10 years ago. 

Mr. Rixford reports this variety as ripening 
much ahead of the Mission, the fruit is a little 
smaller than the Mission, and three times larger 
than the Picholine. The tree is a rapid grower 
and the trees are equally as large as Mission 
trees of the same age. The oil made from this 
olive (of which there is a sample in this office) 
is very rich and sweet. 

The original label was lost, therefore it is not 
known what its true name is, but Prof. Gus- 
tavo Eisen believes it to be the Pendellier. I 
shall try and obtain further facts concerning 
this variety, which will appear in subsequent 
reports. 

The fact that the Picholine has advantages 
over the Mission is not yet fully proven. The 
Mission has done well in this State and has pro- 
duced an oil that in my opinion cannot be ex 
celled, and which has begun to attract the taste 
of the Eastern consumers. The berries are 
large, being five times the size of the Picholine. 
I have a bottle of pure Picholine olive oil along- 
side of the Mission, and 1 doubt very much if 
any one could tell the difference; if at all, the 
points are in favor of the Mission. One of the 
greatest advantages the Mission has is that it is 



a rapid grower, commences to bear young and 
is a free stone, which renders it most valuable 
for pickling purposes. New varieties require 
considerable time to be tested, and when the 
fact has been olearly demonstrated that better 
and more productive varieties are fruiting in 
this State, then it is an easy matter to bud or 
graft the trees, having a thrifty and healthy 
stock to start with. 

Spurious Olive Oil. 

My attention has been called to several 
brands of oil in the San Francisco market, la- 
beled " Pure California Olive Oil. " Only one 
brand was reported to me, but on investigation 
of those offered for sale as pure California oil, 
I discovered five brands of oil purporting to 
have been made pure from the native olive for 
the express use of the parties whose names are 
on the labels. Three of these brands are label- 
ed as having been put up at Sierra Madre, 
Santa Maria and from a San Bernardino olive 
grove. 

At Sierra Madre there are but few olive trees 
planted and but few as yet bearing any fruit, 
and what olives are produced there have been 
pickled. 

At Santa Maria there are but few olives ex- 
cepting the new orchards that in the last five 
years have been planted. 

In San Bernardino county bat one person has 
ever made an olive oil, and be only a small 
amount, Mr. E. W. Holmes of Riverside. 
There are many trees planted in that county, 
but the fruit is used lor pickling, so you will 
see that it would be impossible for those brands 
to have been produced at either Sierra Madra, 
Santa Maria, or in Man Bernardino county, 

As perhaps few are aware of the fraud prac- 
ticed, I would recommend that a committe be 
appointed to examine these various brands and 
to file a report before the close of this meeting. 

What They Coctain. 

In order to asoertain the percentage of olive 
oil (if an) in these various brands, I made the 
following tests with each one. The samples 
were purchased, and are what is offered for 
sale as pure California olive oil: 

Sample labeled pure California olive oil from 
the San Bernardino olive grove. — Mixed 9 parts 
of the oil and one part nitric acid. Boiled the 
two together in a white porcelain dish. As 
soon as the action of the acid and the oil was 
fairly set up, it was removed and allowed to 
cool. This sample assumed a deep orange-red 
color in the dish while heating, and on cooling 
remained liquid. The samt le showed the pres- 
ence of lard and seed oils, and no trace of olive 
oil whatever. The next sample treated was 
one called Santa if aria Pure California Olive 
OiL The method of testing was the same as 
the former. This sample on cooling showed 
the presence of 10 per cent of olive oil, the re- 
mainder seed oi's and lard. 

Coburn't California Pure Olive Oil. — This 
sample showed the presence ot more olive oil 
than the others, registering .SO per cent olive 
oil, 35 percent seed oils and 35 per cent lard. 

Bed Croat Brand California Pure Olive Oil. 
— This brand bears a certificate of pnreness 
from Prof. E. W. Hilgard Of the State Uni- 
versity, Berkeley. The bottle procured I for- 
warded to him with the request that it be test- 
ed, and to inform me of the result. Last Sat- 
urday I received the following from him: 

Berkeley. June 30, 1888. 
P. Af. Lelong, Sec. Stale Hoard of Hoititulturt — 
Dear Sir:— We have made thorough tests ol ilie 
oil contained in the bottle procured by you, labeled 
"Pure California Olive Oil, Red Cross Brand," 
which bears on one side a label with a certificate of 
purity signed by me, and which was given upon the 
result of the examination ol a sample sent by that 
firm some time ago. 

The oil in the bottle now sent by you is grossly 
adulterated with another oil, probably cottonseed. 
1 have not had the time to verify more exactly the 
natureof the adulterant, and certainly contains less 
than half its bulk of olive oil. It is needless to say 
that the use of my name in the manner shown on the 
bcttle is wholly unauthorized by me, and was not 
mentioned in any way at the time of the e»amitia> 
tion of the first sample. The use ol the certificate 
on adulterated oil is an act difficult to characterize 
in courteous language. I have notified the firm 10 
discont nue at once, and definitely, the use of tiis 
label, and trust they will do so without any need of 
stronger measures. Very respectfully yours, 

E. W. Hilgard. 

Sierra Madre California Pure Olive Oil — 
This brand showei the presence of ten per cant 
of olive oil, balance, 1 believe, to be lard oil. 

I have not had time to fully ascertain the 
various adulterants all these brands contain and 
also th6 exact percentage of olive oil, as when 
old olive oil has been used, aa in this case, it 
partly unites with the adulterant. 

Effect Upon the Human Body. 
In a treatise on olive culture, Hon. Ellwood 
Cooper says: "This nn wholesome adultera- 
tion can create the most serious disorders on 
the digestive organs, and should be carefully 
avoided by persons who have any regard for 
their health. Mechanics refuse seed oils be- 
cause of their dryness, as they gam up the ma- 
chinery instead of greasing it and keeping it 
clean. It is just as important that the ma- 
chinery of the human body should rebel against 
such oils. We ought to bs familiar with the 
methods of extracting oil from all oleaginous 
substances, being so necessary to different in- 
dustries, but all the table oil should give the 
preference to that made from a tree that the 
Almighty saved from the destruction of the 
delnge and a branch of which the dove carried 
to Noah as a sign of forgiveness." 



July 7, 1888,] 



fACIFie RURAIo PRESS 



1] 



2?UBb>ie j^FFAI^S. 



Oar Local Interests in Tariff Reform. 

[Being intended as a prize essay, in answer to an offer 
hy the Reform Club of New York City, of 8250 for the 
best essay, and $100 to the publisher, open for all parts 
of the United States.] 

CHAPTER III. 

Labor needs no protection, great or small, 
High tariff, low, or even none at all. 
We have seen that the wages of labor depend 
on the number to a square mile, the resources 
of the country, and the skill and energy of the 
people. If the worker on first-class land pro- 
duces five bushels of wheat a day, and three 
will pay all rent and other expenses, his wages 
must buy the other two bushels unless he is 
grossly robbed. This is the law of nature. It 
cannot be reversed, and it cannot be appreciably 
affected by high tariff, low tariff, or no tariff at 
all. 

The product of our country is immense in all 
things. We touch only one-tenth of our soil, 
almost with a magic hand, and behold enough 
and to export. We are the best fed people in 
the world. In California a day's work will pro- 
duce a birrel of fljur, and the wages paid will 
buy half of it. That half barrel of flour is equal 
to 20 pounds of meat, or 300 pounds of potatoes. 

In all that we do the results are the same, 
because we touch nature only where she is the 
richest and with the best skill. 

Now in rjagland they are differently situated. 
They are 300 to a square mile. They scratch a 
soil of the tenth rate, or pay to the landlord all 
the difference between that and the worst. 
They produce half a barrel of flour per day, and 
receive a quarter for wages ( about one-half of 
what we have. 

Now this Englishman would as soon make 
shoes or cloth as work on the farm if he can get 
his quarter barrel of flour for so doing. He 
make a pair of shoes a day. The American 
can do no more. And the question is raised at 
once, shall we make shoes or buy them ? 

Shall the farmer, who, on his rich soil can 
make a barrel of flour a day, and earn the price 
of half a barrel, shall he buy two pairs of shoes 
made by an Englishman for his day's wages, or 
qdit working this rich soil and make one pair of 
shoes * And shall all otir people pay him for 
one pair Of shoes, as much as they would pay 
the Englishman for two ? 

Taken as a whole, and for the benefit of all 
humanity, it would be beet that each should 
work where he can produce the most, that all 
may be blest with profusion. Let the English- 
man make the shoes, since he must do that or 
cultivate a poor soil; and let the American 
work his rich soil, mines, fisheries and forests, 
and buy bis shoes and clothing with the rich 
products of a virgin country. Were all the 
world one vast Republic, a generous free trade 
would cause the people of every land to be em- 
ployed in producing that for which they had 
special advantages, and transportation would 
be the only tariff known. 

Each region would raise and export only those 
articles on which it had superior facilities. 
Were the United States the whole world, we 
should have no tariff at all, but trade and prices 
find their own level all over, regulated by 
distance and lines of travel. 

But this is not the case. We are faced by a 
great world, with ten times our numbers and 
forms of government and industrial conditions 
that make them rivals and antagonists in many 
ways. Here they work only slaves. There 
they have the perfection of science and ma- 
chinery and a profusion of capital. And at 
any time it is quite possible that these nations 
miy assume an attitude hostils to us — invade 
our soil, blockade our ports and deny us all 
things that we cannot fully supply within our- 
selves. 

For this reason it is meet that we do not era 
tent ourselves with throwing the products of 
our rich soil upon their shores, and permit them 
to supply us with all the products of art and 
skill and mechanism, but rather that we en 
courage our people to produce all that is essen 
tial to our well being, that in peace or war, in 
open market or in close blockade, we may find 
our own resources abundant for our comfort 
and our defense. 

This was the original pretext for a protective 
tariff; and it was good and folid. Whatever 
may be essential to our well being in a state of 
isolation, to which we may at any time be sub 
jected, it is wise to induce our people to supply 
If their lack of skill, capital, cheap labor, or 
natural resource, places them at a disadvantage 
it is wise in in to neutralize that disadvantage 
by a tariff that will force them, as it were, into 
that field. This was the true origin of protective 
tariff, its purpose, and its ultimate end. It was 
not to protect any section of the country to the 
damage of the rest. It was not to protect cap 
ital. Indeed capital is too well able to pro 
tect itself. The whole land is crying aloud for 
protection against the overwhelming and sinis- 
ter power of this monster. 

It was not to protect labor. Labor finds no 
protection in a tariff. It was not the intent 
nor the result. The wages of labor depend on 
the causes above set out, the rich soil, the skill, 
the product. Labor must have the result un- 
less grieviously robbed. As these great re- 
sources are developed, labor rises in demand 
and price. As the income of cheap labor, 
Chinese, contract, pauper, or other, keeps pace 
with this development of resources, so will 
stand the wages of labor. If they overrun, 



wages decline. If they fall short wages must 
advance. 

To close our gates and rely upon the natural 
increase of our people, would soon give labor 
its full and just share of all our natural 
resources. Libor would take the sum of all its 
product, less a natural rent profit and taxes. 
To flood the land with whatever will come, to 
have two hands for every job, is to rob the 
children born on our soil of their inheritance; 
and to convert all our rich resources into spoils 
for monopolists. 

Immigration less than our natural develop- 
ment calh for, would have these effects: 

To absorb all tramps, beggars and vagabonds 
into industry. 

To empty hospitals, almshouses and jails. 

To diminish crime. 

To lessen the cost of Government. 

To advance and equalize the wages of labor. 

To develop the country by well-to-do people 
seeking homes there, instead of tramps seeking 
work. 

To increase general happiness, intelligence 
and security. 

To lessen the chances of gamblers and specu- 
lators; but to increase the cash value and secur- 
ity of property. 

This would indeed be to protect labor. 
Whatever tends to develop the demand for 
labor, and decrease the supply, tends to protect 
labor. But all the tariff in the world is power- 
less in the face of Chinese slaves and contract 
and pauper laborers. 

A tariff, then, can only have one of two 
objects, for revenue or to protect some 
industry that is a national advantage to perfect 
at home in case of need. 

It should not protect a local interest for a 
local purpose. 

It should not protect a personal interest of 
any party or class. That is forbidden in the 
Constitution. 

It is not necessary to protect capital. 
It can afford only the shadow of protection to 
labor, while immigration swamps ic beyond re- 
demption. 

As time rolls on tariff revision will always be 
in order. Judicious revision will be demanded 
from time to time by the very nature of the 
case. For revenue, because the product is too 
much or too little. The nation cannot go on 
indefinitely collecting more than it needs, and 
to collect less would be still more embarrassing. 
But, having once mingled the idea of protec 
tion with revenue, we cannot touch the one 
without affecting the other. We must look 
over and see where we can do good — kill two 
birds with one stone, reduce the revenue and 
leave till our affairs unimpaired. That is the 
simple proposition of the President. R»duce 
the revenue to what we need and disturb no 
lrgitimate and wholesome business. 

( To be Continued). 



tdticatiopaL 



Towle Bros., up in the Sierras, are having a 
large steam wagon built which is intended to do 
the work of 10 logging cars. It will cost about 
$10 000. 



WaLS,RlCHARDSOM &CtfS 

P Improved 
utter 
Color. 

( STRENGTH 

EXCELS in J purity 

( BRIGHTNESS 
Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is Just as pood. Tel! him the 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Go's Improved Butter Color. 
Three sizes, 25c. Joe $1.00. For sale everywhere. 

WELLS, RICHARDS ON & CO. Burlington, Vt. 

(33 colors.) DIAMOND DYES 

■ ' Jr^a— iSC" " r " Purest, Cheap- 
jr^TJi est.Strongest, and most 
' P^^vTTlP'^^— - Durable Dyes evermade. 

/ ' "^^A/--' One 1 0r. package will color 

I to 4 pounds of Dress Goods, Garments, Yarns, Rags, 
etc Unequalled for Feather*, Ribbons, nnd oil Faiiey 
Ui/einij. Also Diamond Pa'nts, for Gilding, Bronz- 
ing, etc Any color Dye or Pnint. with full instructions 
and sample card mailed for 111 cents. At all Druggists 

wells. RicHCRnsrn n n . riirlington. vt 



SARSAPARiLLA ! 

The Best Blood Purifier and 
Tonic Alterative in use. 

It cures diseaseoriginatingfrom adisordered 
state of thcltlwori or Liver. It invigorates 
the Mtoniavh, Liver and BowelN, re- 
lieving DyMpppnia, Indigestion and 
Constipation; restores the Appetite 
and Increase! and hardens the Flesh. 

It stimulates the I.iver and Kidneys 
to healthy action, I*iirittcs the Mood and 
ISeautifles the Complexion. 

Sold by all Druggists. 

417 Sansome Street, S. F. 



FIELD SEMINARY, 

SCHOOL FOR GIRLS and YOUNG LADIES 
182t Telegraph Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

The Seventeeth Year of this well-known 
Institution will open 

WEDNESDAY AUGUST 1, 1888 

For further information apply to 

MRS. R. G. KNOX, Proprietor, 
Or to MRS. D. B. CONDRON, Principal 



T ZEE IE O -A_ IKI S , 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

The next year will begin on Wednesday, July 25, 1888. 
For information address, MISS L. TRACY, Principal. 

B0WENS ACADEMY, 

University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. 

Preparatory, Commercial and 

Academic Departments. 

Next Term begins Monday, July 30, 1888. 
Special preparation for University. 
T. STEWART BOWENS, B. A., T. C. D., Principal. 



SNELL SEMINARY 

FOR YOUNG LADIES, 
668 Twelfth Street, Oakland. Cal. 

Fall Term begins Monday, Aug. 7, 1888. 

Full Seminary Course of Instruction. Pupils fitted to 
enter the State University, and Va?sar or Smith College. 
Send for Circular to. 

MARY E. S\FLL, ) p rinciDa]s 
RICHARD B SNELL, t rmcl P als - 



TRINITY SCHOOL, 



1534 Mission Street, 



San Francisco. 



Prepares Boys and Young Men 

■ "OR 

College, University and Business. 
Christmas Term opens Wednesday, A tig. 1st. 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 




IRVING INSTITUTE. 

A Select School for Young Ladies. 

TWELFTH YEAR. 
Fifteen Professors and Teachers. 
For Catalogue or information, address the Principal, 
RE V. EDW. B. CHURCH, A. M. 
1036 Valencia St., San Francisco. Cal. 

VAN NESS SEMINARY. 

(Ralston House) 1222 Pine Street, 

BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL 



YOUNG LADIES and CHILDREN. 



ENGLISH, 

FRENCH, 

GURMAN 

AND 

LATIN 

TAUGHT RV COMPETENT PROFESSORS. 

A Sunny Primary Room and Gymnasium have been 
added to the establishment. 

WILL RE-OPEN JULY 30, 1888. 

<ar For particulars apply to 

MRS. SARA B. GAMBLE. 



California Military Academy 




BAINBRIDGE 

Business College 

AND 

NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Institute of Short-Hand and Type- "Writing. 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
Send for Catalogue. J. C. BAINBRIDGE, Principal. 

(Formeily Principal of Stockton Business College and 
Normal Institute.) 

\\\mm 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

24 POST ST., S. P. 
|7»OR SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS THIS 

F College instructs in Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to bu-iness, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
indivirlual instruction to all our pupils. Our school baa 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
/taTSEND tor Circular. 

E. P. IIEALD, President. 

C. S. HALEY, Secretary. 



E. H. FARMER'S 

PATENT STEAM GENERATOR 

With SIngine. 





NEXT TERM BEGINS JULY 23, 1888 

Thorough instruction in all Departments. Business 
Course complete. (Location unsurpassed. Send for 
Circular. COL. W. II. O'BRIEN, Principal. 



The Most Compart, Fconomioat and Durable 
Maciiine in the Market. 

Especially adapted for Farmers' and Dairymen's use 
for Pumpii g Water, Cutting Hay, Grinding Feed, Sawing 
Wood, etc.; Running Sewing Machine* for Glove facto- 
ries, Running Printing Presses etc., Heating Cheese Vats 
or Buildings. Addres,: E. B FARMliR. 

G lroy, Santa Clara Co.. '"al , 
Manufacturer o* Boiler*. Engines, Vises, Cheese Pnsjes, 

Screws, Well Rings, etc. 



BOOMING! 



The Celebrated Dr. Fisherman's Carbol- 
ized Alkaline Lotion, 

A Specialty for Stable and Farm, is Booming. Why? 
Because ii has greater merits than any other rem? dy and 
ten times' cheaper. Order one quart or one gallon. 
Price, 81 per quart, S3 per gallon, making half a gallon 
an'l two gallons of Lotion. Money refunded in all cases 
of dissatisfaction. Ask your Druggist to get it for you. 
Send for rel able testimonials. 

LYNDE & HOUGH, 

116 California St., S. P. 

SANTA ROSA NATIONAL BANK, 

Cor. 4th & B Sts.. Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Paid-UD Capital, $100,000. 

orncKKS : 

E. W. Davis, President. J. II. Bur/an, Vice-President. 
Lewis M. Alexander, Cashier. 

Directors — B. M. Spencer, J. H. Brush, D. C. Bane 
Lewis M. Alexander, D. N. Carithers, S. R. Cooper, E. W 
Davis. 

Correspondents— National Park Bank, New York; First 
National Bank, Chicago; First National Bank, S. F. 
Collections promptly made. Exchange bought and sold. 

Carriages. 

We are receiving 10 carloads of Carriages, Buggies and 
Wagons from the Briggs Carriage Company of Ameshury, 
Mass. , which will be sold at prices that will be satisfac- 
tory, considering style and workmanship. (Quality of 
material guaranteed the best. 

V. A. BR1GGS & CO., 
220 & 222 Mission St., San Franctpco, Cal. 

WANTED— A WINE MAKER. 

A first-class and experienced Wine Maker of tteady 
habits wanted. For particulars address or interview 

R. C TERRY, 
Clayton, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



12 



PACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jolt 7, 1888 



LANDS: FOREIGN ESTATE AT PUBLIC AUCTION! 

to the: highest biddsh: 

Sold by order of the Superior Court of Ventura County to close the estate of THOMAS A. SCOTT, Deceased. 

Ajt HUEMEME, Ventura County, 

Commencing MONDAY, JULY 30, 1888. 

Only Ton. I* ox* Cent 3FL©otxa.ix*oca. «.t Time of Sale. 

16,000 ACRES 

OF THE FINE FARMING LANDS OF THE 

RANCHO LA COLONIA IN VENTURA COUNTY, 

INCLUDING CHOICE LOTS lOOx'200 IN THK TOWN OF 

HUENEME, 

From which port is aonually shipped by sea more Grain than is shipped from any other port in California, excepting Sin FraDcisoo. 

The Lands are Divided into Tracts of from 10, 15,20. 40 80, 160 Ac es and upwards, including 
many improvements. Lots in the Town of Hueneme to be Sold Separately. 
Also Town Lots in SAN BUENAVENTURA. 

Here is an opportunity for everv bidy to buy choice lands now under cultivation at fair and reasonable prices, in the most fertile and pro- 
ductive valley in California, npon ( K I '.l >1 T. 

ARTESIAN WATER AT 140 FEET. NO COMMISSION ! NO AGENTS! 

tS~ Remember the date of Sale, JULY 3 J, 1888, and that it will be continued from day to day till all the property shall be sold. 
For maps or further particulars address, THOMAS R. BARD, Huenema, Cal. 

Persons desiring to purchase and not able to attend the sale may do so by addressing, T. H. MKRRY, Hpeneme, Cal. 



FLOUR MILL 

WITH 

Immense Water Power 

FOR SALE 

At Merced Falls, Merced County, located on Merced 
Kiver; size of Mill, 33x70; two stories in front and four 
storieB in rear; latest improved roller machinery, new 
capacit) ; 100 barrels per day; power to increase to any 
capacity desired; title to water and land perfect; 60 acres 
of land, comprising the town site of Merced Falls; 
reputation of flour is Al: commands all mount- 
ain trade; fire wheat country surrounding; do failures 
ever known: grain warehouse 80x80; four dwelling 
houses; 28 shares of Merced Falls Woolen Factory go 
with pur.'hase. Address . 

OSTRANDER & SONS, 

Merced, Cal 

Or N. C. CARNALL & CO., 
624 Market St., San Francisco, Cal, 



SPENCER PIANOS 

Latest Improved Repeating Action 

(PATENTED). 



TONE UNSURPASSED. 

Durability Guaranteed in any Climate. 
F. W. SPENCER & CO., 

783 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Second Floor, History Buildine. 
Largest Piano Warerooms in California. Catalogues 
and prices by mail. Visitors always welcome. 




NEW HUBER 



Has Patent Return Flue Boiler; Wrought 
Iron and S'eel Wheels, with -prings in the 
Hub; 14 inch Steel Tire; cusnioned Gear, 
and all latest Improvements. 

CVThreshers, all sizes "Latest Improvements.' 
These Engines are adapted for all kind of wo>k; draw 
Harvesters, Plows, ate. Call and gee E igine in opera- 
lien and Ket prices, etc., or send for prices and catalogue. 
D. J. LYNCH, California Ag»DC, 

Kelseyville, Luke Co., Cal. 



H.H.H. 

HORSE IINIMENT. 



Mi 

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Self-Plaving Organ. 




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Cur U. 8. and Foreign Patent Aetna 
presents many and important advantages as » 
Home Agency over alj others, by reason oi lonj 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys 
em, intimate acquaintance with the subjects u 
nventions in our own community, and oui 
nost extensive law and reference library, con 
dining official American and foreign reports 
ilea of scientific and mechanical publications, 
>tc. All worthy inventions patented througr 
>ur Agency will have the benefit of an illustra 
;ion or a description in the Mining and Scien 
cific Press. We transact every branch oi 
Patent easiness, and obtain Patents in all coud 
ries which grant protection to inventors Thi 
arge majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
ssued to inventors on the Pacific Coast hav« 
>een obt lined through our Agency. We can 
five the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
>re as low as any first-claas agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast iuventora are far superior. Advice and 
"irculars tree. 

DEWEY & CO.. Patent Amenta 

So. 220 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 
S. F. 



4. T. riHWKY. 



Telephone No. 658. 

W. B. EWER. ORO. H. STRONG 




- Liniment puts 
rjpw life into tue Antiquated Horse ' 
f ?r the last 14 veara the H. JI. H. Horvi 
Liniment has been the leading rerredy 
«.mon<? Farmers and titockmon for thg 
-nre ..f Sprains Bruises. Stiff Joints. 
; Dayins, Windfalls, Sore Shoulders etc. 
Ud for tamily Use is without an eqtif.l. 
or Klienmatism. Nenraltria, Aches, IVina 
onuses, ( 'uts and S|)rai ns of all charactera 
ine H. H. H Liniment has many imito 
i'"? s -.L an 'i w, J canti< >n the Public to t»- 
>iat the TVa<le Mark " H. H. H."' ie at 
•v.-ry Mottle before nnrclutsing. ForsaVe 
everywhere l„i 50 centw sad 11 Ot 
bottle. 



13.' 



For Sale by all DruoglBts. 

MISSION ROCK DOCK 



GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

An Automatic Organ^ Combined with an 75,0(X) ^.P^S 75,000 

OHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt, 
Or). Drv llnck Co.. props Office. BfMOi). St. room IS 



Ordinary Five Octave Organ. 
No Teacher or Practice Necessary. 

ANYBODY CAN PLAY the latest and most difficult 
music of every class. Every home bhou'd have one. 
Send for descriptive circulars, prices and terms to 

KOHLER & CHASE, 137 & 139 Post St 
Dealers in all kinds of Musical Gooda. 



B. 



F. GILMAN, 

420 and 422 Ninth St., Sai Franc. bco, 

BOLE MAMFACTrRER O? 

Patent Tule Covers 

For Bottles and Other Fragile Ware. 

Patented Nov 17. 1S74, and April 25, 1876. 
THE BEST AND SAFEST PACKING. 
Can be had of all Box Makers. 




THE OREGON FRUIT DRIER 




B V 

— =r 



A»urd« d t irst Premium Oregon »nd California State 
Fairs, 18S7. Is easily managed, economical in fuel, has 
large capacity in proportion tt cost; it) fire-pn of i»nd 
durable. Made iu various sizes tuit.ble for Families 
or Factory. 

CHAS. JORY, Manufacturer, 
4*9 Union Street, - Stockton, Cal 



3VTO V\7" READY! 

ABC BUTTER MAKING 

By F. 8. BURCH. 





Send stamp for 100-page Illi-strated Catalogue of 

FISHING TACKLE, 

Ouns, Pistols, Cartridges, Air Buns, Hunting Coats, Leg- 
gings, Loading Implements, Base Ball Goods, Lawn 
Tennis, Boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium Goods, Ham- 
mocks, etc. 

Flue Uun work done by first-class smiths. 
GEO. W. SHREVE, 
525 Kearny 8treet, San Francisco, Cal. 

IT STANDS AT THE HEAD! 

nningI 

111 

DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 

It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS, 29 Poet 8t.. 8. F. 

Artistic Box Brands-Brass 

AND 

STENCIL PLATES. 

Estimates and designs furnished on application. 

S. F. STENCIL AND BRAND WORKS, 

J L GREENLEAF, Prop. 
405 Front Street, San Frardsco. 



SPKCIAI. OFFKR. -I will ship 
in localities where, as yet, I have no 
UM, one sample Improved "New 
Becker" Washer at wholesale prices, 
A Demerit tive pampbletfree. E W. Melvin 
Prop. Office. 806 J St.. Sacramento, Cal 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St , Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred Poultry and Kggs. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 



NVENTOriS °" tne 1 ' ttuinc Coa st shoul.i secure 
i ll w kii l una their Patent9 thr011lrh uew.ev4Co.-s 
MlHias and BonantlO Press Patent Agencv No 220 I 
Markot St., S. F. 




\||j.u^ri 



ILLUSTRATED. 



Sixty-four pages, cloth 
bound, containing chapters 
on Milking, Milk Setting, 
Cream Raising, Churning, 
Working, Salting, Packing, 
Shipping and Marketing. 
A Hand B ink for the Be- 
ginner. Full of useful in- 
formation and worth many 
times it-j cost. Price, by 
mail, 30 cents. Address, 
DEWEV & CO , 220 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



FOR SALE OR RENT. 

THE YOLO WINTRY PROPERTY, 

Situated in Woodland. Yolo Co. Cal.. 

Consi-ting of large cellar, press, rooms and di-tillerv all 
oimpkte ard new. having been used only two seasons. 
For particulars ii.quiie of 

Li. D. STEPHENS, 

Woodlarid. Cal 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society, 

S86 California 8treet. 

For the ha'f year ending June So, 1888, a dividend has 
been declared at the rate of f jur and one half (ij) per 
cent per a. mini on Term lt.p-x.it*, and three and three- 
quarfe • (3J) per cent per annum on Oidinarv Deposit! 
Payable on and after Mon jay, July ?, 1838. 

WM. HERRMANN, Secretary. 



B»ck Fans of the Pacific Rural Press (unbound) 
can be had for $3 per volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) $S. Inserted in Dewey's patent binder, 
50 cents additional per volume. 



July 7, 1888.] 



f ACIFie i^URAb f RESS 



13 



News in Brief. 

Natural Gas has been found near Brigham 
City, Utah. 

At last reports there were 500 tourists in the 
Yosemite valley. 

They had hail and snow in some parts of 
Massachusetts on July 1st. 

A Large portion of Flagstaff, Arizona, was 
destroyed by fire on Monday. 

The real estate assessment roll of Tulare 
county amounts to $25,000,000. 

The lobsters from the Eist have been dis- 
tributed along the coast for 40 miles. 

A Fire at Napa on Saturday destroyed a 
number of the oldest buildings in the town. 

A Fire in Oakland on Monday did great 
damage in the office of the Oakland Tribune. 

It is claimed that 20,000 immigrants have 
come to Washington Territory in the past 
year. 

Many teachers have already arrived from 
the Eist to attend the National Educational 
Association. 

Charles Barks, a boy of 13, was killed in 
this city Monday by another boy, while playing 
with a toy pistol. 

It is said that the latest competition threat- 
ening British farmers is the importing of baled 
hay from tbe United States. 

D. J. Carr has been appointed a member of 
the Horticultural Commission of Los 'Angeles 
county, vice McMutlen, resigned. 

There is a hitch in the building of the Cuy- 
amaca railroad, and the projectors are stopping 
to raise $70,000 before they proceed. 

The U. S. Treasury now contains the sum of 
$629,854,087. Of the publio debt, $14,429,503 
was paid off in June. The total publio debt is 
now $1,717,784,791. 

Santa Ckoz ladies held a floral fair with 
various entertainments connected, week before 
last, and we judge from the local papers that it 
was very pleasant and successful. 

The first report of the peach prospects from 
Clayton, Del., is to the effect that the outlook 
is for tbe largest crop ever known, reaching by 
present estimates fully 10,000,000 baskets. 

There is j ust now much talk of another effort 
being made by the railroad company to obtain 
Goat island, in this bay, for a terminus. There 
is also again talk of bridging Carquinf z straits. 

Henry A. Caclfield, whose name is fa- 
miliar throughout the State for his participa- 
tion in squatter riots in Sacramento in early 
days, was instantly killed on Monday by being 
struck by an engine on the Sacramento Valley 
railroad. 

A Complete locomotive was begun and fin- 
ished in 16 hours and 55 minutes at the Al- 
toona shops of the Pennsylvania road. The 
machine weighs 110,000 pounds, and was at 
once put on the track for use on the New York 
division. 

The wholesale dealers in New York say that 
the influx of California fruit has not had any 
appreciable effect on either Eistern fruits or 
the foreign trade. One reason for this is that 
Americans are becoming more and more a fruit- 
eating people. 

The customs duties of this port for the month 
of June reach the enormous sum of $987,749.17. 
This is greatly in excess of the total receipts of 
one single month for many years. The increase 
of last month is nearly double, and denotes an 
augmenting shipping business at this city. 

The arrangements for the transmission of 
parcels of merchandise between the United 
States and Mexico are complete. The postage 
will be 12 cents per pound and must be pre- 
paid. The maximum dimensions were, length, 
2 feet; girth, 4 feet; and weight not to exceed 
11 pounds. 

The startling discoveries made at Fresno, 
showing that wine and brandies which had 
been reported as having been destroyed by fire 
at the Margherita vineyard, and on which in- 
surance was claimed, had been hidden in cel- 
lars and other places, have caused much ex- 
citement at Fresno and in the vicinity. 

The new Castro-street cable road in this city 
has been completed. The new road is two 
miles long from the corner of Market and Va- 
lencia streets, and has 21,700 feet of cable at 
present in use, Tbe new carhouse at the cor- 
ner of Castro and Twenty-fourth streets is 
185x114 feet in size, having a large glass roof, 
and has accommodations for cars and their 
equipments, and is fitted with receivers and 
superintendents offices. 

The Santa Clara tannery has been forwarding 
Beveral large consignments of leather to various 
Eastern and European firms, embracing tbe 
Japan and North- American Trading Company at 
Tokio; also two carloads to the Sydney Exposi- 
tion. At present a full force of workmen are 
engaged in turning out large quantities of as 
good leather as is manufactured in America. 
The manager reports a demand for the article 
far in advance of that of two months back, with 
a steady increase which promises to continue. 

They have commenced boring for oil and 
gas near National City, *San Diego County. 
The first tests will be made on the National 
Ranch in Sweetwater Valley, on the old Na- 
tional picnic grounds, not far from Sweetwater 
junction. About two and one-half acres of 
land will be operated on, and the work will be 
under the supervision of practical men. The 
enterprisers a large one, and will not stop 
with one bore. More than $50,000 will be ex- 
pended in experiments unless the fluid is 
brought up sooner than is expected. The capi- 
tal is ready, and those holding it are anxious 
to put it in. 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Fumiahed for publication in this paper by Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps. U. S. A 1 





Portland. 


Eureka. 


Bed Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


S.Francisco. 


Fresno. 


Keeler. 


Los Angeles. 


San Diego 


DATE. 


h 


Temp 


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□ 


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9 


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June 25-30 1. 








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86 


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81 


SW 
SW 


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90 


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sw 


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64 


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70 


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58 


w 


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78 


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76 


SE 


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.00 


66 


w 


Cl. 


.00 


66 


w 


Fr. 




.06 


62 


Nw 


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N 


CI. 


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76 


Nw 


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62 


w 


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78 


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SE 


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66 


w 


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66 


w 


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.02 


66 


SW 


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N 


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84 


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82 


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66 


N W 


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.(.III 


74 


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Total. . ... 


85 






.... 


.26 
















00 








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.III 
















00 








(1(1 









Explanation.—' 1. for clear; (Jy., cloudy; Fr., tair; by., foggy; Um., calm; 
with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. 



Temperature, wind and weather at 12:jU m. (Pacific Standard time) 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From tbe official repoit of C. S. Patents in Diwit A 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., S. F. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JUNE 26, 1888. 

385,045. — - Shoe Tongue Fastening— C. F. 
Crowell, Portland, Ogn. 

385,101. — Car Coupling — W. M. Cutter, Marys- 
ville, Cal, 

384,973.— Can-Opener, etc — E. Hawes, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

385,314.— Station Indicator— Benj. W. I.yon, 
S. F. 

384,996.— Time Ball— Chas. Muller, S. F. 

385,133. — Rivet Burr Remover — E. H. Per- 
kins, Visalia, Cal. 

Three Trade Marks— H. S. Crocker & Co. 
S. F. 

Nots.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coa it 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 



Choice Lands in Ventura County. 

Land buyers should not overlook the an- 
nouncement of lands for sale at public auction 
at Hueneme, Ventura county, on July 30th and 
following days. The lands are a part of the de- 
ceased railway king, familiarly known as Tom 
Scott, and were early secured by him as the 
choicest land in the section. They are now to 
be sold by order of the court to close the estate. 
Hon. Thomas R. Bard, the well-known citizen 
of Ventura county, is administrator of the es- 
tate. As will be seen by the advertisement, 
the property is to be sold in small and large 
tracts, and there is also a fine assortment of 
town lots, so that all wants of purchasers can be 
met by the offering. The advertisement gives 
much information. Besides this it may be said 
that many of the farms have houses, barns, and 
other improvements. It is said that the best 
crops in the State this year are to be found in 
the Santa Clara valley of Ventura county and 
upon the lands now offered for sale. Artesian 
water is cheaply and easily obtained at a depth 
of 140 to 150 feet. The climate is excellent and 
the location generally desirable. The sale is 
positive. All interested can obtain maps and 
further information by addressing T. R. Bard, 
at Hueneme. The advertisement also states 
that persons desiring to purchase and not being 
able to attend may have the business attended 
to for them by Thomas H. Merry, Attorney-at- 
Liw, of Hueneme. Mr. Merry is well-known 
throughout the State. He was a few years ago 
a practical farmer and an officer of the State 
Grange. He has held the responsible position of 
clerk of one of the San Francisco courts. The 
offering in all its features seems to merit atten- 
tion. 

Gieen Lice on Pan ies. 

Editors Press: — What is good to keep those 
little green lice off of pansies? — Reader, Los Gatos. 

The best thing we know of is plenty of lady- 
birds (coccinellidse). Both the beetles and their 
larvu- are zealous lice-hunters. If they do not 
seem to be abundant enough, you can gather 
them and place them on the pansies. Our 
children do this continually; even our three- 
year-old recognizes " papa's bestest bug " and 
toddles off with every one she finds to a rose- 
bush or other plant which has the lice on it. 

Green lice can be discouraged by a forceful 
spray of cold water from a hose. It knocks 
them endways and few regain their place. If a 
medicine is desired, dissolve a big tablespoonful 
of whale-oil soap in a quart of hot water, add 
the solution to a pailful of cold water and apply 
with a sprinkling-pot. 

A correspondent of the Chico Enterprise, 
writing from Round Mountain, Shasta county, 
siys that the new flume of the Shasta Lumber 
Company is progressing rapidly. So far the 
work is said to be the finest in the State. 
Forty men are at work on the flume and mostly 
all from Chico. C. B. Eack is superintendent 
of the work. The Shasta Lumber Company 
has a splendid belt of timber to work on, and 
they talk of putting up other two mills, build- 
ing 12 miles of railroad, and in one year from 
now they can put 100,000 feet of lumber in 
Redding daily. 



Combination Horse Sale. 

The combination horse sale by Killip & Co. 
at the Bay District Track on the 27th inst. was 
well represented by both purchasers and con 
tributors. The bidding, whilst not as spirited 
as at most sales, was characterized by judgment 
rather than enthusiasm and the prices realized 
were generally satisfactory. We append below 
a list of the sales arid prices realized. The 
famous Lady Blanchard, who was one of the 
most noted trotters of her day and was 10 years 
ago sold to Alvinza Hayward for the large sum 
of $22,000, was sold to Mr. H. Pierce for $210. 
Should Mr. Pierce be as fortunate with her as 
have all her previous owners, he has indeed se- 
cured a great bargain. 

The following is the list of the animals sold, 
with their buyers and prices paid : 

Property of H. W. Peck, He\ldsburg — Dark chestnut 
mare, sired by David Hill (857) dam by Echo, A. Gon- 
zales, §110. 

Property ol C. W Smith, San Francisco— Lucy Abbott, 
chestnut mare, sired by Abbotsford, 2:19J, dam by a son 
of Hanibletonian, William Filber, $390. 

Property of Chris. Green, Sacramento— Iron-gray colt, 
by Wobbler, dam bv St. Clair. L. D. Sloeum, 81 15. 

Property of H. S. Hogaboom, Sacrameuto— Violet, bay 
marc, sired by Prince Alwood, dam Souvenir by Alwood 
by Almont, D.J. Murphy, §175. 

Lady Blanchard, 2:26}, gray mare, sired by Whipple's 
Hamb eto' ian, dam Ladv Livingston, H. Pierce, $210. 

Property of W. B. Bradbury, San Francisco — Patch 
Allen, bay gelding, sired by George M. Patchen Jr , dam 
sister to Susie Allen, by Ethan Allen Jr., Thomas' Fitz- 
gerald, $1250 

Old Nick (record 2:23) brown geldmg, sired by Elec- 
tioneer, first dam Stockton Maid by Chieftain, Peter 
Tietjens, $675. 

Little Hope (record 2:26}) chestnut gelding, sired by 
Tun pest Jr., dam by Wilson's Blue Bu i, T. Fitzgerald, 
S9U0. 

Amberine, bay colt, bv Prompter, dam Bonnie, J. J. 
Evans, $170. 

Prouerty of J. P. Punn, Berkeley— Mary A, bay Ally, 
sired by Monroe Chief, 2:18}, dam by admiral, W. ohor, 
$370. 

Oakland, sorrel gelding, sired by Billy Hayward, dam 
b} El Cajon, T. McManus, $75. 

Anita, bay filly, sired bv Anteros, dam Nana, by 
Nephew, R. L. Patterson, $315. 

Nancy, bay mare, bired by Captain Webster, H. 
Pierce, $115. 

Property of M. W. Hicks, Sacramento— Courier Boy, 
8133, bay colt, sired by Sterling, dam Mahaeka Belle, W. 
C. Harlan. $200. 

Heraldic, 8137, bay colt, sired by Sterling, dam Sallie 
McKim, J. J. Evans, $>05. 

Magister, 8 42, bav colt, sired by Sterling, dam Lady 
Baldwin, S. C. Tryon.«170. 

Patriarch, 8138. bay colt, scar, sired by Sterling, dim 
Lillian, by Komulus, C. H. Kingsley, $430. 

Tiger, dark bay colt, sired by Sterling, dam Olive, W. 
C. Harlan, $305. 

Property of N. N. Gralg, Sacramento— Filet, bay mare, 
sired by Viscount, dam a thoroughbred mare, D. J. Mur- 
phy, $160. 

Red Wing, bay mare, sired by Red Line, dam Filet by 
V scount, W.Ober, $160, 

Rtd Queen, bay mare, sired by Red Line, dam Fann'ie 
McDonald, D. J. Murphy, $90. 

lied Silk, bay mare, sired by Red Line, D. J. Murphy, 
$85. 

Brown Bess, brown mare, sired by Cliffden, dam Pough- 
keep.ie Girt, H. Pierce, $1-25. 

May Apple, brown Ally, sired by Hopkins Choice, dam 
Dolly Bloodttone, A. L.' Whitney, $115. 

Property of A. Hansen, San Francisco— Sultan S, brown 
stallion, sired by Sultan, H. Scott, $210. 

Property of S C. Tyron, Sacramento — Pocihontas 
(pacer, record 2:224) chestnut mare, sired by Little Wash- 
ington, A. L. Nichols, $1030. 

Clara G, (record 2:344), coestnut mare, sirel by Tilton 
Almont, first dam bv Jolm Nelson, Mr. ISirdsall, $600. 

Colonel Hawkins (record 2:i9[) brown gelding, sired by 
Echo, first dam a thoroughbred mare, L. D. Slocum, $510 

Property of P. H. Buike — Bay stalli in, sired by Lin- 
wood, first dam full sister to The Maid, by General Mc- 
Clellan, S. H. Grane, $120. 

Brown filly, sired by Gus, first dam by Whipple's Ham- 
bletonian, H. A. Rosenbaum, $'35. 

Bay gelding, pacer, sired by Alexander, J. F. Finn, 
$305. 

Property of J. D. Spreckles & Bros.— P.ay mare, sired 
by Speculation, first dam 1 eta by Alexander, R. B Mil- 
rov, $210. 

Bay gelding, Bired by Speculation, first dam Lady 
Bauer by Captain Fisher. H. A. Rosenbaum, $150. 

Property of W. H. Parker, Stockton— Commander, bay 
stallion, sired by Chieftain, first dam Puss by Budd Doble 
W. H. Byiugton, $226. 

Property of Robert L. Coleman, San Francisco — Conde 
(record 2:20) chestnut gelding sired by Abbotsford, 2: 194, 
first dam Katy Tricks, O A. Hickok, $2100. 



ORANGE CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA 

A Timely Treatise. 

Now that the interest in the culture of the orange is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the results of experience in parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
sued will be found of wide usefulness. 

"Orange Culture in California" was written by Tims. 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation in the growth of the fruit. 
It is a well-printed hand book of 196 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion arid irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc. 

The book is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 75 
cents per copy, in cloth binding. Address Dhwby & Co., 
Publishers " Pacific Rural Press," 220 Market St., S. F. 



Inducements to Subscribers. 



To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, to those 
who pay fully one year in advance of date, if keciubstru 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the right : 

1. — The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 

Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 
colored maps (full price $1) $0.25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1250 illustrations; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

3 Dewey's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper stamped in gilt 50 

4.— Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages, illustrated 26 

6.— Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations .'..05 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nos. of the 

Rural Press, "good as new " Free 

7. — Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie's and most other first- 

class U. S. periodicals, 15 per ct. off regular rates- 
9.— Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, Books and Period, 
icals, except special publications, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 25 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .25 

12. — $1 worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .25 
14.— Dewey's Pat. Newspaper Fileholder (18 to 38in.) .25 

15 — European Vines Described, 63 pages 05 

19.— Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1600 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 50 

23. — Architecture Simplified, 60 pages 05 

24. — Mother Bickerdyke's Life with the Army; patriotic 

and ably written; 166 pp., cloth, $1.00 50 

25. — Ropp's Easy Calculator, cloth, 80 pp 26 

26. — How to Tell the Age of a Horse OS 

a7.— Percheron Stud Book— French — bound in 

leather, 192 pages (full price, $3) 1 .00 

28. — What Every One Should Know; a cyclopedia of 

valuable information; 510 pp.; cloth; (full price 
81) 50 

29. — Knitting and Crochet, by Jennie June; 144 pp., 

200 illustrations E>5 

30. — Needle Work, by Jennie June; lz rpp., „ »o . ..ti- 

trations 25 

31. — LadieB' Fancy Work, by Jennie June; 152 pp., 700 

illustrations 25 

32. — The Way to do Magic; illustrated, 60 pp 10 

33 —The Taxidermist's Manual; illustrated, 64 pp. . .10 
Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive ; 

35 pages (a handsome and pleasing present). . .25 

Note. — The cash must accompany all orders. Address 
this office, No. 262 Market St., S. F. 

Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 

In writing correspondence, items of information, or on 
other business, please use a separate sheet. 

Sample copies of this paper mailed free to persons 
thought likely to subscribe. 

Send for free circular describing most of these pre- 
miums, and any further information desired. 



The Lick Observatory— Illustrated and 
Described. 

The Mining and Scientific Press of June 23, 1888, con 
tains an elaborately illustrated description of the Lick 
Observatory and all i's appliances. The information 
given is very full in all details. There is a history of 
the Observatory from its inception, and a biographical 
sketch of the founder, James Lick, with portrait. 

The description of the buildings includes tbe main 
building, library, dome for the 12-inch equatorial, me- 
ridian circle-house, transit-house, photographic labora- 
tory, dwelling-houses, water-supply, etc. 

There are two photo- facsnnilits of the great telescope, 
with the spectroscope, finders, pier, etc., which are ac- 
curate representations. The true shape is shown, which 
is entirely different from the wood cuts published in an 
Eastern Scientific Journal, where truth of delineation ha3 
been sacrificed for appearances. 

Tbe description of the telescope gives all details of 
size, power, etc. The same is true of the micrometer, 
spectroscope and mounting for the 36-inch telescope. 
Elaborate drawings of tbe great dome are given showing 
all the details of construction and operation. The ele- 
vating floor and its accompanying hydraulic rams are 
also described. 

The descriptions and engravings of the astronomical 
instruments includes the micrometer, drivirg clocks, 
comet-seeker, photoheliograph, Repsold meridian circle, 
transit and zenith telescope combined, declinograph, 
universal instrument, clocks, chronometers, chrono- 
graphs, measuring engine, electric switch-board, level 
trier and spherometer. The meteorological instruments 
illustrated include the self-registering barometer, self- 
recording rain and snow gauge, earthquake recording in- 
struments, etc. 

Very full biographies of all the observers and assist- 
ants are given, as well as a portrait of Prof. Holden 
the director. Miscellaneous matters in connection witli 
the observator" and an account of the transfer, the origin 
of the name of Mt. Hamilton, the title, tbe stage road to 
the mountain, .stellar photography, famous telescope 
makers, the advisers and constructors, etc. 

The infoimatiou is the latest and most complete for all 
who arc interested in this, the most complete observa- 
tory and largest telescope in the world. 

f xtra copies containing the above in addition to the 
usual weekly contents of the paper, embracing 32 pages, 
will be sent post paid for ten cents while the editiuu 
lasto. Dewey & Co., Publishers. 

220 Market St., S. F. 



I 
i 



14 



f ACIF16 I^URAb f>RESS. 



[July 7, 1888 



breeders* directory. 



;"-ii£ lioee or less io this Directory at 60c per line per month. 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 



COTATE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Pages 
Station, 8. F. 4 N. P. K. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
ot Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



VALPARAISO PARK. Thoroughb ed Durham 
Cattle. Thoroughored Berkshire bwine. Address 
r\ D. Atherton, Menlo Park. 

SETrJ COOK, breeder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von, Durham, Polled Aberdeeu Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breedi on hand for 
sale. Warranted to be pure bred, recorded and aver- 
age breeders. Address, Oe<\ A. Wiley, Cook Kami, 
Danville, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



W. J. MARSH & SON, Dayton, Nevada, 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred attains. 



Kegis- 



J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holstein Cattle. 



R. J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

HOLSTEINS— New lot Eastern-bred animals, includ- 
ing Netherlands; Aagvie's and Case Strains. Punch 
for ringing bulls, $1 00 postpaid. Berkshire Swine. 
Catalogues. K. II. Burke, 401 Montgomery St., S. K. 

M. D HOPKINS, Petaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and Heifers for sale. 

SETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Kami," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
von* (Registered). Young stock for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILE8, L©9 Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 

EL ROBLA SANOHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal.. Krancis T. L'nderhill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford cattle. Infor- 
mation by mail. C F. Swan, manager. 



J . R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

T. E. MILLER, Beecher, HI. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 

P. H. MURPHY, (Brighton,) Perkins P. O., breeder 
of Recorded Short Horns and Poland China Hogs. 



POULTRY. 



R. G- HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 



E. H FREEMAN, Santa Clara, Cal., breeds tlie best 
strains of thoroughbred poultry. Send for circulars. 

PIEDMONT POULTRY YARDS, cor. Piecmont 
Ave. & Booth St., Oakland. Wyandottes, L. Brahmas, 
P. Rocks. Langshans, B. Leghorns, B. B. R. O. Ban'ams. 
Eggs 12 for IS; circular frre; Mrs J. N Lund, Box 116. 



W. C. DAMOS , Napa, $2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Leghorns, Lt. Brahman, linudans. Eggs, $2. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1618 Larkin St.,S. F.. importer and 
breeder of Thoroughhred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



O. J. ALB UK. Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

JULIUS WEYAND, Little Stony, Colusa Co , Cal., 
breeder of pure blood and graded Angora Goats. 
Choice Bucks and Does for sale. 



K'. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep. Premium band of the State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 



•\.G 8 TONE SI PER, Breeder of pure-blood French 
Merino Sheep. Hill's ferry, Stanislaus Co , Cal. 

.«. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
& breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
tfenno and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale 

K H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 

KIRKPATRIOK Sz WHITTAKER, Knight's 
Kerry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 



SWINE. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
rhnrourhhrfid Berkshire and Rnsex Hogs 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Piars. Circulars free 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder ol Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stook ol Hogs aie all 
reoorded In the American Berkshire Record. 



ANDREW SMITH. Redwood City. Cal.; see adv't. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID 

NON-POISONOUS 

SHEEP DIP. 

LITTLE'S PATENT POWDER DIP 

(poisonous). Information by mail. 
CATION , B ELL & CO., successors to Falkskr, 

Bill & Co , 406 California St., 8. V. 
Wool Agency Warehouse, Sixth and Townsend Streets. 



IMPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past Sixteen Years our Sole Uuslneu has been, and now is, 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock — Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Alderaeys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
term's. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1886. PETER SAXE & SON, Lick Hoase, S. F. 



REGISTERED SHROPSHIRE SHEEP AND BERKSHIRE PIGS. 



I.HPOKTEU IHOJl 




Koyal Duke of Californl 



»:> e la a ■> » I KECT. 

WinnerB of all bine ribbons 
in their classes and sweep- 
stakes prizes at 8tute Fairs, 
Sac 1886 and 1887. 

lni|»ortittious made by me au- 
uu-lly of the best blood ob- 
tainable iu England, r gard- 
les<ofc at. Young stock, bred 
from these Imputations, male 
and female, from different 
families, fur sale At reasonable 
pric s. and every animal guar 
Sllteed. Address 




ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal., or 218 California St.. S F. 



Red wood Duke, No 13,368. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Holstein-Friesians & Jerseys 

A chrice lot of young Cattle of the above breeds for 
sale at verv low figures. Their breeding is A No 1 and 
from the BEST MILKING FAMILIES. Prices and 
QUALITY will suit. ELEVEN YEARS' experience 
on this Coast. Correspondence solicited. 

Publisher of "Nlles' Pacific Coast Poultry and 
Stock Book," a new book on su' jecta connected with 
successful Poultry and Stock raising on the Pacific Coast. 
Price, 50 cents, post-paid. 

WILLIAM NIIES, Los Anneles. Cal 





POPLAR 

GROVE 

Breeding 
FARM, 



JNJ . STRALTBE, £». O. Addrofs 

IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 




Fresno, Cnl. 



POLLED ANGUS CATTLE ~ TROTTING HORSES. 

For information address or call on S. N Straube as above. No trouble to show stock to intending purchasers. 



Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 




For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

tW Endorsed by the Grange and Farmers wherever uaed..£jr 
The Cheapest and Best. 
Put up in 1-pound, 6-pound, and ( gallon Tins. 
Every Can Warranted. 
This Poison has been on the market less than two years, yet in 
this short time it has gained a reputation of "Sure Death,' 
equaled by none. By its merits alone, with very little advertis- 
ing, it is now us- d extensively all over the Pacific Coast, as well 
a s io Australia and New Zealand. 

SEND FOR TESTIMONIALS. 



Patented Jan. 23d. 18S*. 

For Sale' by all Wholesale and Retail Dealers 



MANUFACTURED BY 

BOOTH & LATIMER, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

Special Terms on (Quantities in Bulk. 



Farmers and Fruit-Growers, Attention! 

To grow large and profitable crops and at the same time to make the farm 
better each year, is the problem for the farmer. 

FERTIL IZE I FEPTILIZEI 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATE. 

UxivsRsiTT or California, Nov. 3, 1888. fertilizer. It Is especially well adapted to use In 

Dr. J. Korbio — Dear Sir: I have analyzed vour sample California, on account of the predominance in 

of "NltroKenou. Superphosphate,'' with the 11 »' Phosphoric Acid, which is generally m small 

following result" supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that "com- 
plete" fertilizers be used in our orchards and vineyards, 

Soluble Phosphoric Aoid 12.90 per cent ^ yours Is of that character in furnishing 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid 95 " Potash and Nitrogen as welL Very respectfully, 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " E W U1LUARD 

Potah 123 •• 

Ammonia 1.87 " The value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 

Nitric Acid '.*. V. '.*.". ".V." ! . 2.95 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid— the chief 

. *■** - 11 1.* * "*-***."*■ , „ „, element of all plant food— In combination with the 

The above amount of Mtrlc Acid is equal to 0.86 neceiw quantities of Potash and Ammonia, and 

per cent Ammonia, therefore, total of Nitrogen calcu- th ^J,, cheapness with which it can be applied. 

£ ' • 2 ce "V „ , , In ordinary soils the following quantities will be found 

This Fetti i*er s a % aluable Manor, for vine- , umcieDt: / or Wheat B^iey/corn and Oats, 300 to 350 

y trl""^ gh " , ' 8 '* ! > "tens, farms, ai id I recommen d its d8 For Ql £ 8 j^e* and Vege- 

use by the cultivator, of the io.l genera 1, m Call- Sta^fi* 300 pounds per acre. For Vines, Fruit 

fornia. Yours truly, DR h. A. SCHNEIDER. Tree8 / from j poun< j Tt„ 5 pounds each. For Flower Gar- 

.. . .. «-,,-, . n . . . • dens. Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 

University Of California, College Of Agri- applied at any time, will be found very beneficial. 

cu,ture - FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT, 

Bkkkrlet, Nov. 20, 1886. 

Dr. J. Kofrio, San Francisco— Dear Sir: I take pleas- 0n 1505 rd <*™ »' Sobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R„ 20 

ure in adding mv testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at f30 per too, by the 

to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 

phosphate" Fertilizer, anulv zed by him at your re- " „ '.**.,_ * ...TV. 

quest. Itisahl(th.grade article, and as such re- CO., H. DUTARD, President, room 7. Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



GRANGERS' CO-OPERATIVE BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SACRAMENTO, O 

Hardware and Groceries 

A3 CHEAP AS THE OHEAPEST. 

Agent9 for Studebaker Wagons, Carriage* and Buggies, Oliver Plows, 
and Cassldy Sulky and Gang Plows. 

Country Orders Solicited. T. A. LAUDER, Manager. 




HATCH CHICKENS 



— WITH TUB 




PEULUMA INCUBATOR. 

Toe Most Successful Machine 
Made. 

3 Gold Medals, t Silver Medal, and 16 

first Premiums. 
Hatches all kinds of Eggs. 
Made In all Sizes. 
Write us for Large Illustrated Cir- 
cular Free, describing Incubators, 
I I, Uou'ee, How to Raise Chickens, etc Address 
PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 

JOHN McFARLING, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Brown and White Leghorns, 
fen in Bantams, Light Brahmae. Part- 
ridge Cochins, Butt Cochins, Black; Ml- 
norcas. Kemstered Berkshire Pigs. Also 
one pen of Langshans direct from Chioa. 
706 TWELFTH ST., OAKLAND, CAL. 
Large lot of young birds ready for Bale; send for circulars. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 




Cor. 17th 5s Castro Sts., 



Oakland, Cal. 



DEWEY & CO., | ^iewo^iVi^ont It' } PATENT AGENTS. 



Manufactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR aod 
BttOOIlEK. Agenoy of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances' in great variety. 
A'so every variety of land 
and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wnerever exhibited Eggs for 
hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book aod 
Ouide, price, 40c. Send 2c. stamp for 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castio 
St., Oakland, Cal. 




w 



ELLINGTON'S IMPROVED EGG FOOD. 

STANDARD POULTRY preparation for TEN 
VRAR8. Sold by every princlpU merchant; alto at 
t26 Wahhixotok Strikt, San Fkancirco. 



S. CHILES. 

DAV18VILLE, CAL.. 




Breeder of SHORTHORN CATTLE 

Of the bekt families. A choice lot of young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale, 4 years old and under, from the cele- 
brated Kirklevington Oxford Count. 36.'23. 



DR. A. E. BUZARD, 
VETERINARY SURGEON. 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London. (Diploma dates April 22, U70 ) For two years 
Veterinary Inspector of L We Stook for tbe British Gov- 
ernment. Parties havii g sick or i"jjr«d horses* cattle, 
dotfs, et<-., can have advice a» d prescriptions by return 
of mad bv senning full particulars <r diseace and $1. 
Calls to the country by nml or telegram promptly at- 
tended to. Fees reasonable. Residence and Pharmacy. 
No. 11 Seventh St., near Market, San Francisco, CsJ- 

All horse, cattle and deg mtdidnee kept on hand. 

BADEN FARM HERD 
Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASHBORNEB, 
t»a<l«n Station. San Matao On , Pal. 

FOR SALE. 

Two Thoroughbred Red Mazurka Bulls, 

One 13 months, the other 16 months old. 



200 Full Blooded Angora Ewes. 

M. WICK. Sundale, Butte County. Cal. 

BEST TREE WASH. 

" Qreenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA fteats 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON St CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 MarfeTAt Rt and S Oallfnmla St.. R. F 

LARGEST STOCK OF 

SADDLERY- AND HARNESS 

On the Pacific Coast. Wholesale and Retail. 
i^Send order and try goods and prices. 

C . L. HA SKEL L, Ho. 10 Bas h St.. S. ¥. 

A practical treatise by T. A. Oaaar, 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence in Southern California. 196 
pages, cloth bound. Sent post-paid 



ORANGE 



1 1 K P »' reduced price of 76 cts. per co 
UULI UIIU byDHWKY*CO..Pnhli«h«r«.S.> 

APIARIAN SUPPLIES fur sale by Mrs. J. D, 
Enag, Napa City, Cal. 



Joly 7, 1888. 



fACIFie i^llRAb PRESS. 



15 



Lands tor Sale apd Jo Let, 



Orange Orchards 

FOR ONLY 

6850 ^TST AOH.E. 



For a short time only, I can furnish a few 
ten-acre Orange Groves at the above prices, 
with over 1000 Orange Trees of the best va- 
rieties in each grove. 

Fine Climate! 
Fine Soil! 

Abundance of Water! 

And within sight of Riverside. The cheapest 
Orange Groves ever offered in California. In- 
quire of • 

GEN. J. H. FOUNTAIN, 

RIVERSIDE, OA L. 



Agricultural and Grazing 

LANDS FOR SALE. 



797S Acres of fine grazing and agricultural land, in- 
cluding 4000 head of floe grade stock sheep; abundance 
of water; 9 miles from Merced City, and near Merced 
River; price, $7.26 per acre; 1000 acres good wheat land. 
Address 

OSTRANDER & SONS. 

Merced, Gal. 

Or N. C. CARNALL CO.. 
624 Matket Street, San Francisco, Oal. 



CHICO VECINOI 

Best location in the State of California for beautiful 
suburban 

HOMES. 

Located near the thriving city of CHICO, Butte County, 
California. Subdivided from the heart of the famous 

RANCH0 CHICO, 

The well-known property of 

GENERAL JOHN BIDWELL. 

Town Lots and acreage proDerty, from fractions of an 
acre upward. TERMS REjSuNABLE. For further 
particulars, address: 

CAMPER & OOSTAR, Real Estate Agents, 
Cblco, Butte Co., Oal. 

Or WM. H. MARTIN, 
809 Market Street, San Francisco, Oal 



Artesian Belt Land 

AT LOW FIGURES. 

The southwest quarter of Section fifteen, Township 
twenty-three, Range twenty-four west, one hundred and 
sixty acres of rich level land, near the center line of the 
Artesian Belt in Tulare County, five miles northwest of 
Alila, on the S. P. R. R. , is offered for sale at the ex. 
ceedingly low price of fifteen dollars per acre. Address, 
" Landowner," Box 2361, San Francisco P. O , or to the 
care of this paper. 



LAND & WATER FREE! 

800 Acres Rich, Level Land. 



To some one who will summer fallow and cultivate 
well, will be furnished free water and use of 160 acres of 
good land (S. E. Sec. 13, T. 21, R. 23) within 9 miles of 
Tulare, S. W. Forty acres formerly plowed. Land on 
all sides cultivated and pastured. Water for irrigation 
Of needed) free. Also (without water) 640 acres (Section 
18, T. 23, R. 24), four miles westerly of Tipton and S P. 
R. R., all in Tulare County and the Artesian belt For 
particulars call on E. M. DEWEY, 7 miles 8. W. of Tu- 
are, or A. T. DEWEY, 220 Market St., San Francisco 



FOR SALE 0RJXCHANGE. 

Ranch of 200 acres on Coqnille River, Coos County, 
Oregon; 40 acres bench land 160 acres bottom, 80 acres 
under cultivation; 1J miles from Coquille City, one-half 
mile from steamer landing. -An abundance of fine 
spring water on place. Pri'«, $4500 cash, or will ex- 
change for California property in vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. For further particulars apply to 
H. GOBTZ. 
059 Clay St., San Francisco, Cal. 

GOOD CROPS EVERY SEASON WITHOUT 
IRRIGATION. 

Free by mail, specimen number of " TKe California 
Real Estate Exchange and Mart," full of reliable Infor- 
mation on climate, productions, etc., of 

SANTA CRDZ COUNTY. 
Address, H. MEYRICK, Box 5, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



PALM VALLEY! 



TROPICAL WONDERLAND! 



EARLIEST FRUIT LAND IN THE WORLD. 

EARLIEST VEGETABLE LAND IN THE WORLD. 

FINEST WINTER CLIMATE IN THE WORLD. 

DO YOU WANT to buy a fine tract of land at a low figure, that will double in value in 
three months, and that will produce a crop in eix months that will more than pay for the land? 

DO YOU WANT a tract of lind that will produce ripe grapes six weeks in advance of any 
other section of California now cultivated? 

DO YOU WANT a tract of land that will raise watermelons that will ripen seven weeks 
earlier than they will in any other section in the State, and that will sell for a dollar apiece iD 
Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, San Bernardino, San Francisco, or any other Pacific Coast 
town or city? 

DO YOU WANT a traot of land where there is practically no frost? 

DO YOU WANT a traot of land where no hard wind strong enough to blow fruit from the 
trees is ever known? 

DO YOU WANT a portion of the tropical valley of the State? 

DO YOU WANT to quadruple your money on short notice? There is a chance for you 
to do it. 

THE PALM VALLEY LAND COMPANY 

Has secured 2000 acres of this choice land; has subdivided it into 5 and 10 acre lots, which they 
are now selling at $200 per acre, with a PERPETUAL WATER RIGHT, sufficient to irrigate 
the land. 

The lands were placed on the market with the announcement that as soon as each hundred 
acres were sold, the price would be advanoed $25 per acre, and that this rale would be followed 
up to the selling of 500 acres. Two hundred acres have now been sold on this basis, starting at 
$150 per acre. The price is now $200 per aore. 

The Company has a Stone-walled Irrigating Canal, over ten miles 

in length, completed. 

They have completed a railroad from Seven Palms, a station on the main line of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad, to PALMDALE, the town site owned by the Company. 

They are planting 160 acres to an orange grove, of Navel oranges, and many other improve- 
ments are now in progress, that will make this one of the most attractive Colonies in the State. 

No safer place for the investment of oapital, and no more delightful place to live in the 
winter can be found. 

PALM VALLEY is sure to become the greatest sanitarium in the world. 

THERE IS NO FROST, NO FOG, NO HARD WINDS. 

There is here all that can be desired to make Palm Valley one of the most attractive places in 
Sunny Southland. Maps, circulars and further information by calling on or addressing 

BRIGGS, FERGUSS0N & CO., General Agents, 

314 Galifornia Street, - - - - - - San Francisco, Cal. 



SANTA YNEZj 

Santa Barbara County, Oalilornla. 
THE SANTA YNEZ LAND AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

Is now offering for sale at low prices and upon very moderate terms the choicest of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Lands 

Of the famous College Grant, in the aforementioned beautiful valley. The CLIMATE is perfect, SOIL rich and 
diversified, TOPOGRAPHY unusually varied and beautiful, a park-like growth of Oaks covering the entire valley 
WATER SUPPLY more than sufficient for irrigation of all irrigable lands, and no alkali either in water or soil. 

TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES superior now, and two trunk lines certain to pass through the valley 
within a year. 

43,000 ACRES OF THESE CHOICE LANDS 

Are for sale at from $26 to $160 per acre; terms of payment being one-third cash, one-third in two, balance in three 
years; six per cent Interest on deferred payments. 

To reach the Santa Ynez valley .take any transportation line to San Luis Obispo, thence by Pacifio Coast Rail- 
way to Santa Ynez or to Santa Barbara, thence by stage to Santa Ynez. Persons seeking lovely homes or lands for 
lonie or quickly paying investments, cannot do better than purchase here. For further information refer to 

£. W. STEELE, Manager, Santa Tnez, Cal. 

E. de la CUE8TA, Agent, Santa Ynez. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, ARents, 325 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
SIDNEY LACE Y, Agent, Los Angeles. 

COOPER Sz DREYFUS, Agents, Santa Barbara. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents San Diego. 



REMNANT PALACE, 

1 336 Market St., opp. Odd Fellows' Build'g 
LEON LEM0S, Proprietor. 

Remnants of Domestics. Suits to Order, 
$15, $16, $1 7, $18, $20; Imported 
from $20 to $30. 

California is a Paradise, but the people would object 
to go in Paradise toilet. Leon Lemos has contracts with 
several leading Woolen Mi'ls to buy all their Remnant*, 
and can make a fine fitting, well-trimmed suit from $16 
upward. 

Farmers will save money by calling on him, as he 
makes suits to order for the same pries as ready made. 
Samples and prices by mail. "Don't forget. 

LEON LEMOS, 
326 Market St., odd Odd Fellows' Build'g 



When Visiting the City 

STOP AT THE 

HOTEL MARQUETTE, 

1206 MARKET STREET. 
Strictly First Class: 

Board by the day, week or month. Rooms may be 
ngaged by telegraph or letter. 

R. DIJSFENDORF, Proprietor. 



The Western Whipsocket. 




The Best Whipsocket a 
Best Combination Tool iu 
~gjjf the world. A hall-inch 
longer than the ordinary 
socket; yet carrying with 
it an oiler and wrench, 
without which no vehicle 
is thoroughly equipped (or 
the road. In it a whip 
touches nothing but rub- 
ber. No rattling, no leak- 
Price, by mail, $1.50. 
desired size of 
Address P. O. 

Box 70. 



udfl 



age. 



Mention 
vrench. 




WESTERN WHIPSOCKET CO., 

San Buenaventure, Cal. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE 

HOTEL, 
319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

One door from Bank of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior ac- 
commodations to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 
RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $150 per day. 

Free Coacb to and from the Hotel. 
OHAS. St WM. MONTGOMERY, Prop'rs 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Incorporated April, 1874. 




Authorized Capital $1,000 000 

Capital paid up In gold coin 624,160 

Reserved Fund 40,000 

Dividends paid to Stockholders.. 5 15,620 

OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

t. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashierand Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

General Bankiog Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

Jan. 1, 1838. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 



HORTON & KENNEDY'S 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulat'ng 

WINDMILL 

s recognized as the 
BEST. 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with doublr rkarinos for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
eood order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are beir g offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Addrtss, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

3an Franclaco Agency. JAMES LINFORTH 
120 Front St. , San Francisco. 




No. 107 $83.00, 




MONARCH GASOLINE RANGES 

ARE THE BEST. 

Gasoline Stoves, $5 to $35. Gas Stoves, 75 cents to $35. 
Oil Stoves, 75 rents to $30. 
WOOD AND COAL RANGES.— Royal, No. 6, 
J16. No. 7, $20. Pacific No. 6, $18. No. 7, $25. 
Lamps, 20c. to $10. Hanging Lamps, $2 to $20. 
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, and Kitchen Ware at low prices 
JOHN F. MYERS & CO., 
Opp. Baldwin Hotel, 863 Market St., S. F. 

J. L. HEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS. 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers k Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notloe. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u - 1 in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Encine Governor. Etc. 



GIVEN AWAY. 



mi 

Do.lhlc < all i 

II \\ I It ICS 

awav if it wi . 
not till the de- 
mand of my circulars. Send for Circulars and Price to 
the Manufacturer, J As, ki mi. Kemuton, XU. 



16 



f> ACIFK3 t^URAb f RESS. 



[July 7, 1888 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, July 3, 1888, 
The past week has been exceptionally fine for har- 
vest work, fruit picking and drying, of which farm- 
ers have taken advantage, although a scarcity of 
help is seriously felt. The Eistern and European 
wheat markets have fluctuated some, although the 
closing was stronger. The following is the English 
cable: 

Liverpool, July 3. — Wheat— Rather more 
quiry. California spot lots, 6s 4#d to 6s 7J4d; off 
coast, buyers and sellers apart, tending up; on pas 
sage, firm, probably dearer; off coast, 32s 9d to 33s 
just shipped, 32s 6d; nearly due, 32s 6d. 

Foreign Review. 

London, July 2.— The Mark I. ant Express, in its 
review of the grain trade, says: English wheat in 
prominent markets is steadier and an occasional ad- 
vance of 6d is reported. Sales of English wheat 
during the week were 34,899 qrs. at 31s 4d, against 
1569 qrs. at 37s during the corresponding period 
last year. Foreign wheat has not improved at 
Liverpool, prices being is 3d per ctl lower. Flour 
is dull at recent decline. Corn is weaker. Mixed 
American is quoted at 22s 6d. Oats have gained 
3d. At to-day's market wheat was steadier, but val- 
ues unchanged. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
in New York: 



June. 



Day. fash 

Thureday 88? 

Kiiday stt[ 

Saturday 8~i 

Monday 

Tuesday — 

The closing prices for wheal have been as follows, 
at Chicago: 

Day. Cash. June. July. 



Ju'y. A u«. 

!>6J 87} 

m 8m 

80 87{ 

U63 87} 



Sept. 
871 
88J 



A uir. 

793 
7»1 
8('i 



Sept. 

8'"2 
79| 

3» 



Thu Bday 7»i 79? 79J 

Kridav ..7Ut 79jJ 79J 

Sa urday 7Sj 7SJ 7 V g 

Monday 7»g — 81J 

Tuesday — — — — 

Nkw York, |uly 3. — Wheat — 89^0 for cash, 
87HC for July, BB'Ac lor August, 89^0 for Sept. 
and qoHc for Oct. 

Chicago, July 3. — Wheat— 8nc for cash, So'Ac 
for J uly, 8o5£c for August and 8o>ic for Sept. Corn 
— 48HC for August. 

California Products at Chicago. 
Chicago, June 30.— The arrivals of California 
Iruit this week have been rather small and the mar- 
ket firm. I here was not much change in the peach 
mark' l. A "rivals were fairly liberal and receivers 
were obliged to sell on account of its being Saiur- 
day. Prices were easy. A lew good peaches were 
received, but most of the arriva's consist of common 
to poor grades. Peaches in 20-tb packages sold at 
$i.25@i. 50 for Hale's Early, and $1.50 lor Craw- 
fords. Apricots are steady, selling at $2 fc* 20-th 
crate. I'lums are plenty with slow sales; prices are 
weak and holders were compelled to close out to- 
day as the weather was most loo warm to hold fruit 
over. Ordinary slock sold at $2 and peach plums 
ai $2.50. Increased offerings of peirs are noticed; 
most of this fruit coming in is poor; it has slow sale, 
bringing for 40-th boxes of Baitl.ttS $2.75 for green 
and $3. 50 for ripe. 

The < "alifornia dried fruit trade is pretty well over 
for this season; stocks are well reduced and the de- 
mand is also limned. I n a small way sales are made 
al about former figures: Apricots, sun-dried tf> lb., 
8c(6jOC; do, bleached, prime 14c; do, choice, 15c; do, 
fancy, 15^0; do, evaporated, choice to fancy, i^'ACa* 
16c; .peaches, sun-dried, fc* lb.. 96510c; do, un- 
peeled, H>. 14c; do, pteled, ^ lb, lOfSjsoc; plums, 
unpitted, lb.. 6@7c; do, pitted, i' @iic. 

Raisins, loose Muscatels, 2-crown, ^ box, $1.35® 
1 40; do 3-crown, fcr box, $1.45(0(1.55; do, London 
Layers, $ box, $2.20(^2.25. 

1'runes, small, lb., 6c; do, fancy, large 8'A@gc. 
Hops are holding about steady; the d-mand is 
moderate and stocks are no more than fair. Crop 
advices from the E»st are favorable. Reports from 
England have in some cases been slightly unfavor- 
able, but net enough so to have any material effect. 
Pacific Coast, choice, {p> tl>, I2@i3c; do, common to 
prime, 9@itc. 

Chicago, July 2.— At the auction sa'e of Califor- 
nia Iruit to day peaches sold at $1. 15(2)3.35. plums 
at $2.15(132.25. apricot i at $1.70(0)2 20 and pears at 
$2 2 a Six carloads were sold. 

Chicago, July 3. — Pears were sold at $2.30, 
peaches $1 85, plums $2.40, and apricots $2.25, at 
the California Iruit sale to-day. There were only 
two carloads. 

Wool. 

New Yj«k, July 2. — Wool retains the good feat- 
ures noted last week, with liberal dealings in Texas 
and California st >ck. '1 he trade at some of the in- 
frior points is slow, the farmers rtgaiding the offers 
as too low. The sales include 5<"oo lbs California 
scoured at 53c; 55,0:0 lbs California spring on 
private terms. There were also 450,000 lbs domestic, 
about one-half Texas; 2000 lbs loreignand 165 bales 
foreign sold on private terms. Philadelphia reports 
sales of 303,000 lbs. which took all offerings, Uo-lon 
speaks discontentedly o! the situation, as manulac- 
turers want to make close bargains. 'I he sales of 
foreign and domestic foot up 1 ,700,000 lb-, including 
260,000 Hps spring California at from 12® 17c. 

The Growing Crops. 

Washington, July 1. — The weekly crop and 
weather bulletin says: The weather for ihe past week 
has been favorable for all grow ing crops in w heat, 
corn and tobacco, in Ohio, the upper Mississippi and 
Missouri valleys and in Tennessee. 

The heavy rains doubtless interfered with harvest- 
ing from the Missouri eastward to Virginia. 

The reports from the interior of the Middle States 
indicate that the rams have been very beneficial lo 
the growing crops. 

The New York Produce Exchange Reporter. June 
23d, says: For a brief period during the first half of 
the week, prices took a sudden turn upward, which 



was said to be occasioned by rumors of cold and 
wet weather in certain portions of Southern Europe, 
and also to reports of rain in the Southwest, where 
in sums favored districts, harvesting had been com- 
menced. Although from some sections, especially 
Irom Illinois, some complaint had been heard rela- 
tive to damage by army worms, chinch bugs, lo- 
custs, etc., the majority of advices to hand this 
week have been rather more hopeful in their tenor. 
Owing to the fine crop weather experienced recently 
the plant has made good progress, and some of the 
more cheerlul and sanguine spirits ant cipate a de- 
cided improvement in condition by the lime the next 
monthly Government report is issued. It is to be 
hoped that these encouraging predictions will be 
fully confirmed by facts, but it seems scarcely rea- 
sonable to count on any appreciable improvement. 

The London Farmer says: If we turn to other 
countries, in which the cereal year corresponds ap- 
proximately with our own, we find prospects strik- 
ingly similar toours. Throughout nearly the whole of 
Europe wheat is backw ard, though generally healthy, 
while spring corn was put in extremely late, and has 
suffered from cold and dry weather. The chances 
at present are very much against even the wheat 
crop of Europe, as a whole, being up to average; 
while rye, which takes the place of wheat as food 
to a great extent, is believed to have suffered serious 
damage. 

Local Markets. 

The closing sales on the San Francisco Call Board 
were as follows: 

WHEAT. 

Date. liuyer Season 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday Sl.fiS} 

Monday 

Tuesday 

BARLEY. 

Date. Buyer Season. 

Thursday $1.02 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 99 

Tuesday 

HAGS — The market is stronger, that is, more 
money is asked, but then the demand is slow, and it 
looks as if the pool will have to carry over large 
quantities. Calcuttas are held at 8c to &'Ac. 

BARLEY— The market has been systematically 
depressed by bears, owing to more sellers in the 
market. Options have been fairly active, closing 
steady at quotations. 

BI TTER — The market for gilt-edped is very 
firm at full quotations, owing to a scarcity. Fair to 
good is in good supply. Owing to warm weather, 
the more distant orders are met with pickled. 

CHEESE — The market is steady at full figures. 
Receipts are fair, with the demand good. 

EGGS— Strictly choice are want'd; fair lo good 
are offering Ireely, wilh buyers obtaining conces- 
sions. 

FLOUR. — The market is weak, with some shad- 
g in prices reported. 

WHEAT— The market ruled fair y steady up lo 
Saturday, when a better feeling set in, ctusinga 
strong closing on Monday. In futures very little 
was done, as there was more disposition to buy than 
to s-11. Oa Monday, wilh better bids, trading was 
freer. 



Buyer Year. 
81.471 
1.47: 
147g 
1.49) 



Buyer Year. 
I .91, 
,8M 
.91 g 
.911 



1COMMUK1CATKD.) 

Market Information. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The receipts of ceilain articles of California prod- 
uce at San Francisco lor the past two harvest years, 
ending June 30, 1888, compare as lollows: 



The average price of No. 1 wheat, spot, each year 
since 1870-71 has been as follows: 
Year. Her cil. Year. Per ctl. 

1870- 71 $2 20^11879.80. A . . 1 82 

1871- 72 2 34 1 1880-81 1 42% 

1872- 73 1 1881-82 1 60 

1873 74 a 05X11883-83 1 73 « 

1874- 75 1 62 11883-84 1 64 -S 

1875- 76 1 93 H '884.85 1 31ft 

1870-77 1 92XI 1885-86 1 43 a 

1877 78 2 18 1 1886-87 1 52' , 

1878 79 1 67*4 [1887-88. t 40X 

For the crop year ended June 30, i860, and it; 

successors to June 30, 1888, the experts of wheat and 
Hour were as lollows: 



Corn, sks 

Rye, sks 

Buckwheat, sks 



Salt, tons. 
Wool, bis. 



1886-87. 


1887-88. 


.4,136,386 


3.79°t°64 


i3.'4'.3 6 7 


8 487 in 


.2,279.398 


2.338.729 


136, 104 


160,589 


876,711 


1,160,248 


136,913 


248,188 


28.458 


19,188 


5.9' t 


3>°54 


447.484 


396, 140 


446 606 


515.219 


108,904 


124. 181 


23.43° 


17,930 


94. "4 


76.794 


111,960 


108,632 


139,772 


1 12,724 


19, 176 


30.844 


•3. 5 '3 


16,008 



Hops, bis , 

The receipts of s : mil ir articles from points out- 
side of the Slate, Oregon, Washington Territory, 
etc., for the same year, compare as follows: 



1887 88 

436 537 
1 223 515 

75 

274.825 
12.590 
>5 465 
73.50I 
5 2 9 
33.765 
5.827 
82.365 



1886 87 

Flour, sks 261,776 

Wheal, ctls 1,009.434 

Barley, ells 6.198 

Oats, ctls 348.652 

Corn, ctls 117.804 

Wool, bales 35,158 

Bran, sks 32. 333 

Hops, bales 801 

Hides, No 38,087 

Rye, ctls 

l^otatoes, sks 144.834 

It will be noticed (bat more oats from other States 
are received al San Francisco than from our own 
State. There is no export demand for oats at this 
port, and hence only such quantities are sent here 
as are wanted for local consumption. The Califor- 
nia oat crop is never large. 

Cereals. 

Below are given the highest, lowest and average 
prices of No. 1 wheat for each monih of the past 
cereal year, tjuotations are based on actual sales in 
the sample market, and not on Call Board figures. 

Month. Average. Highest. Lowest 

July, 1887 $1 80K $t 92K $1 77it 

August 1 85^ 2 00 1 30 

September 1 25X 1 32M 1 22^ 

October 1 2554 1 30 1 33}$ 

November 1 31 1 40 1 25 

December 1 36K 1 41 X 1 32H 

January. 1888 1 36M 1 38X 1 33K 

February 1 31^ 1 36)4' 1 28 X 

March 1 31 1 33^ 1 28K 

April 1 30 1 37% 1 25 

May 1 37'A 1 45 1 30 

June 1 31M 1 36X 1 30 

A verage for year $1 40 X 



Year. 

i860. . . 
1861. . . 
1862. . . 
1863 .. 

1864. . . 
1865... 
1866. . . 
1867... 
1868. . . 
1869. . . 
1870. . . 
1871. . . 
1872... 
1873... 
1874- 



1875 439.667. 

1876. 
1877. 
1878. 

1879. 
1880. 



Wheat. Flour. 

Tons. Bbls. 

19.088 58,926 

76496 197,181 

42,593 101,653 

52,183 144.883 

53.3 6 4 152.633 

1,368 9L479 

51.975 279,554 

181,809 465,337 

190,188 423.189 

218,726 453,920 

243. '99 352962 

178,592 196,219 

70,219 . 270,079 

491.134 263,645 

363,662 644,710 



482.55« 

306.823 445. 143 

525885 496.630 

109.871 451, 164 

499805 527.440 

526.344 493360 

3i '668.388 662,093 

1882 1,128,031 919,898 

1883 720,130 1,105.639 

1884 564.133 1,260,628 

1885 ■ 786,621 1,304,641 

1886 ". 567,016 1,096,694 

1887 600,350 801,911 

1888 433,938 824,26s 

B-low are given the highest, lowest and average 

prices of No. 1 feed barley for each month of the 
cereal year. Quotitions are based on actual sales in 
the -ample markt t, and not on Call Board figures. 
Month. Average. Highest. Lowest. 

July, 1887 $1 04 $1 08N $ Q8i£ 

August 94 X I 01 X 90 

September 91 H 97 H 85 

October 83 % 90 

November 85^ 

December 86Ji 

lanuary, 1888 83K 



February 
March 
April . . 
May . . 
June. 



78^ 
79 M 
80 

864-5 

79 K 



90 
90 
87* 
82^ 
8254 
98X 
05 

82 K 



82 % 
82M 

75 

78 H 
75 

7S 

77 'A 
77 a 



Average for year 79K 

Harvesting is reported to be quite general in this 
State. The outturn of wheat is more man estimated 
in last May, but not more than estimated last year, 
viz. : from 400,000 10 425,000 tons for > xport. The 
grade will be irregular but gtnerally belter than last 
s-ason. Mr. Logan, president of the Grangers' 
bank, informs the writer that tile late sown grain 
n the northern central counties, although having 
short straw, headed out well, the kernel bcinii plump 
and of good grade. He also said that 111 some 
localities much ol the straw rotti d Irom the (fleets of 
the rain and moist weather. From all the writer can 
learn the plant, as a rule, did not stool out well; and 
although the heads may be full yet the plant not 
stooiing out will be against an aveiage yield 10 the 
acre. Oregon advices report lhat Ihe corduions 
there are virtually unchanged. The O/tgonian re- 
ports that the outturn will bi disappointing, that is, 
shoit. 

In the local when market trading the past week 
was light, due to its bung the commencement of a new 
season and also to the holidays. The market though 
presented a strong firm tone with a slightly higher 
range at the close of business 011 yesterday. Monday. 
Receipts at tide water are gradua ly increasing. The 
slock of grain in the warehouses in this city on July 
1st, was as follows-in tons: Wheat, 14458: barley, 
23.696; oils, 2209; corn, 787. I he slock of wheat 
at Pott Co ti on the above date was 61,657 tons. 
Total in this city and Port Costi, 76,116 tons. 
Decrease during the month, 7215 tons. 

The receipts of barley last month footed up 5832 
Ions, and as the stock on July 1st compared with 
|une 1st showed a decrease of i2ootons,the consump- 
tion for the month was slightly over 7000 tons, 
against about 7500 tons in May. 

Harvest advices are of the same tenor as reported 
of wheat. The outturn averages fair to ihe acre but 
there is a lessened acreage compared with 1887. to 
cu'. The consumption is large, much more than in 
1887, ow ing to an increa'e in the number of horses 
due to more active railroad building, more farm 
work and more city and general teaming. Prices 
the past week ruled lower with the market weak un- 
der free selling and bears hammering prices down 
for futures. 

Oats have rulled in buyers favor throughout the 
week owing to heavy stocks here and a light call. 
The low price of barley causes oats to be more or less 
neglected for feed. Oregon advices report improved 
crop prospects. 

In corn there is nothing particularly doing. The 
consumption in June fell off, in comparison with 
May, over 500 tons in this city alone. The market 
is irregular "and hard to quote owing to the slow de- 
mand. 

In rye new is offering fairly free, but buyers are 
not disposed to buy beyond immediate wants, con- 
sequently prices show signs of shading. 

Vegetables. 

The low figures to which potatoes fell, combined 
with their better quality, ai traded bu>ers, and as 
the market was cleaned up, prices strengthened. 
The demand was chiefly for shipping. The market 
now is barely steady, as receipts are Iree and the de- 
mand only fair. 

Onions have held fairly steady. The low prices 
and improved quality cause a better shipping de- 
mand, but, fas yet, only in exceptional cases. The 
points to which sent are chiefly on this coast. 

Peas are generally too old to attract rpuch buying. 
String beans are in heavy receipt as are summer 
squash. Receipts of green oker, greenl peppers, 



tomatoes, pickling cucumbers and table cucumbers 
are increasing, causing prices to rule in fa»or of 
buyers. 

Feedstuff. 

The market for all kinds of ground feed was st-ady 
throughout the week, although at the close a slightly 
easier feeling prevailtd for ground barley. Toe con- 
sumption is slowly increasing. 

Hay is coming in fieely, although the lower range 
of prices checked the receipts to some extent. The 
grade, as a rule, is good; b< tier than last year. The 
consumption is large but dealers and also feeders do 
not anticipate wants as yet. 

Fruts. 

Owing to the lower range for apricots, large 
quantities are being dried. For the raw fruit the 
average price is about 2c per lb. from dinners. 
While extra choice, well selec'ed felch as high as 
2%c. and in exceptional cis^s 24ic. The softer and 
smaller sized only command from 1 '4 to i%c Or- 
chirdists, as a rule, dry the cullings when not loo 
soft. Canners have bought heavy this year, and put 
up nearly as many as they did in 1887. At the 
close, it looks as if apricots are being bought up for 
belter prices. 

For pears and peaches canners continue to name 
1 He as a basis, although for the more choice they 
paid up to 3c, and for the off from ic to i',c, the 
poorer for making pie fruits. For plums ic to i^c 
per lb. is named by canners. 

Berries the past week were lower and in buyers' 
favor. Currants solo>freely at $1.50 per chest, and 
strawberries at $3 per chest. Ol course, for table 
use. a slightly higher range obtained. Blackterries 
and raspberries also sold lower, with canners clean- 
ing up the market each day at the lower prices. 

Receipts of fru ti to-day was quite free, but, to- 
morrow being the Fourth, a better demand obtained 
from dealers, which kept prices strong for all of the 
more choice. 

Some new season dried apricots have been re- 
ceived and they show up well, the iun-dried averag- 
ing better, so far, than last year. A. J. Hatch had 
a sample dried on his place in Suisun Valley that 
can not be excelled for color and fl ivor. Some sales 
• ire reported lor shipment to the Ea^t at ia}»c per 
lb., while some shipments were made on owners 
risk. The dried fru ts. it is claimed, will be of a 
better grade and belter cared for than evrr before. 

In raisins, there is nothing new to report. Large 
packers will aim to bring out belt r grades and put 
up in superior style than ever belore, so as 10 com- 
pete with the best foriign in the Eistern markets. 

New York mail advices report the fruit crop in 
western New York very light, with B.irllett pears an 
almost to'al failure. 

J. K. Armsby of Chicigo is here, and it is needless 
to say he is a b g bull on the canned and dried fruit 
situation, particularly apncois. 

Bops. 

New York, July 2.— The exportation of about 
450 bales of hops, with a steady brewers' demand 
adds brightness 10 the situation, and a troublesome 
surplus is unlikely. Medium best State is quoted at 
from io(a*i3c and Pacific lange from 8(0)110. Wiih 
the choice grades well sold out 1 ic is regarded as the 
best price. 

Miscellaneous. 

New York, July 2.— The prices of the new crop 
of dr,ed apricots will be named next week. 

Mustard seed is quoted at 354(040. I he foreign 
crop is reported to be heavy. 

Raisins are active for the season; $2.05 is given 
for the best 3-crown and $1.60 for good, common 
grades. 

l.'mes are selling at $2.75(0 2.80 and are steady. 
Fresh Iruit is in light supply; 200D boxes were sold 
by auction at $3.3ofS*4 for Ba't'etts; $1.25(0. 1.75 for 
peaches; $1.60(011.85 for plums; $1.45(011.65 for 
apricots. German prunes are very attractive. 
Live-Stock. 
Continued warm weather lessens the consumption, 
and is also against butchers carrying much in shop, 
and as there is a fairly free offering of bullocks, the 
ma'ket is easy, except for medium sized that are in 
good condition and which will cut up without much 
wastage. Mutton sheep are barely steady at the 
recent advance. The scarcity of feed is in favor of 
the maintaining of good prices. Hogs command 
good prices, but as receipts are increasirg, values 
are liable to shade off. In horses, there is nothing 
new to report. The inquiry is only fair for matched 
teams, and as for that any kind ol an animal, but an 
improvement is looked for toward the last of the 
month, chiefly for general utility horses. 

The market for dressed meat is quotable as follows 
by slaughterers to bu'ehers I'oget the price of stock 
on foot, take off one-third of the price for still and 
grain ft ti and one-half from the price ofgia'sfed, 
that is, animals running at large.) 

HOGS — On fo"t, grain fed, 6'Ac(d— lb.; 
dressed. 9% @ 10c tf* tl>. ; soft. 5 Wq 6c fe» tt>. ; dressed, 
8K@9J4c f|f lb. Stock hogs, ^(chs%c tb. 

BEEF — Stall fed, 8c@— lb. ; erass fed, extra, 
7(«7^c lb.; first quality, 6V;@6}ic |r? tt..; second 
qua ity 6@— $ lb. ; third quality, 5(0 — tb. 

VEAL — Choice Sljvgc jj> tb ; fair to good, 6@7c. 
MUTTON-Welhers. 6(0 6«d $ lb.; ewes,5J4@ 
6c fib.; lamb, spring, 8@9c $ lb. 

Miscellaneous. 
Poultry held fairly steady throughout Ihe week. 
Bjans are slow but steady. 

In honey it is haid to gf t sales, owing lo a differ- 
ence in views repoited betwetn buyers and sellers-. 

Hops have a stronger tone. Buyers are said to 
lie more anxious to contract for lutures. The im- 
proved feeling is due to unfavorable crop advices 
from abroad and the growing scarcity of old. 

In reply to Mr. Hoyt, of Suisun, the writer will 
slate that American manufacturers have not been 
able to manufacture broadcloth and the finest grades 
of any kind of woolen goods in this country since the 
high tariff went into iffect; previous to that time this 
was quite an industry. In further reply 1 will state 
that there are grades of wools required for mixing 
certain kinds of goods which are not grown in the 
United States, and as they cost high, owing to the 
duty, manulacturers have to pay low prices for the 
American wools that are used so as lo reduce the 
cost of the goods manufactured. This is why nearly 
every grade of American wools sell tor less money 
here than the same grades fetch in England. 

In the wool market there is nothing new to re- 
port. The medium to finer grades are wanted, pro- 
vided they are healthy, lively and clean. Buyers 
discriminate more this season than they did last 
year. 



July 7, 1888. 



f ACIFKB RURAb JpRESS, 



17 



Domestic Produce. 



Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 



6 & 

6 <g> 



rades at 11 less th»n the lower 

Tuehdav, July 3, 18 " 
Extracted, light 6 (* 

do dark 5 («? 

HOPS. 

Oregon 

Cali.ornia 

ONIONS. 

Red 55 @ 

Silver-skin 60 <0 

NUTS Jobbinc. 
Walnn's, Cal. lb 6j(a> 

do Chile 6}® 

Almonds, hd shl. 5 (ee 

8oft shell 

Paper shell. . . 



11 ,„ 

9 10 



quotations, while very poor 
quotations. 

BEANS AND PEAS 

Bayo, ctl 2 00 (" 2 15 

Butter —is — 

Pea 3 40 @ 3 65 

Red 1 75 <* 2 00 

Fink 2 00 m 1 25 

Lirge White.... — (3 — 
Small White. ... 3 00 @ 3 60 

Lima 3 00 (a 3 60 

Fid Peas.blkeye 2 00 <» 2 20 

do green 3 00 <» 4 10 

do Niles 1 90 (a — 

BROOM f ORN. 
South 'n V tjn.,60 00 (<t80 00 

Northe.n 60 00 W80 tO Brazil 

CHICORY. Pocans 10 @ ih 

California 7 @ 8 Peanuts 4 to. (i 

German 8 W 9 Filbeits 10 (re 12 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. Hickory 5 <<? 8 

butter. POTATOES. 

Cal. Com. to fair,tli20 «c 24 Early Rose 35 @ 65 

dogiodto choice 25 W 2fiJ Chile 30 (<i 70 

;8 Peerless 40 @ 75 

28J POULTRY AND GAM*. 

20 Htns, doz 8 00 @ 9 50 

Roosters 5 50 ffilO 10 

11} Brc ilers 3 00 @ 5 50 

13 Dinks, tame.... 4 CO iff 6 00 

Geese, pair.. 1 25 @ 1 50 

26 I do Goslings... 1 75 @ — 

24 Turkeys, It. )7 (n) 22 

19 babbits, do/..... 1 25 («' 1 50 

Hare 1 00 (§ 1 75 

Bran, ton 15 00 ("17 00 PROVISIONS. 

Keertroeal 29 00 ("30 00 Cal. Bacou, 

I'd Barley 17 50 ("19 00 Heary, lb 11 @ 

Medium 12 (W 



do Fancy br'nds 271 

do pickied 27J(« 

Eastern 14 @ 

CHEESE. 

California. Hi. . . 9 @ 
Eastern style .. . 10 @ 

KG (98. 
Cal. ranch, doz. 

do. store 

Eastern 

FEED 



25 @ 
20 ca! 
16 @ 



Middlings 17 50 (a>19 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. 28 00 @29 00 



12! 



Light 12J(o> 

Ex ra Li e nt .. 13 (<* 

Lard 9J(<» 

Cal. Bm'k'd Beef 1 1 *(£» 

Hams, Cal 12j(po 

do Eastern... 14 (n> 
SEEDS 

AIMfa. 



HAY. 

Wheat, per ton. 10 CO ("14 00 
Whe.t and Oats 10 00 (019 00 

Wild Oats 10 0C (ftll 50 

Clover 12 00 (»13 00 

Tame Oats .... 1 ) 00 (»12 60 

Barley 8 00 ("10 50 

Barley and Oats 10 00 (rfll 00 X?"* r r y pli 
Alfalfa, 1st cut g 8 00 «» 9 00 c 'S, v ff; A Kea 
Straw bale 40 @ 50 c %™ e ;- «<■> 

rLOUK. Flaxseed. . 2 (O) 

Extra, CityMills 4 00 (" 4 25 Hemp 4 
do Co try Mills 3 75 @ 4 U0 italiauUyeGrass 10 (» 

Superhne 3 25 tc 3 50 Perennial .... 

GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl. 75 (* 85 
do Brewing. . . 95 <" 1 15 

Chevalier 1 10 <ty I 20 

do Coast 90 «x> 1 05 Rape 

Buckwheat 1 50 (" 1 70 Ky. Blue Grass. 

Cto, White.... 1 45 @ 1 55 2d quality ... 

Ye.low 1 25 (a 1 30 8wect V. Grass. 

Oats, milliug.... 1 40 @ 1 60 Orchard 

Choice feed ) 30 (a 1 35 

do good. 1 27'W 1 30 

do fair 1 22ivi 1 2 > 

do Gray 1 33 W 1 37i 

Rye 1 50 (re 1 60 

Wheat, milling. 

Gilt edged.... 1 42iC<* - Crude, 11 3 (a 

do Choice 1 38?<" 1 40 EU fined 6 (q 

do fair to good 1 35 ire 1 37 J | WOOL. ETC. 

Shipping, cho'ce 1 33J(i* - spkino-1888. 
do good 1 31 { ce 1 32' Humboldt and 



Millet. German. 

du Common . . 
Mustard, white. 

do Brown .... 



34@ 
11 1 1 ' 



7 <a 

5 @ 
5 (no 
lj(o> 
2 «*> 
1J@ 
15 @ 
13 @ 
7. @ 
17 i" 
9 (* 



Red Top . 
Hii-igarian 

Law 30 (« 

Mesquit. 
Timothy 



TALLOW. 



(re 
7 <§ 



do lair 1 30 (ct 

HIDES. 

Dry ma 

Wet salted 54<a 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 20 ® 

Honey in comb. 11 @ 
do fancy 14 «' 



Mendocino. 
Sac'to valley.... 
Free Mountain. 
S Joaquin vahey 
do m untai". 
Cala'v & F'tiril. 
Oregou Eastern, 
do valley 



15 @ 
12! I'- 
IS <" 

9 (a> 
in (» 
)2 <tf> 

— @ 

— (* 



Fruits and Vegetables. 



Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. Tuesday, July 3, 1888. 

Apples bx, com 30 @ 75 | do evapor. t> d b (8 7 

do Choice 1 00 (a 1 50 Plums, evapo'ed 10 ((* 11 

Apricots, bx — @ — do unpi ted . 4(d) 5 

do Roy-Is.... 45 (re 70 Prunes 5R« 9 

Bananas, bunch 2 00 (<* 4 00 do French.... Set 11 
Blackberries, ch 3 00 @ B 00 RAISINS. 
Cherries, wh, bx 50 (ai 75 Dehcsa Clus, fey 3 25 @ 3 50 
do black, bx.. 40 @ 75 llmperial Cabin- 
do Royal Ann 50 (* 8b et, fancy.... 2 00 @ 2 25 

Cranberries 10 00 i« 12 00 Crown London 

Currants ch 1 60 (" 2 60 Layers, fey. 2 00 @ 2 25 

Go seberrles lb. ljdu 7 du Loose Mns- 

Limes, Mex 2 50 i" 4 00 catels, fancy 1 90 & 2 '.0 

Lemons, lal bx 2 00 3 (0 do Loose Mus- 

do Sic ly, box, 4 50 («i 6 00 catels 1 60 (* 1 90 

Oranges.Combx 3 00 @ 4 (0 Cal. Valencias.. 1 60 1 80 
do Choice.... — <& - I do Lay.rs.... 1 50 (3> 1 60 
doNavels do Sultanas... 1 60 (2? 1 75 

choice 3 SO (3 5 00 |Dried, sacks, lb. 5 @ 6 

do do Com... 2 00 @ 3 00 | Outside brands of raisins 
Peaches, bx . . . . 40 (* 75 sell at from 25 cts to 50 cts leas 

Crawford, bx £0 <g 1 00 than above quotations. 

Pineapples, doz. 2 50 I" 4 50 Fractious come 25, 50 and 75 
Raspberries ch.. 4 fO (oo 7 00 cents higher for halves, quar- 
Strawberries ch. 3 00 @ 6 00 t c rs and eighths. 

Pears, bx 40 @ 75 ( VEGETABLES. 

Plums, fix... 50 ini 1 00 Asparagus bx... 75 c* 1 25 
Fi s, black, hx . . Ift@ 40 do ext acboice 2 00 «e 3 50 
do wbite, bx. 10 «* 25 : 0)(ra dry n , 15,^, 2 5 

do Green lb... 10 (8 15 
»arsi ips, ctl. ... 1 50 (3 1 75 
Peppers, dry, tb. 8 (o 10 
do green, bx.. 25 @ 75 
Squash, Sum- 

i mer, bx 25 @ 40 

_ String heana, th. 1 (rf> 2 J 
11 Turnips, ctl 1 '0 C* 1 25 





1 00 


(a> 1 50 


Nectarines, bx.. 


75 


<a l oi 


Wa'rmel'ns, bx.. 


2 50 


(" 3 50 


Canteloupes, cr. 


3 00 


(g 6 10 


DRIED FRUIT. 




Apples, sliced, lb 


6 


m 


6J 


do ^vaporated 


9 


1 


10 


do quartered. 


10 




11 




7 


® 


10 


do blea bed.. 


12 


@ 


124 


do evaporated 


13 


@ 


15 


Blackberries 


12 


@ 


15 




18 


@ 


25 




9 


@ 


10 


Figa, pres.-ed. . . 


5 


@, 


6 




3 


<a 


4 




8 


<& 


10 


do evaporated 


12 


@ 




Peaches 


6 


m 


9 


do evaporated 


If 


1 


17 


Pears, sliced 


3 


m 


7 




3 


@ 


7 



Beets, sk. 



Green Corn, sk . 

do Swet t sk . 
Green Peaa, sk.. 
Sweet Pea-, sic. . 
Musbrooms, II. . 
Rhuha b hx.... 
Cucumbers, bx. 
(i«lic, lb 



do Vacaville, bx 
do Alameda, bx 



1 25 @ - 

90 @ 1 00 

30 @ 50 

25 @ 50 

1 00 1 75 

75 @ 1 00 

75 (d> 1 25 

5 (» 25 
® 

25 i" 1 00 

4® 1 

75 m 1 00 

25 <* 35 

- @ - 



Our Agents. 



Our Fkiksdh can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We Intend to send none 
but worthy men 

JOHn[0. H. Lampadids— Ventura Co. 

O. W iNGAiiUB— Arizona Territory. 

A. F. Jkwktt— Tulare Co. 

C E. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Co.'s. 

K. G. Huhton — -Montana Territory. 

Wm. Wilkinson— Butte and Tehama Co.'s. 

w. w. Tiiitobalos— Sonoma, Napa and Yolo Co.'s. 

F B Logan— Placer Co ami Nevada State. 

8 .1. Litil'Fikld— Santo Barha-a, Los Angeles and 
San Diego Co. 'it 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
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demand paymentfor the time It is sent. Look carkpdllj 
VT TBI LABKL ON YOUR PAPIR. 



El Verano. 

Messrs. Briggs, Ferguason & Co., the well- 
known real estate agents, held a most successful 
sale on this new townsite on Saturday, June 
30th, offering the entire large town plat at 
auction, with a Urge amount of a.' j icent fruit 
lands in tracts of from one acre up to 20 acres. 

The sale began at 1 o'clock and the bidding 
was spirited from the start. The town lots, 
which were the first sold, realized much higher 
prices than the owners had expected. From 
1 o'clock until 5 the glib tongaed auctioneer 
kept up a peaceful racket, but the time was too 
limited to close out the long list of property, 
comprising about 1200 lots and 100 blocks and 
acre tracts. However, some 840,000 worth was 
sold witbin the four hours, and about $25,000 
more will be sold within a few days at private 
sale, making it, notwithstanding the lack of 
time, one of the most successful sales of the 
season. 

El Verano is in Sonoma valley, Sonoma county, 
40 miles due north of Sin Francisco, and is one 
of the richest and finely located valleys in the 
State so far as health, climate and scenery is 
concerned. And now with its new railroad fa- 
cilities completed it is one of the best located 
valleys in the State commercially. The new 
Santa Rosa & Carquinez R. R. gives it a direct 
overland route for carload lots of fruit. This 
road runs directly through the town, while the 
Sonoma Valley Narrow Oiauge connects it with 
the cities of the "bay. 

The trip across the bay and up the valley 
was a most pleasant one. Leaving the foot of 
Market street in the good steamer Tiburon, she 
soon landed us at Tiburon. Boarding the 
train, we went plunging under hills and mount- 
ains, across swamps and bogs, through pretty 
little valleys, winding around between hills and 
water, across level reclaimed tules where the 
great ricks of hay and the fat, sleek cattle 
showed the richness of the soil. Directly we 
are switched off of Donahue's road on to the 
new bro «d gauge line running northeast over 
the tules that here margin the bay's wide 
stretching, exceeding rich lands, only a few 
inches above tide water, inexhaustible in a cer- 
tain rough kind of richness, and which for all 
time will ba very valuable as forage producers, 
and all capable of being cheaply reclaimed. 
Over the new road our train ran very slow, be- 
ing the first passenger train attempting this 
semi-aquatic promenade over the tules. A 
glorious country for frogs, toads, pollywogs, 
and mosquitoes. Once our train halted 
for a time when it was quickly boarded by 
great swarms of great yellow haired mofqui- 
toes, hungry and fierce. Honestly and truly, 
some of these w> re so large that a great many 
of them woull weigh a pound. Etch one had 
a bill to present and insisted on a collection 
without due process of law. In due time we 
reached the junction with the narrow gauge, 
where we changed cars, and following a cow 
path, we went winding around between the 
tules and hills until we struck Sonoma 
valley, and then we had a straight run 
of a few miles through the splendid or- 
chards and vineyards of this renowned valley. 
As a rule these were in splendid condition, and 
showed an immense crop of luscious fruit. 
Mostly all were thoroughly cultivated, and 
showed by their rich dark-green foliage that 
they would not only mature their immense 
crop of fruit, but also mature and fill out a full 
vigorous growth for future business. 

One instance was noticed where a genius had 
killed the goose that would have laid the golden 
eggs by being too greedy. He had town a 
thrifty young orchard in grain and had mown 
it for hay. He has the hay, but one-third of 
the beautiful young trees are dead, and the 
rest of them will die before fall. 

The soil of Sonoma valley is a deep, rich, 
black, conglomerate loam, on a deep gravelly 
somewhat stony loam, suited to fruits 1 f every 
kind, with a climate surpassed by none on this 
earth for general fruit growing. What is the 
future of these Sonoma valleys to be? We 
would say that their future is to be greater 
than any other lands that the bright Bun ever 
shown upon. Nothing can spoil them except it 
be that the climate is so fine that mankind will 
occupy and cover the whole land with houses 
to live in, thus leaving no room to grow fruits. 

415 Montgomery street, S. F. D. B. W. 



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rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
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subscriber, please show the paper to others. 



" All'e Samp: 'Melican Man."— About 30 
Chinamen who were packing fruit for W. R 
Strong at Courtland for $1 25 a day, struck for 
(] 5Q, Having obtained this concession, two or 
three days later, they struck for $2 a day of 10 
hours, and 20 cents an hour for extra time 
The rascals were shrewd enough to catch their 
employers with a lot of perishable fruit on hand 
— Cor. Dixon Tribune. 



Remember. — w e can'make it an object for 
some friend going East to, consult us before 
buying tickets. 



WHY? 



"WHY do I have this drowsy, 
ifeless feeling ? WHY do I 
have Backache? WHY Neu- 
ralgia and Rheumatism ? WHY 
does Scrofulous taint and Ery- 
sipelas show itself? 

BECAUSE your blood is 
filled with PoisOD, which must 

be Completely Eradicated 

before you can regain health. 
You must go to the root of the 
matter. Put the Kidneys — the 
great and only blood purifying 
organs — in complete order, which 
is complete health, and with 

Warner's Safe Cure 

And WARNERS SAFE PILLS 

your Cure is Certain. 

WHY do weA know this ? 
BECAUSE Jt. ns of thous- 
ands of grate- % ful men and 
women in all % parts of the 
world have voluntarily written us 
to this effect. 

There is no stand-still in 

disease. You are either grow- 
ing Better or Worse. How is 
it with YOU ? 

WHY not to-day resort to 
that medicine, which has verita- 
bly Cured Millions, and which 
will cure you if you will give it 
a chance ? 

All of Warner's preparations 
are Purely Vegetable. They are 
made on honor. They are time- 
tried. They are No New Dis- 
covery, Untried and 

Worthless ; on the contrary, 
they have stood the test — they 
have proved their superiority. 
They stand alone in pre-eminent 
merit, and YOU KNOW IT. 



PARK PLACE. 




A New Paper Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's patent 
elastic binder, for periodi- 
cals, musicand other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, and 
very cheapest of all econom- 
ical and practical file bind- 
ers. Newspapers aie quick- 
ly placed in it (as received) 
and held neatly, as in a 
cloth-bound book. It is 
durable, and so simple a 
child can use it Price (size 
of this paper, Harper's 
Weekly, and Scientific 
American), 75 cents; post- 
age 10 cents. Postpaid to 
purchasers of this paper, 50 
cents. For sale at this of- 
fice. Send for illustrated 
circular. Agen ts wanted. 



Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vineyard 
Field, Garden, Conservatory, etc, 

with 

Remedies for their Extermination. 
Bv MATTHEW COOKE. 

Late Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of California. 
Illustrated with over 750wood-cut9 and 25 pa^re* of classi- 
fied illustrations. This hook 19 designed for the use of 
orchardibts, vineyardists, farmers and others interested 
in the snhjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
cal information concerning some of the species of in- 
fects injurious to the industrifs of cultivators of th" 
soil, and those interested in earth produce genera l/ 
Price $4, postpaid. For ,«ale by Dkwbt & Co., puhliuh 
era, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 



$500,000 

On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdorff St. , 
Room 3. # * 

Any onf. wishing a bargain in the way of a new 
carriage, or wagon, will do well to call at this office. 



Land Between Fruitvale and 
Mills Seminary. 



To parties desirous of eslablishing homes, a rare 
opportunity is offered to secure land at a price lower 
in comparison than any where else in California. 

It is located only a short distance from Oakland, 
between FRUITVALE and MILLS' COLLEGE, 
and immediately ADJOINS THE GROUNDS OK THE 
LATTF.R. 

The land is just rolling enough to render it beauii- 
ful for building sites. Situated at the base of the 
foothills, it has a most desirable climate, and its 
proximity to the best Female Seminary in the State, 
makes it suitable as residence property for families 
having girls to educate whom they wish to live at 
home. 

1 he land can now be purchased at a low price, 
in quantities to suit, and its nearness to Oakland, 
the best market in the State, makes it desirable for 
the growing of Orchard, Small Fruits, Fowl, etc. 

That the land is specially adapted to Fruit culture 
is guaranteed by the reputation of this famous Fruit- 
vale district for fine Fruits. 

The best large market in the State, Oakland, be- 
ing only four miles away, and several Canneries in 
the vicinity, make the paying of freight charges un- 
necessary. 

The setting out of Fruit Trees would increase the 
value of the land, besides furnishing an income. 
The value will also be enhanced by the building of 
the Alameda County Railway, now in course of con- 
struction, which is to have a depot on the land, and 
then San Francisco can be reached in 55 minutes, or 
Broadway, Oakland, in 15. 

For investment it is an opportunity which rarely 
occurs, as Oakland is rapidly extending in this di- 
rection, and must, in the near future, include this 
land within its limits. This is proved by the fact that 
in i860 Oakland had but 1000 people ; in 1870, 10,- 
000 ; 1880, 30,000 ; and now 60,000, and growing 
more rapidly than ever. 

People in the interior who desire to educate their 
children at the State University, in Berkeley, or at 
schools in Oakland or Sin Francisco, can establish 
here a rural home and be constantly with them. 

This land was part of the Laundry Farm, that 
old and well-known Summer Resort, and is just far 
enough from the Picnic and Camping Grounds to 
be desirable and add value. 

Address, JOSEPH H. DORETY, 529 Commer- 
cial street, San Francisco, Cal. 



ST. MATTHEW'S HALL, 

SAN MATEO, GAL. 

A SCHOOL FOR BOYS, 

UNDER MILITARY DISCIPLINE. 

Thorough Preparation for College or for 
Business. 

£3F For Catalogue, address, 

REV. ALFEKD LKK BRKWKR. M. A., 

Principal. 



THE WHITE IS KING 

OF ALL 

SEWING MACHINES. 

Simple in Construction, L!ght Running, Most Durah'c 
and Complete. 
Visitors always welcome. 

WHITE SEWING MACHINE CO. 
108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases 

By B. J. Kendall, M. D. 

35 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal n-edicincsuscd 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of me- 
dicines. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a tine en 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at each year. It is printed on fine paper 
nad has nearly 100 pages, 7Jx5 inches. Price, only 2f> 
cents, or five for $1, on receipt of which we will send 
by mall to any address. DEWEY & CO.. 

220 Market St. . 8. V. 



rOR THE BEST IMPROVED Jj ^ i 

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS p 

MENZO SPRING. 

9 Geary St. |i 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal ii a*«S 

~~Z i. <d -Sao n 

OFFICE S. U CO 





18 



f> AC1F16 I^URAb PRESS. 



[Joly 7, 1888 



THE SCIENTIFIC KIT OF TOOLS 

FOR 

Farmers, Dairymen, Stockmen & Machinists 

Blacksmith's Drill 
Press, HaDd Feed; 
Weight, 66 Bis. 

Combination Anvil 
and Vise, hardened 

ill face, finely polished; 

weight, 60 lbs. 

Farmer's Foree, 
No. 6 U, will heat 
1} inch iron. 




Blacks mith's 
Hammer and 
Handle. 2 lbs., 
solid cast steel. 



Blacksmith's Hot and Colu Chisels 
I) lbs each; both solid cast steel. 





SK Farrier's Pincers, Cast Steel; 12-inch. 



Shoeing Hammer and Handle; weight, 
9 ounces. 




EVERY TOOL GUARANTEED, 

And we offer this complete 

OUTFIT FOR ONLY $25.00 

Which is hardly half the regular prices, and none can 
afford to he without this set. Orders by mail promptly 
filled. Address, 

G. G. WICKSON & CO., 
Nos. 3 and 5 Front St.. San Francisco. 

H. P. GREGORY & GO. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

SOLE AOFJJTS FOR 

WEBBER'S CELEBRATED 




IRRIGATING 

PUMPS. 

Wi ALSO CARRY III STOCK TBI LaROSST LlKI OF 

MACHINERY 

In the UNITED STATE8, 

Consisting of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 
description. 

ENGINES AND BOILERS 



A SPECIALTY. 



W. H. Tiltox. 



Jamks I'akk ■■ . - 



CARROLL & TILTON, 



— BlaMM in- 




GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

SHIPPING s COMMISSION HOUSE. 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehouse and Wharf at Port Coata. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



GATHER SAMPLES OF GRAIN! 

DURING HARVEST 

AND OTHERWISE 

PREPARE COUNTY EXHIBITS 

FOR THE 



S ACRAMENTQ, Sept. 3d to 1 5th. 

$2500 CASH PREMIUMS FOR C00NTY EXHIBITS, 

IN ADDITION* TO WHICH 18 

$1500 FOR INDIVIDUAL PREMIUMS 

That may be competed for by the contributors to the County Collections. These exhibits are seen during the Fair 
by more than 51,000 .LIT -r.nt people, and are fully described by the press of the State, and written up in detail by 
the Committee of Awards, which report is printed in the Annual Report of the State Agr cultural Society and dis- 
tributed throughout the civilized world. In no other m inner cm the counties reciive such a full, complete and 
comprehensive n >iice. The County Exhibits have proved the rooit effactive msans of advertising the resources, 
developments and advantages of the different localities of the State, and should be made by authority and with 
the aid of the Board . f Supervisors of each County. The Slate Agricultural Society will afford every facility (or 
the exhibition of the products of the State, and would advise those Intending to exhibit to WRITE F >K SI* ACS 
AT ONCE. The first come will be the first served. Premium Lists now readv. Ad lress the Secretary for informa- 
tion. EDWIN F. SMITH. Secretary. L. U. SHIPPER, President. 



INSURE YOUR GROWING GRAIN 



CROPS 



IN THE FIREMAN'S FUND OF CALIFORNIA. 



Gentlemen's and Boys' 

CLOTHING! 



FURNISHING (JOODS. HATS, CAPS, TRUNKS, 
VAlISES, ETC 
873 MARKET STREET, opp. Powell, S. F. 

Visitors welcome. Information by mail. 

LICHTNINC WELL-SINKINO 
MACHINERY. 

Our F..NUYCI.()PEI>IA contain. 7c«! 
Engraving;*, tlf.L-rit.itiK ull tin- tools and 
nschlnrry u«,-<i in tht nrl ot Well-Sink- 
ing, Prosper! mi; Slaeliim-ry, Diamond 
"onted Ruck Drills, and all 
mn-r of Artesian Pumpinp 
Applinnrvs. F.nrvr-li.pedia 
""> els. for mailing. 

The American 
I Well Works, 

AURORA. ILLS., 
U. S. A. 

TUC ndP ' D health, habits and disease, breeds All 
■ fit UUU » u ,i treatment; 60 cuts; 25a This office. 



CALCUTTA GRAIN BAGS 

In Lots to Suit AT LOWEST MARKET RATES. 

Quotations furnished on application. 

GRANGERS' RUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

No. 108 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



PATE NT 



^•■Sillljjl 




VICTO R 

WROUGHT IRON 

RARN DOOR HANGER 



THE BEST AND CHEAPEST Anti- 
Friction Barn Door Hanger and Rail in 

the market, because it is Strong. Simple, 
Silent in Operation, Secure to Kail. 

PRICES OF HANGERS. 

rits. Dor., pairs. 

No. 1. for doors 3 to « ft wide $15 00 

No. for doors 8 to fl ft. wide 16 GO 

No. 5, for doors 9 to 12 ft. wide 1M 00 

No. 4, for doors 12 to 18 ft. wide 28 50 

RAIL. 

In 2-foot lengths, per foot 7 Cents 

FOR SALE BT 

AUSTIN BROS. 

310 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 



CI flRinA Agricultural Weekly, 20 pages, 
r LUfllUH ll8hcd , m - 



Estab- 

GARDENING, FARMING. 
FKI IT GROWING, HOHrJ-MAKING. Full 

information about the State. $2.00 a year, 3 months, 
50 cents. SPECIMENS FREE, THE FLORIDA 
DISPATCH, Jacksonville, Fl». 



STORAGE 



We have some extra room 
suitable for storage pur- 
poses, which we will let on 
very reasonable terms. 

DEWEY & CO., 2'J0 Market street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Commissiop Merchant?. 



DALTON BROS.. 

Commission Merchants 



-AKD DIALERS IN 



CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisc 

[P. O. Box 19S6.] 
AVConslgnments Solicited. 

ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 



ROCCKSSOM TO 

LITTLE FIELD, ALLISON & CO., 

501, 503. 605. 607 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 
Wool. 



MOORE. FERGUSON & CO.. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

— aim— 

General Commission Merchants, 

SIO California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

IVPereonal attention given to Sale* and Liberal Ad 
vancea made on Consignments at low rate* of Interest 



[K8TABM8IIID 1864.) 

GEORGE MORROW It CO., 

HAT and GBAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

39 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
Sam Frahoiboo, Cal. 
sV SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. fa 



C. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers In 

POULTRY, GAME AND EGGS, 

65, 66, 07, California Market, 3. F. 



WITZEL & BAKER, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Wholesale Dealers in 
Provisions. Butter, Cheese, Kgzs. Honey, Eto. (Butter 
and Cheese a Specialty.) 320 & 333 Battery 8t., 8. F 



WETMORE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Oreen and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Eto. 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 & 417 Washington St., 
Ban Francisco. 



EYELETH & NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultrv, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc, 422 Front St., .n 221,223 
225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 

P. STEIN HAGEN & OO., 
Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

brick stores: 
408 & 410 Davis St., San Francisco 

WITT LAND & EREDRICKS0B, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 
ooRsiemiBKTg soLicrmD. 824 Davis St., S. F 



A FRUIT DRIER 

Complete, which makes 20 pounds of Dried Fruit of 
superior quality in twelve hours, and at very little cost, 
for 

FIVE DOLLARS. 

The perfection of simplicity. Rights to manufacture 
larger capacities sold at reasonable price 

LEONARD C0ATES. 
Proprietor Napa Valley Nurseries, 

NAPA OITY. CAL. 

WINCHESTER HOUSE. 



44 Third Street. 



San Francisco. Cal. 



This Fire-proof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 

HOT AND COLD BATHS FREE. 

Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 
ROOMS WITH OR WITHOUT BOARD. 

FREE COACH TO THE HOUSE, 
J. POOLEY. 



July 7, 1888. 



fACIFie RURAlo PRESS, 



19 



jteed;, Wants, Etc. 



Napa Valley Nurseries. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

RELIABLE. PROGRESSIVE. 
LEONARD COATES, Napa City, Cal. 



SAMUEL BRECK, 

Commission Merchant 

DEALER IN 

FARM SEEDS, BIRD SEED, 
FERTILIZERS, 

Cracked Bone & Shells for the Poultry Yard 

FARM AND MILL PRODUCTS, 

212 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 





PATENTED. 



BROWNE'S 

SQUIRREL AND GOPHER 

EXTERMINATOR. 

Material used costs nothing 

No Leather Valves or Bellows 

To get out of order. 

Every Machine guaranteed to 
give satisfaction or money refunded. 

Send direct to Patentee and 
Manufacturer to save agents' com- 
missions. 

Price, $3.00 

Any infringement of this Patent 
will be prosecuted to the full ex- 
tent of the law. 

Send for descriptive Catalogue 
and Testimonials to 

F. E. BROWNE, 

44 S. 8pring St., 
Los Angeles, Cal. 






r Manufacturers r f all kinds 
of Perforated Metal, Lip 
and Lip Hook Sereeus, 
round and slotted, or ;ioy 
othtr kind desired for c ean- 
ing and separating g ain. 
Farmers will please take 
notice t.bat the metal sereeus do not clog or choke up as do 
the old wire screens hentofore in u - e. Also manufac urers 
of Quartz Screens. I* formation by mail. California 
Perforating Screen Co., 145 & 117 Beale St., S. F. 

OThe BUYERS' GUIDE la 
issued March and Sept., 
each year. It is an ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pur- 
chase the luxuries or the 
necessities of life. We 
can clothe you and furnish you with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, walk, dance, slcp, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
Btyles and quantities. Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIDE, which will be sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 

MONTGOMERY WARD & CO. 

111-114 Michigan Avenue. Chicago, TIL 

LAMBORN ROAD MACHINE 




TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO, - CALIFORNIA. 




H. M. NEWHALL & CO. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 



309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Agentfe 



Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. 

for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents In all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO., of London : BOYLSTON INSURANCE CO., of Boston, Mass. 



STOCKTON NURSERY, 

Established 1853. 

ADRIATIC and SAN PEDRO FIGS. 

French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Roofed Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the season of 1887-88 free to all sending for them. All Trees, Vines 
etc., guaranteed free from scale and other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 



B. O. CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST). 

Stockton, Cal. 



SAN FRANCISCO TOOL CO., 

WORKS : First and Stevenson Sts., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



MAKERS OF- 



CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 



FOR 



IRRIGATION AND RECLAMATION. 



STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS of all kinds, 

MACHINE TOOLS, and full line of 

MACHINE SHOP APPLIANCES carried in slock. 

ELEVATORS for freight and passenger use, both worm gear and patent double capacity 
hydraulic. 

WATER METERS of the Worthington pattern. 

ELECTRIC APPARATUS for the generation and distribution of electricity for LIGHT 

and POWER. Keith System. 
FLOUR MILL ROLLS ground and corrugated. Gear Cuttino a Specialty. 
t3~ Prices on application. Send for Catalogue. "ia 



25 to 50 per cent Saved by Using 
"THE FAVORITE" SULPHUR BELLOWS, 

The greatest invention of the age for 

SULPHURING VINESOR TREES 

Patented Jan. 26, 1886 PRICES No. 6, 
$2.50; No. 8. »3.00; No. 10, $3 50. Sent on 
receipt of Postal Order or Check, or by 
Express C. O. D. All kiuug of Bel- 
lows made to order. 

California Bellows Manufacturing Comp y 

123 BEALE ST.. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




PARSONS' FRUIT EVAPORATOR. 

An Established Success. Scientific Principles. 

CAPACITY 

Greatly Increased. 

Prices from $85 to 81000. 



Send for New I lustrated Circular 
and Testimonials. 




Produces the Best Results 
at the Least Expense. 

L. W. PARSONS, 

iBp At San Jose Agricultural Works, 
SAN J08E, CAL. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

rFrae Ooaeh to and from the Hons*. J. W. BBOKER, Proprietor. 



Howe's Scales and Crescent Coffee Mills 

D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, General Agents, 

117 and 119 Market St., cor. Main, San Francisco. 




THE HURRICANE— Size A. 

A mounted, horizontal double-ender. Size of bale, 
when in the press, 17x22 10 inches. Ave'age weight of 
ba.e, 220 pounds. (. apacioy, from 16 to 25 tons per day. 
Uses 4 men and works with 2 frrses. Requires no 
Tramping. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 
Price $1000. 

THE HURRICANE— Size B. 

Size of bale in presi, 22x24x46 inches. Average 
weight of bale, 260 pounds. Capacity, from 20 to 35 
tons per day. U*es 5 men and works w,th 1 or 2 horses, 
at. option of baler. Rnonmi's no Tramping. U-es rope 
or wire. Puts from 7 to 8 t ns in box in a box car. 

Price $1000. 

MONARCH CAR PRESS 

IOTONS BOX CAR £600 

I MONARCH JR.ohd 

"THt * 

lav*l,0** ISTKEBESrSMAlt, 
BALECAR PRESS INTH9 

.WORLD. 




The SELF-TRAMPING JUNIOR MONARCH 

sizR of bale in press, 22x24x46 inches. Avtrage 
weight of 1 ales, 260 pounds, capacity, from 15 to 25 
tons per day. Uses 3 or 4 men, at option of baler. 
Woiks with 1 or 2 horses. Uses rope or wire. Does its 
own T„ahping. Puts from 7 to 8 tons in a bjx car. 
Price $500. 

THE MONARCH. 

Same principle as Junior Monarch, onlv smaller and 
heavier. Size cf bale, when in press, 17x20x40 inches. 
Average weight of bale, 220 pounds. Capacity, from 12 
to 20 tons per day. Requires 3 men and 2 h rses. Uses 
wire only— rope will not hold. Dies its own Tramp- 
ing. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 



Price $000 




THE GENUINE PRICE PETALUMA. 

Size of bale in press, 24x24x50 inches. Average 
weight of bale, 250 pounds. Capacity, from 10 to 18 
tons per day. Requires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope 
or wire. Hay has to be tramped into the press. Puts 
from 5 to 6} tons in a box car. 

Price $350. 




THE IMPROVED EAGLE. 

Size of hale in press, 26x26xu0 inches. Average 
weight of ba'e, 235 pounds. Capacity, from 10 to 15 
tons per day. Requires 4 men and 2 horsts. Uses rope 
or wire. Hay n.ust he tramped in the press. Puts from 
1 J to 5} tons in a box car. 

Price $850. 



Tho above is the finest line of Baling Presses in the 
Uni ed States. They are nearly double the capacity of 
those of other makers. 

43TFor large, illustrated C atalogue of the same, ad- 
dress the 

PRICE HAY PRESS CO., 

San Leantfro. Cal. 




HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS. TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 



Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $65. Horse 
Powers from $50. F. W. KBOGH St CO., 6] 
Beale Street. 8an Francisco. 

Thla paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Bneu Johnson <3t Co., 500 
South 10th St.. Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 EoBe St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chlcasro. Ascent for the Pacific Count 
Joseph H. Dorety. 628 Commercial St, 8. F. 



20 



f ACIFKB RURAlo PRESS 



[July 7, 1888 





LARGE AND SMALL. 

Received First Premium, State Fair, September 24, 1887. 




•S3- 

No Failures. None Ever Returned. Beware of Experiments. 

BUY THE HOUSBH! 

They Have a Larger Sale than all Other Harvesters Combined. 

THE SMALL HOUSER 

Is adapted for Small Farms — few animals; rolling or foothill land. In weight, one-half of the 
Large Houser. Both the Large and Small Houser have oar 

Improved. Doutolo Shoe Cleaner, 

Which reoeived the Premium over all competitors at both State and County Fairs and Field 
Contests in 1887. 

The MILLER LIGHTNING HAY PRESS 

CAPACITY 30 TONS PER DAY, 

For Standard Size Baling Press, 

Or seven and half tons per day for each man 
employed, which is more than has been or 
can be accomplished by any other Press yet 
manufactured. Twenty Tons a dav with 
Tight Biling Press. Can put Ten Tons in 
a car. 



AWARDED 

First Premium at 
State Fairs, 1884, 
1885, 1886 & 1887. 

AWARDED 
Cold and Silver 
Medals at Nevada 
and California 
State Fairs, and 
won Contest 
Money, 850. 




Does not require Hay Stacks 
built to suit our Press. 



CORRESrONDItNCS SOLICITKD. FOR FUR11IKR INFORM ATION , ETC., ADDRK88 



CO 

en 
m 

C/J 



STOCKTON COMBINED HARVESTER & AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 



Sole Manufacturers for the Pacific Coast, 



Box M, STOCKTON, CAL, 



MERY'S IMPROVED PIONEER 




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BARLEY CRUSHER 

Using me Benoit Corrugate! Boilers. 

STILL at The front. 




This Mill has been In use on this Coast for 7 years, 

TAKEN THE PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR 

Four years in succession, and bag met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 225 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon. 

It is the moil economicul and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole manu- 
facturer of the Corrugated Holier Mill. The Mills are all readv to mount 

on wagons. 



Cmrn, Cai , Feb. l, 188". 
M. L. Mery, Esq.— Diar Sir: The 9x14 Barley 
( rusher bought of you and uBed in the Ual fornia Mills, 
gave entire satisfaction; have crushed S000 pounds an 
hour. 1 have also crushed »s much or more on set 10x20 
when working for General Bid well, which set he is using 
in his mill to-day. Yours trulv, 

GEORGE SHANl). 



Tr A v f,r , May 3, 1887. 
Having used one of the Barley Crushers manufactured 
by M. L Mery, of Chico, Butte county, I can gay it will 
do all that Is claimed for it, and to those wishing an A 
No. 1 machine, I would recommend it as the very best. 
1 have crushed 35 tons in 11 hours' work. 

J. D. GOLDEN. 
M. L. Mfbv, Manufacturer, Chico, Cal. 
I thank the public for the kind patronage received thus f»r, and hope for a rontinuance of thi 



M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works. Ctrco, Cal. 



ALL STYLE3 BY 



D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, 221 & 223 Market St., San Francisco, 



POWELL'S PATENT DERRICK. 





MOVING. UNLOADING. 

Derricks complete, with ropes and block (no nets) $120 00 

One long net for one wagon . 22 00 

Two short nets for one wagon 32 00 

Powell's Patent Net Blocks, per pair 8 00 

Powell's Patenl Foot Blocks, each 5 00 

IMPORTANT FEATURES. 

The entire wagon load is hoisted up in a center opening net, 
by a self-braced Portable Derrick, which is moved from stack to 
stack ground without being taken down. Half an hour is ample 
time to move and set. Two nets can be used in each box, and the 
load taken out in two parts by having a partition in the box. Any 
farmer can at once see many advantages gained by the use of this 
invention. 

One large or two small Nets used for each wagon. Parties 
having boxes longer than 16 feet should order two nets for each box. 

In ordering nets, send inside length of box, and state whether 
one or two nets are required for each. 

In Use Over 15 Years and never One Returned. 

H. C. SHAW PLOW WORKS, 

MANUFACTURERS AND SOLE OWNERS, 

Nos, 365 and 367 El Dorado St., - - - Stockton, Cal. 



SMALLEY 

K\<;l.N KM A.\ If PLOWS, 



LUUU9 I ol.lll It « I 1 I Fits, NWKKP 
\\l> I IIICI III HOItKK I'OW I. Its, Kit AO 
AMI GIRCIJLA8 svw MACHINES, FARM 

V s, are positively ahead of all othera in to© country, anil •© 
irranted. Shipped to any responsible tanner In the L. 3. or Canaua, subject t" SO 
[ l>uy«* trlnl, ana return »l our expense tf not proving just as warranted. The 
s M A I.I. I V lil t k E I « A IC It 1 K.K 1 SK8 I'atrnt [a the only one that can be 
\ run »t any tangle from 40 to 85 degrees, and la the only perfect Silo Carrier In 
lihe market. Our "Why It l*i»y«." or Practical Virwtjrum ^ Practical Men, 
should be read by every farmer interested In Stork r:i i - . _^j^*fl»BS\ or Dairying. 
\ Mailed free to any address. menti"ii nw tln> fui'tr. ^^^rf^^^-rfflBr, Al*<i. contains 
lull descriptive price list ol Smul- ,e * *»»od». 



SMALLEY MFG. CO., 

MANITOWOC. WIS. 



Ask for 

| Special introduction^ 
price* and terms. 



smi.i.i.v ii.i, n rnuMt mill miykkmik. 



TIIK 8MALLKY tlTTKK. KITH IIU'HOVMI IlK KKT < ARIMI K. 

Appleton if?. Co., It-ZI S. Canal St ..Cbitago— UKVL Alit\TS-hilltr& Johnston Jlft;. Co., Madison, Wis. 



WAKELEE'S 



THE BEST 



IS THE 




DON'T BUY 

AH 

Inferior Article 

BSCACS1 IT IS 



More Profitable 
to some one 
else 



CHEAPEST. 

SQUIRREL AND GOPHER EXTERMINATOR I 



IN 1-L.B. AND 5-LB. CANS. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 

JUDSON POWDER, 



PATENT 0WNKR8 OF 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Eiplosiyes in the World. 

As other makers IMITATE oar Giant Powder, so ao they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson, 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stomp and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 



DEWEY & CO. 



I 220 MARKET ST. S. F. 
"t Elevator, 12 Front. 



PATENT AGENTS. 






TWENTY 








Vol. XXXVI— No. 2. 


SAN FRANCISCO, 


SATURDAY, JULY 14, 1888. 
— 


1 $S a Year. In Advance. 

% ( Single Copies, 10 Ots. 



were m 



New Scale Destroyers From Australia. 

State Inspector of Fruit' Pests, W. G. Klee, 
received by the steamer Zealandia, on Monday 
of this week, a new box of parasites which de- 
stroy the cottony cushion scale in Australia. 
They came from Frazer S. Crawford, who sent 
the previous lot, and is to be credited with de- 
tecting the work of this parasite from which so 
much is expected. As 
the first shipment did 
not arrive in good 
order, Mr. John D. 
Spreckels kindly 
agreed to give special 
instructions to the 
pursers concerning the 
new shipment, and the 
result was that Purser 
McLain of the Zsa- 
landia brought the 
insects through in the 
ice-bix, with instruc- 
tions that the temper- 
ature should not fall 
below 34°. On receipt 
of the package it was 
examined by Mr. Klee 
and Mr. Koeble, and 
the parasites 
found in good condi- 
tion, one of the flies 
being alive in the box 
and the monophlebua 
(the hemipterous in- 
sect which carries the 
larvse of the parasites 
in his interior) being 
in thriving condition, 
it is inferred that this 
time the parasite has 
been obtained in good 
shape. Mr. Crawford 
also placed in the box 
some cottony cushion 
scales, but they had 
died en route. Mr. 
Crawford found that 
the parasite lives both 

on the monophlehuB and the cottony cushion 
scale, and the former proves to be the better 
medium for carrying internal parasites. 

Mr. Klee is having a wire-cloth cover made 
under which he will house the parasites with a 
good colony of cottony cushion for them to mul- 
tiply on. A small infested orange tree in San 
Mateo county will be used, and the wire cloth 
will prevent the flies from escaping and compel 
them to multiply under control, if at all. In 
this way it can be learned whether they will 
do as well in California as in Australia. 

We are informed that Mr. Koebele has re- 
ceived instructions from Prof. Riley to prepare 
to go to Australia in August. This will insure 
able local study of the cottony cushion scale 
and its natural foes in Australia, and bodes 
much good to our interests, as for some reason 
or other the pest has not spread in Australia as 
it has in other countries to which it has gained 
access. 

The Chico cannery, owned by General Bid- 
well, has now in its employ more than 300 
white employes. Ten thousand cans of apri- 
cots have already been shipped to fill a New 
York order. Fulty 1,500,000 cans will be put 
up this season. 



Apricot Paste. — The Fresno Republican has 
lately been shown a roll of apricot paste very 
much resembling in appearance a small roll of 
sole leather. The apricots, when very ripe, 
had been rubbed through a cullender, then 
spread in a layer about one-fourth of an inch 
thick upon a smooth surface to dry in the sun. 
When dried to a proper consistency to admit 
of handling, the sheet was rolled up. It is 

4i 



Sericulture. — The State Board of Silk Cult- 
ure has decided to send to the Melbourne ex- 
position samples of raw and floss silk, silkworm 
eggs, and cocoons spun at their rooms. 
Parties having cocoons may have the silk reeled 
gratis and returned to them. This plan is 
adopted for the purpose of instructing a number 
of girls in the art of reeling. The Board ad- 
vises outside parties not to attempt the propa- 




IMPORTED ENGLISH SHIRE STALLION AGRICOLA 924 (2700). 



claimed that apricots treated in this manner 
will keep as long as the ordinarily dried fruit, 
while the paste has the advantage of being 
riper and sweeter than the fruit usually is when 
canned or dried. It can be cooked in any style 
to suit; makes excellent preserves, pie, etc., 
and, when properly prepared, presents a singu- 
larly clean and attractive appearance. 

Free Wool from Mexico. — The San Diego 
Sun says, on the authority of one who " has 
been there," that considerable wool comes into 
the United States from Lower California with- 
out paying duty. And Uncle Sam's customs 
officers cannot collect the duty, for the sheep 
are pastured and the wool grown on their backs 
in Mexico, after which they are driven across 
the line and sheared on American soil, thus 
complying strictly with the letter, but not with 
the spirit, of the law. 

A Hist for Canners and .Driers. — The 
fruit-pits should be cleared away from the cut- 
ting-sheds every day. The Vacaville Reporter 
speaks of one place where they were allowed 
to remain for several days, and the consequence 
was that the cutters were made sick and un- 
able to work steadily. 



gation of eggs for next season, as the eggs propa- 
gated by the Board will be subjected to micro- 
scopical examination, to insure a healthful con- 
dition, and there will be enough to supply all 
orders free of cost. 



Personal. — Prof. Hilgard has retired for rest 
and recuperation to his farm in the lower part 
of Alameda county. The last year's work in 
the College of Agriculture, with the prepara- 
tions for opening the outlying agricultural sta- 
tions, has been exceedingly exhausting and the 
professor needs a good rest, and we hope he will 
get it, though there is still so much to be done that 
we fear not. It will be well for correspondents 
of the college to make their demands upon the 
institution rather light for the nexttwo months, 
though arrangements have been made to attend 
to everything of pressing importance. 

The County Exhibits. — Preparations for 
these displays at the State Fair and Mechanics' 
Institute fair are progressing favorably, and no 
doubt the aggregations this year will far excel 
anything hitherto brought forward. The Rec- 
ord-Union of Wednesday says there will be 20 
counties represented at the State Fair and 
probably more. 



A Fine English Shire Stallion. 

On a former occasion we alluded to the grow- 
ing interest in this country in the Eaglish Shire 
horses, and gave some account of their qual- 
ities. On this page we give a portrait of Ag- 
ricola, brought to this country last year by Gal- 
braith Bros, of Janesville, Wisconsin. Agri- 
cola arrived just in time to make his debut at 
the American Horse 
Show in Chicago last 
November, but he was 
not at his best because 
of the effects of the 
journey; still he 
showed such excel- 
lence that he was 
awarded third in the 
list of honors to Carac- 
tacus, his stable com- 
panion, and the cele- 
brated sire, Holland 
Major. This success, 
his first appearance 
in an Amercan show 
ring, was certainly a 
flattering achievement 
Agricola's show rec- 
ord abroad is a fine 
one. He was a win- 
ner of first prize at 
the Royal Manchester 
and Liverpool show 
in 1882; first at the 
same slow in 1883, 
also champion over 
all ages; third at the 
Royal English Agri- 
cultural Society 's show 
at New Castle this 
year, and has besides 
these about 12 other 
first prizes to his cred- 
it. Agricola will be 
examined with a great 
deal of interest should 
he appear at the Amer- 
ican Horse Show this 
year, as is the inten- 
tion of his owners, who are probably well 
justified in the belief that with him in his im- 
proved condition they have a "sure winning 
card." 

Important Land Decision. — A Washington 
dispatch, July 11th, announces that the Secre- 
tary of the Interior has rendered a decision in 
the case of Malone vs. Union Pacific Railroad, 
in which he holds that an unexpired pre-emp- 
tion iiliDg, existing within the railroad com- 
pany's granted limits at the time of filing its 
location of route with the Interior Department, 
excepts Buch land from the grant. 



The Use of Sulphur — In our comments on 
this subject last week we are made to condemn 
both the bleaching of dried fruit and the use of 
sulphur on green fruit. As the drift of the 
comments show, we intended to condemn the 
bleaching of fruit after drying and the over-use 
of sulphur on green fruit. We believe in the 
proper use of sulphur on freshly-cut fruit. 



A New York Judge decides that whoever 
leaves clothes with a Chinaman to be washed, 
and accepts a ticket that he does not under- 
stand, leaves the clothes at his own risk. 



22 



pACIFie RURAId pRESb 



[Joly 14, 1888 



QORRESPO^IDENCE. 

Correspondent* are alone responsible for their opinions. 

European Horticulture^ 

Ei>it<$BS Press:— With the txcep'ion of cer- 
tain districts in Bohemia, I saw no indications 
of well-dtfioed orchards such as may be seen in 
California, and in evm those of Bohemia the 
extent of the largest appeared insignificant 
when oompared with only ordinary sized 
orchard* in Sacramento vallty. 

The rnle throughout Austria, Germany, and 
France, so far aB I could observe, is mixed farm- 
ing. A little grain-raising, some dairying, and 
•% few fruit trees or vines are the general rural 
Occupations. 

In Spain, Italy, and Algeria, there is a near- 
er approach to California's orchard and vine- 
yard appearance, but nowhere have 1 sen any 
locality in the ground traveled over that pre 
sented as inviting an appearance as do the 
orchards and vineyards of California. The 
country farmhouse, so conspicuous and frequent 
at home, is wanting here. Wars, rumors of 
wars, and fear of war, has ever from an early 
time in the history of these countries tended to 
the concentration of the rural population into 
villages, and the " baner " aDd his laborers 
lose much time in going and coming to and from 
the place of labor. 

Repressing Inpects. 

At Berlin I visited the Kofnigliche Land- 
wirthschaftliche Hoch schule " (Royal Agricult- 
ural school) and brought a letter of introduction 
from the director of the institution to Prof. Dr. 
Wittmack, who occupies the chair of professor- 
ship of practical botany at the above institu- 
tion and that of systematic botany at the 
University of B*rlin. He is also secretary-gen- 
eral of the Horticultural Society of Prussia. I 
was cordially received by the professor, and 
after a short preliminary the following conver- 
sation took place: 

" Have there been any practical advances 
made in entomology with the result of avert- 
ing the destructive tendencies of insects ? " 

Ans. " No; that is to say, no absolute remedy 
has been brought forth to the present day that 
will exterminate all or every kind of insects. 
We have arrested the danger of the phylloxera 
and Colorado beetle by the severest measures. 
We have also got within repent times police 
regulations, and our attention is now directed 
to destroying the blood louse (woolly aphis)." 

" Are your police regulations well carried 
out ?" 

" Yes, they are carried out well, as a general 
thing." 

The professor gave me to understand that in 
case any phylloxera or other dangerous insect 
appeared in any place the remedy would be ap- 
plied at once, and in the case of phylloxera the 
vines would be uprooted and the ground sat- 
urated with petroleum — in fact drastic meas- 
ures were resorted to, and in no case was the 
eradication of dangerous insects left to the in- 
clination or ability of the owner or renter, but 
the Government police would promptly take 
possession of the infected grounds and cure by 
annihilation that which could not be remedied 
otherwise, and in this manner they have thus 
far been able to keep the dreaded phylloxera 
and Colorado beetle at bay. 

Small Fruits. 
A little of this " police regulation" would 
perhaps come in handy at home. Don't you 
think so ? 

" Do you pay much attention to berry cult- 
ure in Germany f 

" Yes, very much, in the highest degree." 

" Are they generally consumed in their native 
state, or do you market them mostly in the 
form of preparations V 

"They are disposed of aB follows : Ooe-third 
are sold natural, one-third in the form of com 
pots (preserves), and one-third is made into 
wines and cordials; much of the wines of ber- 
ries and natural berries are used for coloring 
wines from grapes." 

It would appear to me that onr enterprising 
berry culturists should apply for information 
on the subjeot of preserve and oordial making, 
with a view to perfecting a mode of berry dis- 
position more profitable than forcing their pro- 
duction on a now already overcrowded and lim 
ited market at home. 

Implement Display. 

The lower floor of the institution I have men 
tioned contained a very large collection of agri 
cultural implements of every conceivable kind 
and device, and from many countries. Models 
were also exhibited in cases, showing " the 
state of the art " from the beginning of histor 
ical time to the present day. 

As the German people are, however, very 
conservative, this display can hardly be as val- 
uable to them as it would be in California. 
A French School. 

The next place I visited was the National 
School of Horticulture of France at Versailles. 
I handed my letter of introduction (from the 
Hon. J. L. Rathbone, U. S. Consul-General at 
Paris) to the Director- Professor, Mr. A. 
Hardy. The professor is an old member of the 
Legion of Honor, and is considered to be a high 
authority in horticultural matters. I asked hiB 
opinion as to the use of salicylic acid in the 
preservation of green fruits, and he said that in 



his judgment a solution of the powdered sali- 
cyl in alcohol, and the immersion into the same 
of the paper intended for wrapping, was the 
least objectionable method of using it, and 
might prove to be an arrestant of decay; but 
having never tried it, he could not, however, 
speak from experience. I next asked him if 



tion was called to San Bernardino and San 
Diego counties, where it was reported that 
honey had opened at low prices and that 3), to 
4 cents would be the maximum price. 

This report, Mr. Harbison said, was, to say 
the leaft, a most remarkable statement, prob- 
ably written in the interest of brokers' firms, 



there was any method for arresting decay in | and is a fair specimen of a " bear traD." "The 
fresh grapes, and he replied that a new method truth is," be said, " that not one half as much 
had but recently appeared, which was quite i honey will be made this year as in some years 
simple and not costly, and was in every way a past. The spring bloom, which should yield 



success. 

" For how long a time can grapes be kept by 
the method you speak of * " 

" We have kept them here as late as Febru- 
ary and even March." 

" Were they the Malaga grapes of Spain ? " 
"No, they were the table grapes of France of 
several varieties." 

" Will you kindly state to me the process?" 
" Yes, it is as follows: The grapes are gath 



one third of the total crop of the year, has gone 
by, and it yielded but little honey. Owing to 
the long-continued cold weather, the bees in 
the mountain ranges had hardly made a living 
up to June 1st, and now only about 00 days re- 
main for the flowers and the storing of honey. 
Even if the weather is favorable from this time 
on, the honey gathering cannot be large. 
Another reason why the report referred to must 
exaggerate the amount of honey in this season's 



ered perfectly dry, and all decayed berries are croo is the fact that there are not at present 
pruned off. This must be done before there half so many bees in Southern California as 



has been any frost. The superfluous end 
of the cane is cut off, the thick end 
of the cane is trimmed of all foliage, 
and it is now ready for its receptacle." 
The receptacle is as follows: A furred or 



there were six years ago, and the supply of 
sage and other honey-furnishing shrubs has 
been diminished at least 50 per cent by the 
clearing up of land. Moreover, the low prices 
at whioh honey has been sold for some years 



double-walled wooden house with air spaces past have destroyed the incentive to care for 
between the walls, roofs and floor, or a perfect- and work the remaining bees to their full ca- 
ly dry house of any other material, well venti- pacity, and the supply this year will not glut 



lated and free from any foul air or moisture, 
arranged so as to exclude all light and any 
sudden or perceptible change of temperature. 
A supply of artificial beat is secured in winter 
so as to keep the temperature at the greatest 
possible equilibrium, and never as low as the 
freezing point. The internal arrangements are 
shelves upon whioh at regular intervals are 
placed bottles which are filled with pure but 
not distill -d water. Kich bottle is supplied 
with a tablespoonful of powd -red charcoal, and 
all is ready for the grapes. The canes are then 
inserted in the bottl s until the end of the cane 
rests on the bottom of the bottle, and the 
bunches are supported by tying to the wall or 
on nails that may serve as rests. As the water 
in the bottles evaporates, they must be refilled 
from time to time. 
This method of 



the market. Arrangements have been made 
however, for the handling of the honey crop in 
this county, which will insure better returns to 
the producer than they have received in 
years, and the honey industry here be stimu- 
lated." 

Foul Brood. 



tracting all the honey and feeding good sugar 
is here the usual enre. 

I believe that many reports of curing foul 
brood by starvation have nothing to do with 
real foul brood at all. If the bacillus theory is 
correct, and I believe it is, the starvation plan 
cannot cure the real foul brood, and your ex- 
perience shows this again; but it is possible 
that by this plan, often repeated, and by help 
of a good honey harvest, the bees may be able 
to overcome, sometimes, the disease by the help 
of their sting poison, which is, without doubt, 
a good antiseptic. In this way Dzierzon cured 
foul brood about 40 years ago by enormous 
labor, during some years, and the loss of more 
than half of his colonies. We are better off 
now; but we have to use what other men 
foun-* ou*. 



A German correspondent, L. Stachelhausen 
of Texas, sends an interesting letter on foul 
brood to the editor of Gleaning*, in which the 
writer fears that under the treatment criticised 
perhaps foul brood will be found next spring. 
His reasons and conclusions are as follows: 
The bacillus alvei was first discovered by 
storiog grapes is worthy a S-ihonfeld, in Germany, long before Cheshire, 



trial in California, and if the results at home | and this man experimented very much with the 
prove as satisfactory as they are reported to disease. The whole question is in Germany a 



have been in France, there will be an end to a 
glut in the market on CjI fornia grapes. 

As for the cost, this could be modified, for 
storehouses may be built by parties who, by 
renting space in them, would find enough in- 
come thereby 



settled matter, and so is the care. The germs 
of the bacillus yon can find everywhere in an 
infected hive, in the brood, in the honey, and 
outside, adhering to the befB, frames, combs 
and hive. By spraying with carbolic acid, 
sometimes in intervals, as you do, you can kill 



I asked the professor if this same method of this bacillus and the germ*, and so the foul 

storing could not be modified so that in place of brood seems to be cored; but your microscope 

using bottles long troughs of tin or earthenware will show you that the bacillus and its germs 

could be used with water-cock and outlet at the are inside of the living bees of an infected hive 



end. He said that he could not tell, as no ex- 
periments had been made to illustrate it. 

Items. 

The remedy here for phylloxera is sulpho- 
carbonate of potassium dissolved in water or 
sulphide of carbon. The last is considered the 
best, being more active. 

These are used in a sort of ground-spade in- 
jection pump called a " Pal." A charge is 
placed in the pump, driven in the ground and 
injected. 

Liquid manures are applied to trees and vines 
just prior to the maturing of the fruit. This is 
done to give color, flavor and size to the fruit. 
Inclosed hod rough sketch of bottle used in 
the grape-preserving process. David LUBIN. 

Paris, June 13th. 

[Preserving grapes by plunging the stems in 
water bottles may be new in Europe, but it is a 
very old Yankee notion. The cut we give 



too. You will find tnem at least in the two 
stomachs. 

In the inner stomach i' prepared the royal 
jelly for the young larv:e, and so comes the 
germ again in the young larva' ; it grows here, 
and kills them when capped, and in a short 
time you will find the disease again when the 
germs become plentiful enough. 

You cannot kill these germs inside of the 
bees by starvation. The only way to do this is 
by feeding anv antiseptic, which kills the germs 
but not the bees and larv.t. Your cure will 
he a success if you combine it with feeding dis- 
infected honey or sugar-water. Which drug is 
best to be used for feeding, has to be fouud 
out by experiment. You oan give salicylic acid 
and carbolic acid in very small quantities, say 
for a quart rf honey-water 50 drops, one-tenth 
solution. This will in no way hurt the bees or 
larva;. This inside cure is as important as the 
outside cure, and here is the point why our En- 
glish friends sometimes fail to cure foul brood 
by using salicylic acid or phenol. Caibolic 
acid, pure or common, is preferable for outside 
oure, because it evaporates and find* its way 
everywhere in the hive, killing the germs of 
foul brood except inside of the living bees. If 
you rub the bottom-board with carbolic acid 
solution, say once or twice a week, it will do 
for the prevention of the spreading of the dis- 
ease in an infected apiary. 

Yon further say, " It is not certain that the 
bacillus alvei ia the cause of the disease." 
SchonfeM made many experiments for this pur- 
pose. You say Mr. Sargent will get the foul- 
brood germs growing on gelatine. He will do 
better if he mixes the liquid with the soap of 
healthy bee larva;. This is the very ground for 
the bioillus alvei. The so-grown bacilli you 
can see in the microscope, moving, and every- 
thing is lively like a skating rink. Then give 
some salicylic or carbolic acid in the mixture, 
and look through the microaoope, and every- 
thing is dead like an ice-field. These artificially 
raised bacilli, or the germs planted on the 
brood of a healthy colony, will raise foul brood 
in proper form. All this and more has been 
known in Germany for some years, and a care- 
ful man can experiment with foul brood with- 
J. S. Harbison, the apiarist and fruit dealer out any danger of spreading it. Further, many 

times I observed a disease like foul brood; in 
fact, the capped brood dies in the same way, 

~ rence 




herewith was made a generation ago, probably. 
The objection is the cost of the outfit, the cost 
of labor in placing, and supervision, etc. — Eds. 

Peess.] 

HJhE JJpiAr^Y. 



The Honey Crop at the South. 



of San Dif go, whose attention was directed to 
a report on the honey crop of Southern Cali- 
fornia, which appeared recently in the columns 
of the Los Angeles Commercial Bulletin, ex- 
pressed his opinion on the subject to a San 
Diego Union reporter: 

The report in the Commercial llullelin was 
represented as being derived from conversa- 
tions with men prominent in business circles of 
California, and the substance of it was that 
honey is going to be cheaper and more plentiful 
this year than ever before. Particular atten 



and it is not possible to detect any dif 
between this disease and the real foul brood ex 
cept by a good mioroscope, which will show 
the bacillus or germ, when real foul brood ia in 
question, and not if the other disease is before 
ub. Many times you will find more killed 
brood and more hives infected — sometimes all 
the hives of au apiary quite suddenly; never- 
theless it is called the milder form of foul brood. 
This disease cures itself by-and-by. Many 
time« it is some honey injurious to the bees or 
Larvae, which is the cause uf this disease. Ex- 



A Few Words A»iout Ducks. 

A writer for the Cockier has the following: 
If you were to question ten persons who have 
tried raising ducks for market and ask, "Is 
there any money in it ! " seven wonld proba- 
bly declare that there was not. Two would 
probably hesitate aud say there was a little, 
but not enough, to make it pay; and if the 
writer happened to be the tenth, he would say: 
" Yes, but don't give it away until I quit the 
business." 

It is all a question of location, cheap feed, 
and how you manage things after you get your 
location and cheap feed. 

If there is any reader who is thinking of go- 
ing into the dnck business, and who does so 
and follows closely the following prescription, 
and fails to make it pay, I will bay out his 
plant and pay his emigrant fare back East: 

In selecting your location, get as near the 
San Francisco market as possible. In order to 
conduct the business on a large scale, you will 
need several acres. These you had better 
lease, unless you are rich and wish to invest a 
considerable amount in land. Select land with 
a good drainage, and, if possible, with a small 
stream running through it. A stream of water 
is not absolutely necessary, but it is a great ad- 
vantage in keeping the stock clean, thus pre- 
venting a soreness of eyes, which is very uo- 
sightly. A good substitute is a large tank or 
trough so arranged as to be easily emptied after 
it becomes dirty, which won't be very long. 

If you can obtain a long lease on the land, 
erect a cheap dwelling and an inoubator house; 
also a good warm shed for your laying ducks, 
and several chicken-housea; perhaps you may 
find a place which has already the neoeasary 
buildings. I am located on a seven acre piece, 
having a small brook passing through the cen- 
ter of it, and for the use of which I pay $50 per 
year. The buildings I put up myself with the 
aid of one man, at a cost of $250. After you have 
secured all these, get '200 hens and start them to 
laying. If properly managed, they will pay you 
at least $2 per day (Sunday included), and this 
will go a great ways toward paying the board 
bill of a large flock of ducks. Yon will not 
need any roosters. Commence in the fall nr 
winter; buy 50 ducks and 10 or 12 drakes, 
and select good heavy stock, for the young 
will grow faster and be ready for market 
much sooner than if a small breed is used. 
House your ducks well and cover the floor 
with six inches of horse manure, which taill 
serve to keep them warm during the cold 
snaps which sometimes visit us in winter, and 
start them to laying about a month ahead of 
your neighbors— a great consideration when 
eaily ducklings bring $12 to $15 per dozen. 
You will need roveral incubators — enough to 
hold 1000 to 1200 eggs. Sdect good ones, 
those you know have a reputation for hatching 
well. Set them up in your incubator house, 
and when you run them do so according to the 
directions, and take good care of them. 

Start an incubator as soon as your ducks be- 
gin to lay, and as the crop increases start 
others and keep them running as long as your 
ducks lay an egg. Some will tell you that it 
does not pay to hatch ducks in the summer, 
but experience has taught me otherwise. As 
your ducks hatch, put them in a warm place 
until they are strong enough to be in the open 
air. A brooding-house such as is used for 
cbioks is good — a shallow box with a layer of 
straw on the bottom and a sack covering makes 
a good brooder for 25. If your incubator-room 
is large enough, carry the boxes in there at 
night. As they grow stronger they may ha 
run into small nouses or dry-goods boxes. 
When you test your eggs save all the clear 
ones, and when your ducklings appear boil a 
potfull, chop up tine and mix with bread- 
orumbs and ohopped cabbage or lettuce, and 
feed as often as they will eat. Give them all 
the water they want to drink, but don't allow 
them to get wet. Now, a few words about 
obtaining cheap feed. Go to Butchertown and 
you will find there a man who makes a busi- 
ness of boiling beef heads for the bones. This 
leaves a quantity of fresh cooked meat, which 
you can buy for 75a. per barrel. Also, go to 
several restaurants and engage their scraps, 
which you will find much snperior to the scraps 
from your own table. These scraps are known 
by the musical name of "swill," and the 
collection of it is not oonsidered a very 
high-toned business by many. Their opin- 
ion will, of course, not affect you and me 



Jcly 14, 1888.] 



fAClFie i^URAb PRESS. 



2. n 



for we know that it doesn't do to be too nice 
in California. Put these scraps in a large boiler, 
add several buckets of water, boil thoroughly 
and skim off the grease — which yon can sell for 
about three cents per pound. Afterward, 
ladle into a large trough and pick out all tbe 
bones, a large number of which you will find, 
and sack them, and when Levi Goldstein or 
Isaac Rosenthal comes around, sell them for 
50 cents per hundred. Previous to this you 
should have gone to the nearest gardener and 
bought a load of cabbage leaves for '20 cents, 
and chopped up enough to make half the f> ed. 
A good chopper will cost you $25. Mix 
your boiled scraps, cabbage and meat and 
add enough bran to take up the sur- 
plus water, and you have a feed on 
which the ducks will grow faster than on any- 
thing else, and which will cost you a trifling 
amount. When your ducks are two months 
old they should be ready for market, and should 
be sold immediately. 



Hints for Practice. 

A few fowls well raised are much more valu 
able than a great number of ordinary ones, and 
the pro6ts are many times greater. 

Rate and cats are expensive luxuries for the 
poultryman. Give the rats a dose of poisoo, 
put where the fowls will not get it, and plug up 
all the holes. 

Dispose of all culls and any breeding stock 
that is not worth keeping over now. This will 
lessen liability to disease and make the care of 
the fowls a lighter burden during the hot sea- 
son. 

The molting season is inaugurated with the 
advent of the warm July weather. Attention 
and care is as important now as at any other 
time of the year, for the condition of the fowls 
after molting decides to a great extent their 
va'ue as layers and breeders for the next season. 

Under no consideration should the chicks be 
allowed to frequent or roost in the houses or 
runs occupied by tbe old fowls. With the ut- 
most precautions a few lice will still exist in 
cracks and crevices; and by trampling, pecking, 
etc., many of the chicks will become injured 
and their growth greatly retarded. July is a 
warm month; therefore, give all the poultry 
plenty of room in small flocks, that thev may 
keep cor 1 and be comfortable. — California 
CacUer for July. 



Horticulture 



Pruning Fruit Trees. 

Editor? Press: — Why do we prune fruit 
trees? Ask this questic n of the orchardists of 
California, what answer would they make ? 

Three fourths of them would probably answer, 
" We prune our trees to let the light in to the 
fruit, and to properly form the beads of our 
trees." The other fourth would scratch their 
heads and perhaps have to answer: " We prune 
because our neighbors do, because it is the fash- 
ion." These are very lame reasons and have no 
force whatever. He that prunes to let the sun- 
shine into the inside of the head of the tree as 
it is usually done from the inside ontward 
makes tbe greatest mistake, (or he has no use 
for light there, and exactly {he means he em- 
ploys to let the sunshine into the beads of bis 
trees, results eventually in shutting it out very 
completely, for he begins by cutting the twigs 
from the center of his trees and trims outward, 
or in other words, begins at the trunk of the 
tree, or at the base of the large branches, cut- 
ting from them the smaller blanches. This 
causes the foliage at the extremities of such 
branches to thicken up, and by such continued 
cutting from the inside of the head, tbe foliage 
will become so thick at the outer end of the 
branches that eventually no fruit or new twigs 
can grow in this space, with the result that he 
will have the poorest possible tree for fruit, or, 
in fact, a cluster of high headed trees all 
growing from the same root — one that a person 
conld Btand at the trnnk of and not be within 
10 or 12 feet of a leaf or fruit. I have seen 
thousands of such trees; old trees forming a 
half-globe with 15 to 20 feet of lost space in 
their heads, with long bare branches with dense 
clusters of leaves and a few small runts cf ap- 
ples at their extreme outer ends. That is the 
result of cutting out the inside of the head of a 
tree to let tbe light in, and tbe cure for such a 
result is as bad or worse than the cause. The 
usual practice is, when the tree will no longer 
bear any good fruit, to cut a number of the 
main branches entirely out. This may result in 
giving a crop or two of fairly good fruit, but as 
the chance for foliage (and folUge a tree must 
have to live) is only at the end of the branches 
left, the opened space is soon closed up, and the 
case is worse than it was before, for the wounds 
made by cutting such Urge branches do not 
heal, decay sets in and soon permeates the 
whole tree. 

' Therefore, I say all such pruning is wrong, 
and also say that all pruning of trees in or- 
chards until 12 to 15 years after planting is 
wrong, very wrong,* for start their heads at 
the right hight according to the vigor of the 
variety, and do no pruning whatever, they will 
give more and better fruit than they can do 
under any system that can be adopted Let all 
orchardists try this plan on at least a few trees 
and see if it is not the light one. I have tritd 
it thoroughly and know it is. 

The idea of Mr. Tibbits of cutting out the 
central branches to as "to form the top gob- 



let shape "seems to me very unsound, and the 
result would be a tree that would all split 
asunder with its first heavy crop of frnit unless 
every branch was propped up. Mr. Tibbits 
wants more sun and air in the inside of the 
head of our fruit trees, and this is exactly what 
experience has taught me we do not want at 
all, and what we always have too much of from 
the bright skies of the prairie States and Cali- 
fornia. One of the two very worst enemies are 
these two things, especially too much sunshine. 
And this brings up the great question of why 
we think we must prune to get good fruit. 

We inherited our notions about pruning 
largely from the British Islands and Western 
Europe. In these countries, especially En- 
gland, their greatest want is more sunshine. 
They have the one extreme, we the other. They 
are obliged to prune their fruit trees to mere 
skeletons so as to get a little light to the fruit. 
Here, the best fruit in every way is such as oan 
be g own shaded by the ftliage. Besides, our 
fruit trees were mostly brought from those 
cloudy, foggy, wet climates, and of necessity 
must be acclimated in our bright ones. Such 
it seemed to me was our only excuse for prun- 
ing, and if we give it one moment's thought we 
will see that it is no excuse at all, and should 
lead us to the reverse of their practice. 

How to Prune. 

I am now ready to give my ideas of proper 
pruning, a plan that will keep our fruit trees 
in full vigor for a great number of years — in 
fact keep them young in vigor and give the best 
fruit, most of it, prevent the trees from over- 
bearing, and do away with the great labor of 
thinning the fruit to a great extent. 

I am confident, as before said, that there is 
no valid reason for cutting anything from the 
inside of the head of a fruit tree; all such cut- 
ting works great and everlasting injury. There- 
fore we have no use for pruning until the or- 
chard has been planted 12 to 15 years, at least 
all try trees cared for on this plan gave perfeot 
crops of fruit until they had been planted 15 to 
20 years. t By that time they began to ap- 
proach the ultimate size that the trees can reach 
in breadth and hight. To get the full force of 
this plan we must admit in the start that all in- 
dividual trees have an ultimate limit of growth 
beyond which they can extend no farther in 
any' direction, which is a fact as true of 
tree life as it is of animal life. As the tree ap- 
proaches this limit its yearly growth becomes 
slower, and at hst ceases entirely. When it 
has reached its full limit it lives a few years and 
then dies. 

Then if we can keep the tree from reaching 
or nearing this limit by cutting it bick prop- 
erly, it will fill up the space so made with a 
fresh, vigorous growth, will ,it not? Yes, it 
wil'; I know it will, for I have tested it thor- 
oughly. We have mi'lions of proof that the 
theory and practice ie correct from our Bystem 
of pruning the grapevine. We cut them back 
every year from their extremities toward the 
root, and they remain in health and vigor lor 
centuries. And the grapevine of 300 years of 
age does not occupy any more space than it did 
when it was six years of age. This gives the 
philosophy of the plan exactly. There is no 
more reason for the apple tree occupying a 
space during its whole life than 15 feet square, 
a cherry, peach, plum, apricot, etc., more than 
10 feet square, than the grapevine its six feet. 
Therefore, if I was planting these fruits in 
orchard extensively for the best results, I 
would give the apple 20 feet equare, the other 
fruits named 15 feet square; 1-t them g ow and 
fruit until the apple had heads 12 to 15 feet in 
diameter, and 10 to 12 for the other fruits, and 
then keep them within that limit by judicious 
cutting back the branches. What I would con- 
sider the proper plan for doing this could be 
easily explained by diagrams but not by words. 
It would not be by shearing back the branches 
all to the same point, as we do our cypress, but 
by cutting back some deep in, leaving others 
long, and then say, perhaps the next year or 
two, cutting back those left long before, and 
also by taking clean out a part, say half of tbe 
side branches on the outer half of each main 
branch. This should be done in this State in 
the winter season, when the trees are dormant; 
very early spring, after the coldest weather 
was past, would be best. 

This is a skeleton outline of the plan. I 
could go on and give very many good reasons 
for its practice. If any of the orchardists of 
California wish to oriticise it in a friendly way, 
let them speak out. Or if any do not under- 
stand the theory from what I have given, it 
will give me pleasure to further explain it. 

San Francisco. 1). B. Wier. 

"I see from comments of the editor and others that 
I am going to be misun-'ersrood badly in whit I mean in 
these articles — Cutting back or shortening in has always 
had quite a different meaning to me from pruning. The 
articles were written to clea' ly show that all pruning I 
had found' unnecessary and injurious while the apple 
trees were young in Illinois, and I do not with to bo nn- 
derstood as say ii g or advoc iting that cutting hack and 
shortening in young orchard trets in California is wron.'. 
Far from it. I consider the proper t-hortinine in of 
y oung trees when planting them in orchard, and also the 
t*'ird, fourth and fifth year >fterplan'ing, the very foun- 
dation Btone vf good orcharding in California. This 
should be religiously done every year, and not, as many 
have done, skip the third or fourth year. My idea is sim- 
ply to cut hack and prune from the outside inward, and 
uever from the center of the he id of a tree outward. 

tThese remarks are Intended to apply w holly to the 
prairie Stites of the West, where trees only make a mod- 
erate growth each year. 

[These considerations are interesting and 

may help some to overcome the bare poles and 

dense umbrella tops which are, it is true, too 

frequent. But our best kept orchards, do not 



have such trees, but have their centers and 
lower parts as well filled as they should be with 
bearing wood, and it is this fact which gives us 
such heavy weights of fruit per tree. The sub- 
ject is open for discussion. — Eds. Press ] 

The Critic Criticised. 

Editors Press: — I have just been reading 
the criticism of Mr. D. B. Wier, in the Rural 
of June 9 th, on my letter in the Press of May 
12th, and I must say I am both amused and 
amazed that any person of observation, or one 
possessed of three scruples of common sense, 
should assert that a tree or a plant, or an ani- 
mal indigenous to the soil, reared from seed, 
or bred on its native heath, was not more hardy 
than exotics; that " only about one-third of 
1000 trees grown from 1000 seeds would prove 
hardy " is a statement which calls for a greater 
stretch of credulity than I possess. Of course 
on the bleak, open prairies of Northern Illinois 
and Iowa, no fruit trees grown from seeds or 
transplanted are anything like as hardy as trees 
grown in less exposed situations. A thrifty 
bearing orchard in either of these localities is 
the exception and hard to find; but this does 
not invalidate the proposition that a tree native 
to the soil, where it grew from seed, is far more 
vigorous and hardy than one transplanted from 
a distance. More or less injury is done to 
every tree that is dug up and transplanted to a 
different locality. This is a self-evident propo- 
sition. My idea was to plant the seed where 
you wanted the tree to grow, and then graft or 
bud it with such frnit as may be desired. But 
where seedlings have been transplanted they 
have proved more hardy than root- grafted trees 
taken from a nursery. This I know from an 
experience of over 50 years in various States. 
I have put out three orchards at the Eist of 
seedling trees and had them grafted, and found 
them far more hardy than an orchard of trees 
taken from a nursery that had been root- 
grafted. " It is true," Mr. Wier says, "that 
some seedlings, apple trees and other seedling 
trees are hardy and long-lived, but they are the 
exception and not the general rule." To this 
statement I take decided exception. There are 
seedling peach trees in Massachusetts and other 
Eastern States 50 and 60 years old that are to 
day he»ltby and bearing bountiful crops annu- 
ally. There are pear trees 150 years old all up 
and dovvn the Detroit river, in Michigan, as 
large as forest trees, 100 feet high, and even 
higher, that are sound and healthy and bear 
beautiful crops every year. There are pear 
trees 100 years old and upward, growing all 
about the old Missions in this State, that are 
sound and healthy and vigorous bearers. Can 
as much be said of exotics raised from root- 
grafted trees? 

Mr. Wier must have drawn largely upon his 
imagination when he asserts that a " species 
may be acclimated, but not a variety." This is 
an assertion needing proof. I have never found 
any greater difficulty in acclimating a variety 
than a species, and I can see no reason why 
there should be. 

His assertion that root grafting is the better 
way of propagating fruit trees needs proof also. 
Of course, it is the most economical way for 
nurserymen, for where the roots of a tree can 
be so divided as to make a dozen or more trees, 
it is more profitable than to take each tree by 
itself and graft into the body some two to 
three feet from the ground. Then can a part 
of the roots of a tree be as sound and vigorous 
as the whole of them ? Mr. Wier really con- 
cedes the whole question when he advocates 
root grafting for the reason that we have a tree 
growing on its own natural roots. Mr. Wier 
states that " the roots of a tree seem to be, 
they are, neutral in regard to the growth of the 
tree." Indeed, is it true that the roots of a 
tree are of no account to the tree ? I had sup- 
posed they were the chief source whence trees 
drew their life principle. The leaves of a tree 
determine the kind of fruit, it is true. Strip a 
tree of its leaves, and if it be a healthy, vigor- 
ous tree, new leaves will soon start out again. 
Cut off the roots of a tree, and it will soon be 
as dead as Julius Caesar. 

Had Mr. Wier stated that where a thousand 
seedlings failed to a large extent, a thousand 
root-grafted trees were vigorous and hardy, 
there would have b°en rather more consistency 
in bis statements. Neither the fertile prairies 
of Illinois and Iowa nor the vast plains of Col- 
orado will everproduee healthy, vigorous fruit 
trees except in sheltered localities, or where they 
are protected by wind-breaks. These States de- 
pend largely on California and Michigan for 
their supply of fruit. Of course, nurserymen 
and those engaged in the sale of fruit trees will 
not be likely to favor anything that would seem 
to injure their bueiness, but they need have no 
fear that the suggestions I have made about 
propagating fruit trees will have any such efL ct, 
as most persons are too anxious for immediate 
results to wait for the more tardy process of 
getting fruit from seedlings, or from seedlings 
grafted in the bodies or tops. 

I was awav from home when the Press con- 
taining Mr. Wier's letter came, or I would have 
paid my respects to him sooner. In fact, I had 
not seen his letter till Mr. W'lliam Gil key, a 
successful fruit grower in the Paj iro valley and 
the largest and most successful exhibitor of 
fruit at our district fairs, called my attention 
to it. He expressed no little surprise at the 
peci'lbr views held by Mr. Wier. 

Santa Rila. J- S. Tiiibits. 



H[HE X>AIFIY. 



Silos and Ensilage. 

Editors Press :— In your issue of June 30th 

1 notice an inquiry in regard to ensilage and 
silos. Having had 10 years' experience in the 
dairy and silo business, I will venture to give 
some facts. 

Corn can be used whole, but the bother of 
handling from the silo to feed will more than 
offset the expense of cutting, and the waste is 
much greater, as when fed whole the butts are 
not eaten to any great extent. 

The adding of liquid would be ruinous. 

Corn is the best for tbe silo. The " B. & 
W. ensilage corn " is the best of all, but any 
variety is good. 

Any green feed, such as clover, alfalfa, oats, 
rye or wheat, can be used with profit. 

Corn should be cut when the ears begin to 
glaze. It is better to let it lie one or two days 
after cutting before putting in. Cut the corn, 
throw in small piles to wilt, and aftfr the sec- 
ond day begin hauling to the silo. The same 
course is good with all other feed intended for 
ensilage. 

Building the Silo. 

The silo should be as nearly air- tight as can 
be made. My plan is a building 18x60 and 18 
feet high, divided into three divisions by a 
plank partition. The building is made of 2x10 
studding set one foot apart, covered on each 
side with tarred building paper, then sheathed 
inside and out with matched sheathing. The 
bottom of the studs can be set in tbe ground by 
digging a trench two feet deep, placing a plank 
on the outside for the studs to press against. 
Then set the studs and fill with dirt. This 
will resist all lateral pressure. Tie firmly at 
the top and center with iron rods at each parti- 
tion. 

At one end and in each partition there should 
be a door made to shut tight, extending from 
bottom to top. It is better to make this in 
three parts for the better convenience of open- 
ing. There should be boards cut to tbe right 
length to rest on tbe stud each side of the door, 
to be put in as you fill and take out as the en- 
silage is removed. 

^ever build small and separate buildings, as 
this makes extra labor in moving the cutter 
and in feeding, and extra labor means extra 
expense. 

Requisites of Success. 

Success in dairying and stock-raising in Cali- 
fornia must be attained by the exercise of 
economy and good sense. The industry is in 
its infancy, and but little good sound dairy 
sense is as yet used either in breeding or feed- 
ing. It is on the succotash order, and the 
" general-purpose cow " idea largely prevails. 
You might as well try to breed a racehorse 
from a Norman, or a fox hound from a bulldog, 
as to try to breed a dairy cow from a beef 
breed. But I am on the silo, and if this is not 
consigned to the waste-basket I will write of 
breeds and breeding in my next. 

Pilling the Silos. 

One building such as I have described will 
hold feed for 300 head of cattle for five month". 
When ready, fill slowly. Your pits are Nos. 1, 

2 and 3. Cut the first day in No. 1, the second 
in No. 2, the third in No. 3. Then test No. 1 
if it has heated to 130° F ; put in another day's 
cutting; if not, wait till it is at the proper heat. 
Next take the silos Nos. 2 and 3, waiting till 
each pit attains the proper heat, and so con- 
tinue till your silo is full, always keeping it 
well packed. When full, cover each pit with 
two thicknesses of tarred paper, with two or 
three feet of hay or straw on top. This is all 
the weighting necessary. 

The Silo In California. 

I cannot agree with Mr. Jewell as regards 
the profit of silos in California. There is no 
country where the silo will be of greater ad- 
vantage than in California. 

You spr ak of root crops. They are good as 
a tonic for dairy cows and a good feed for grow- 
ing stock, hut produce too poor milk for the 
dairy when made a steady feed. Pasture gra'8 
is the nearest a perfect ration that exists, and 
the silo is the nearest approach to this that an 
yet exists. A silo can be filled at a cost of $1 
per ton, and three tons of ensilage is equal to 
one ton of the best of clover hay. Thirty tons 
of ensilage can, and has been, grown on an acre. 

I will gladly answer any and a'l questions on 
ensilage or the silo through the Press. I con- 
sider the Press a paper of great value to Cali- 
fornia agriculture, and would very much like to 
see its dairy and stock department fuller, that 
we may get the ideal of different men on these 
important mattirs, for the rubbing together of 
id<as brightons us all. A. T. Foster. 

Chico, Cal. 

[We are glad to have this fresh discussion of 
dairy topics. Oar readers know that it is not 
our fault that dairymen and stock-growers do 
not write more freely for the Rural. We have 
urged them constantly to come forward with 
their experiences as the fruit-growers do. We 
hope Mr. Foster's letter will start the ball 
rolling. — Eds Press ] 

Don't hatch too many chicks and take a little 
better care of a lesser number. 



24 



f ACIF16 i^URAb PRESS 



[Joly 14, 1888 



3?ATROJ^S OF J^USBANDf^Y. 

CorreBpondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports ol transactions of subordinate Oranges are respect- 
fully solicited (or this department. 

The Granger in Politics. 

J. H. Hale, Worthy Master of Connecti- 
cut State Grange, has lately well stated the 
case in an address to the Patrons in his State, 
#nd a lew of his points will be given this 
wider circulation : 

" The Grange is a non-partisan organiza- 
tion. Its fundamental law prohibits any 
discrimination between its members on ac- 
count of party relations, and the obliga- 
tion of all its officers includes the promise 
not to use the power confided in them to 
influence in any way the partisan and sec- 
tarian opinions of any member of the Or- 
der. Our membership is made up of mem- 
bers of every political party, working in 
one common" brotherhood for the general 
advancement of the cause of agriculture, 
our country and mankind, and in this asso- 
ciation we have learned to honor and re- 
spect the opinions of our brother members, 
and thus exert a powerful influence in 
moderating the heat and bitterness of party 
strife. And yet it seems appropriate thus 
early in the season of the year that is to 
witness an election of the highest import- 
ance, which is sure to be sharply contested, 
and the result of which will greatly affect 
our industrial and agricultural interests, 
that the officers and members of our Order 
should remember the obligation that rests 
upon them all to thoroughly respect each 
other's political opinions, and guard the 
Grange against the intrusion of partisan 
questions. Yet, while many of the evils we 
complain of cannot be righted, or the re- 
forms we suggest be tarried out, except 
through the ballot, it is a mistake to infer 
that the Grange refrains entirely from the 
consideration of questions of a political 
nature, or from the exercise of a direct in- 
fluence in their determination. 

The voting members of the Grange can 
exercise their political influence in strict 
accordance with the principles of the Order 
by making use of the opportunities afforded 
by association in the Grange to prepare for 
united and effective action in the primary 
meetings of their respective parties. As a 
general rule the primary meeting simply 
registers action which has been determined 
on by the party bosses, who, as a rule, rep- 
resent the worst elements of all the parties. 

***** 
Patron? and good citizens generally have 
too long neglected to properly take action in 
political affairs beginning at the party 
caucus, and now is a good time to begin to 
consider these matters. All the political 
wrongs we complain of can be righted just 
as soon as good men are ready to act to- 
gether, and now is the time to begin to 
think and plan and act with the best men of 
your party ; then, if good men are put in 
nomination by all parties, the town, State 
and nation will be in good hands, no matter 
who wins. 

I have but little patience with those who 
talk of the ' German ve>te,' the ' farmer's 
vote,' or the 'Irish vote.' Every man who 
votes in this country should do so as an 
American citizen, not in a selfish, clannish 
way. And yet the sense of power and the 
feeling of brotherhood which the Grange 
nourishes may well be used to defeat the 
schemes of selfish or dishonest politicians, 
and to secure for the agricultural interests a 
fair representation in the councils ot each 
and every political parly, and the only 
chance we have to secure just recognition 
is to begin now. * * * Patrons, I beg 
of you, think of these matters. Attend the 
caucuses, and see that the ring men be 
not sent to the conventions, but that men go 
who can be relied on to throw off the yoke 
and nominate true and honest men who will 
represent the people and see that our agri- 
cultural industry has due consideration." 



to farmers and be of aid to them in self- 
advancement. 

New England is making rapid progress 
in Grange strength. She will take the lead 
if other sections do not develop more zeal 
and enterprise. Do not let this be the case. 
However far we may go, go one step beyond 
us; then trust to us to" reach forward again. 



A Typical Patron. 

In a late publication describing Stanislaus 
county, setting forth its advantages, and giving 
instances of successes there achieved, we find 
the following pleasing mention of one well 
known to members of California Granges for his 
interest in the Good of the Order: 

" Two miles north of Modesto is the beauti- 
ful home of Hon. Vital E. Bings. Mr. Bangs 
has been engaged in farming in Stanislaus 
county for upward of 20 years, beginning with 
a possessory claim on a quarter-section of land, 
to which he hag added 320 acres, making in all 
480 acres of choice land. Mr. Bangs has paid 
some attention to fruit-raising in a small or- 
chard and vineyard. He has made a complete 
success with apricots, grapes, figs, peaches, 
nectarines, strawberries and almonds, especial- 
ly apricots. He says that he has had the 
greatest success with the Black Prince grapes, 
and next to this variety with the Mission and 
White Muscat of Alexandria. He informed us 
that enough grapes could be raised without ir- 
rigation from half an acre of vines to supply a 
whole family, and that with irrigation the yield 
could be increased from four to eight fold. He 
has also produced cotton on his place which for 
length and strength of fiber is the equal of any 
grown in the States, and for whioh he was 
awarded the first prize at the Mechanics' Fair 
held in San Francisco in 1887." 

When last heard from, toward the close of 
June, Bro. Bangs was busily engaged with the 
examination of teachers on the County Board, 
and with the assessment of property in the Mo- 
desto irrigation district; bat these public duties, 
added to the supervision of his farm, did not 
prevent him from sending us some material 
support and a word of appreciation for those 
who are striving, through the press, to advance 
the interest of farmers. 



A Word from Connecticut. 



Farmers' Convention in Texas. — A 
convention of the farmers, laborers and 
stock- raisers of Texas was held at Fort 
Worth on the 3d inst., nominated a State 
ticket and adopted a platform. The plat- 
form denounces the Mills bill for placing 
wool on the free list; deprecates the repeal 
of the internal revenue laws, and demands 
the abolition of the national-bank system 
and the election of President and Vice- 
President by the people. The State ticket 
is headed by Evan Jones of Erath county 
for Governor. A committee was appointed 
to confer with the Union Labor State Con- 
vention, July 5th, and urge that party to 
indorse the ticket nominated. An active 
campaign was decided upon. 



Bro. Chas. Wood, Secretary of the Grangers' 
Business Association, informs us that much of 
the grain sown in his locality, near Danville, 
has been cut for hay. So the income of farmers 
in that locality, as well as in many others, de 
pends largely upon the coming prices for hay. 
Bro Wood intends going to the State Grange 
at Tulare, and thinks that a number of others 
from Danville will undoubtedly attend under 
ordinary circumstances, and if favorable ex- 
cursion rates are secured, with an opportunity 
for Patrons to remain over a week or two in 
visiting the colonies and irrigated districts in 
that part of California, that a large quota will 
go from Centra Costa county, and probably 
from other parts of the State. 

March Grange Reunion. — A reunion 
of March Grange will be held at West Butte 
to-day, at 2 p. M. Worthy Master Overhiser 
and Worthy Lecturer Flint will be present, 
and a good time is expected. In the evening 
an open meeting will be held, at which 
lectures and other entertainment will be 
provided. 

New Grange Music. — Bro. A. J. Wed- 
derburn of Washington, D. C, has favored 
us with a copy of a National Grange hymn 
composed by his wife. We shall endeavor 
to obtain the opinion of some of our 
Matrons as to its merits. 



Worthy Master H. E. Hayes of Oregon 
has received an interesting letter from Bro. 
G. A. Bowen, W. L. Conn. State Grange 
he closing portion of which is as follows: 

Should this reach you in time for your 
meeting, tell the Oregon Patrons that New 
England is pushing for the supremacy in 
educational matters. We have just had a 
meeting in Boston of the lecturers of the 
State Granges of the New England States 
to perfect a literary or reading union, some- 
what after the plan of the Chautauqua 
Circle. My table is now filled with books 
sent to me for examination and selection. 
On September 1st we hope to launch a prac- 
tical system that will at once commend itself 



Keep in mind the next session of the 
State Orange, which convenes at Tulare, 
Tuesday, October 2, 1888, and make prepara- 
tions to attend. 



Parties in Los Angeles county have 
been inquiring for information in regard to 
the Grange. There should be several good 
< iranges in that county. 



The reoords of the Supreme Court of the 
United States have been found to have been 
mutilated by the court reporters. The lan- 
guage of the judges in some cases has been 
changed. 

Mr. A. T. Dewey and family have just re- 
turned from a short visit to Yosemite valley. 



( JP£gf^I CULTURAL I^OTES. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Amador. 

Returns from Blackberries. — Jackson Sen- 
tinel, July 4 : George Woolsey has eight acres 
planted to blackberries at the Q. ranch, and 
estimates his profit at $75 per acre. The ber- 
ries are planted between rows of young pear 
trees. His Day-roll at the ranch amounted last 
month to $577, the most of which went to the 
blackberry pickers. The product was shipped 
by express to San Francisco and commanded 
there from $5 to $10 per orate of 20 gallons. 
Coluea. 

For Irrigation — C. A. P. telegram, Colusa, 
July 10: The Colusa Irrigation District, un- 
der the Wright law, held an election yesterday 
and carried the irrigation project by an over- 
whelming vote. There were only 1 1 dissentiDg 
votes in Colusa. Bonfires were burning at 
every corner last night, all the bells were ring- 
ing and cannons were fired. 

Los Angeles. 

Vineyards. — Editors Press: — This county 
is justly proud of her vineyards both for raisins 
and wine. They are now looking their best, 
with the promise of a heavy crop. There is 
never any frost either in spring or fall to injure 
them, so the vineyardist can fix his attention 
wholly on growth and cultivation. No stakes 
are used for young vines in Southern California, 
thus doing away with one heavy expense. The 
old story occasionally appears about the ends 
of the vine being buried to produce the seed- 
less raisin. Wish the fool killer would attend 
to those who publish such nonsense ! There 
are acres here of the seedless Sultana, Better 
white wine and brandy are made here than in 
Northern and Central California, but better 
claret is made there. The Mission grape con- 
tinue? and will always be in favor here because 
of the climatic condition. This grape is al- 
lowed to become very ripe before being picked. 
It is then delicious to taste and excellent for 
wine. The largest vineyards in the State are 
claimed to be in the Sacramento valley. Are 
they larger than the Nadeau vineyard in this 
county of 2000 acres ?— S. S. 

"A Cigar Stump." — Santa Ana Herald, 
July 7: On the afternoon cf the 4 th a great 
blaze was observed east of town. It was soon 
discovered to be Mr. M. D. Halladay's hay 
stack, on the Mabury tract. The hay was 
destroyed. There were 75 tons, and it is sup- 
posed some fellow threw a cigar stump into the 
hay. 

The orange crop of the Santa Ana valley now 
gives promise nf being large and fine. The trees 
are loaded with fruit of good size, oranges 
larger than walnuts being noticed. The treeB 
also seem remarkably clean and free from scale. 

Napa. 

Agricultural Society. — Napa Regitter, 
July 6: A majority of the $15,000 tubscnb:d 
to the capital stock of the Napa Agricultural 
Society was represented at the annual meeting 
held in the court-house Monday afternoon. 
Reports of secretary and treasurer were tiled 
and the various committees reported. The old 
board of directors— M. M. Estee, F. W. 
Loeber, Nathan Coombs, John Even, W. J. 
McCollum, A. J. Raney, L. L. James and G. 
M. Francis — was re-elected to serve one vear. 
The directors afterward met and elected c th :ers 
as follows: President, L. L. Junes; vice- 
president, F. W. Loeber; secretary, A. H. 
Conkling; treasurer, W. J. McCollum. 

Nevada. 

Nevada and Placer Co. Fair. — Wheatland 
Four Corners: The 17th Agricultural District 
Pair comes eff at Nevada City, Aug. 28th to 
Sept. 3d. The purses and premiums will ag- 
gregate $10,000. There will be liberal premi 
urns for live-stock, farming, orchard and dairy 
products, and mechanical and art exhibits. 
There will be four days' racing, and the fair 
will be a credit to the counties named, and a 
source of profit to all concerned. 

Plumas. 

Crops in Sierra Valley. — Cor. Reno Ga- 
zette, June 30 : The heavy showers in the early 
part of June, and the cool weather since, have 
materially improved the outlook for the grain 
crop. Taking in the head of the val'ey and 
down the west side to Beck with, there will baa 
full average crop. The grain at Loyalton also 
is looking fine, but from Beckwith to the Sum- 
mit it is evident the crop will be light, with 
the exception of that in the vicinity of Adam's 
Neck. At the upper end the hay crop is good, 
but not up to the average, while at the lower 
end the decrease from an average crop will be 
some 2000 tons. The meadows being too short 
for hay, make fine and abundant pasture, and 
we shall be able to turn off more than the usual 
amount of first-quality beef this fall. While 
our artesian wells are a great convenience for 
stock purposes and to irrigate a garden patch, 
the present dry season has demonstrated their 
inadequacy for irrigation upon any extensive 
scale. What we need, and what this section 
is moBt admirably adapted to, is a reservoir 
system. 

Sacramento. 
Cannery Matters. — Record Union, July 6 : 
At the Capital Packing Co. 's establishment 
yesterday afternoon a reporter found 1E0 
women, boys and girls, and about 20 Chinese, 
engaged in canning fruit. The establishment 



covers nearly the entire block, B and C, Tenth 
and Eleventh streets. The three brick build- 
ings on the west half of the block, formerly 
used as a United States bonded internal revenue 
warehouse, are now used for the storage of 
manufactured stock. The packing or canning 
department is a large frame building on the east 
end of the block. Here you find girls from 12 
to 20 years of age and women all the way from 
30 to HO. They are superintended by women, 
and apparently get along happily like one big 
family. They all work by the piece, and those 
who are industrious and expert can make as 
high as $1 50 and $1.75 per day. The only 
place where Chinese are employed is in the tin- 
shop and cook-room. A thorough inspection of 
the premises shows them to be well ventilated, 
well lighted, the sewage all that could be de- 
sired, and the comfort of the employes looked 

after with great care The fruit they were 

working upon yesterday was apricots from Hay- 
wards — large, fine and highly colored. Next 
week the cannery will commence on peaches, 
and they say they can give employment to 250 
or 300 women and girls. They even now can- 
not get enough to handle apricots The new 

cannery at Sixth and G streets will start up 
about the 20th, and be in full blast by the first 
of the month. Mr. Hulburd, the superin- 
tendent, says they will have the most complete 
and best-arranged packing-house on the coast. 
They will commence on the peach crop and run 
through the season with a full force of white 
help. 

San Bernardino. 

Brooding Orphan Kittens. — San Bernard- 
ino Index: An old hen has taken exclusive 
charge of four kittens about three weeks old, 
that were orphaned, it is supposed, by a dose of 
oold poison. On discovering the death of the 
cat, 24 hours after, the people of the house 
were surprised to find a mother hen in full pos- 
session with the kittens nestled under her 
wings aa though they had always had them for 
protection. She seemed not at all disconcerted 
by her inability to afford lacteal nourishment; 
but that was supplied and the strange family 
are thriving finely. 

Chino Potatoes. — Champion, July 6 : This 
is the first year that any vegetables have been 
raised on the Chino ranch, north of Chino 
creek, and so far the experiments have been en- 
tirely satisfactory as regards quantity and 
quality. Peas, beans, lettuce, onions, cirrots, 
radishes, etc., are about the same as good arti- 
cles of them grown anywhere, but the cabbage 
is above the average and the potatoes 
are not surpassed by the best ever produced in 
this State, Nevada or Utah. In all cases the 
quality is unexceptionable. Heretofore Po- 
mona, Ontario and other towns have imported 
potatoes by the carload, and often they were of 
inferior quality. There will be neither excuse 
nor necessity for importing potatoes after the 
next crop is harvested. The Chino damp land 
is capable of producing millions of bushels of 
mealy, large potatoes, and much of this part of 
the State can hi supplied with them by our 
farmers. 

San Diego. 

Improvements at El Cajon. — Cor. Union: 
The most extensive improvements are those of 
Bliss & Marshall and Souther & Crosby. The 
800 acre vineyard of the former, known as the 
Bliss place, lying on both sides of the road as 
one enters the valley coming from town, now 
in its third year, is one of the largest devoted to 
the raisin grape in the State. Many broad 
avenues, running in different directions, bor- 
dered with ornamental trees, including the 
grevalia, pepper, eucalyptus and fan palm. Mr. 
Donald, who has charge of the Souther & 
Crosby vineyard of 500 acres, has it all in ex- 
cellent condition, and with its avenues bordered 
with ornamental trees, as on the Bliss place, it 
already presents a fine appearance. There are 
many other new improvements, worthy of at- 
tention, but the above are specially mentioned 
to show that El Cajon valley is fast taking rank 
as one of the leading valleys in the State for 
the cuhure of the raisin grape. With an abun- 
dant supply of water, now furnished by the 
big flume, there is no reason why it should not 
in time become as famous as Riverside. 

Santa Barbara. 

Horse Beans. — Lompoc Record: The En- 
glish tick or horse bean is considered one of the 
most profitable crops in Eagland, and generally 
sells for $1 per bushel for feed. They are good 
for horses, hogs, cattle and sheep, and improve 
the land rather than impoverish it. This bean 
has been grown in our valley and makes a tine 
crop. There is nothing wasted, the stalk mak- 
ing fine fodder and harvested with a reaper. 
This crop is not affected by frosts and the bloom 
is superior bee-feed. The yield per acre exceeds 
wheat, and it is worth more per cwt. in Liver- 
pool. Why it cannot be made profitable with 
us we do not see. It has this advantage over 
mustard— the fodder is always good, and the 
olier the bean the more valuable. The proper 
quantity for sowing is about one bushel per 
acre, and the seed can be procured In a limited 
quantity in San Francisco. 

Fair Date Changed. — Santa Maria Time*: 
T. C. Nance, one of the directors of Santa Bar- 
bara agricultural fair, has received word from 
the secretary that the county agricultural fair 
will be held from August 2Sth to 31st inclusive, 
instead of September 11th to 14th, as before 
announced. All entries for races will close 
August 15th. 

Crop Notes.— C. A. P. dispatch, Santa 
Maria, July 7: Hay is of good quality, but 



Joly 14 1888.1 



fACIFie RURAL> fRESS 



26 



light. Barley is fair in quality and the yield 
will average about 12 centals to the acre. 
Wheat is below the average, as the yield is light, 
owing to the lack of late rains. The fruit crop 
is good, and young orchards are doing well. 
The bean and potato acreage is larger, but there 
is a lighter yield. 

Land and Live Stock. — Santa Barbara Press, 
June 30: Articles of incorporation of the 
California & Arizona Cattle and Land Co. were 
filed with the County Clerk on the 21st ult. 
The purposes are to buy and sell and lease real 
estate both in Arizona and California, and to 
buy, sell and lease cattle and stock of all kinds 
in said State and Territory, and generally to 
carry on a real estate, cattle and live-stock busi- 
ness. The principal place of business is the 
city of Santa Barbara. Directors or Trustees 
are as follows: H. A. Rogers, A. C. Rogers, 
E.F. Rogers, W.B. Metcaif, Sinta Barbara, and 
W. L. Roche, Benson, Arizona. The amount 
of capital stock is .$100,000, all of which has 
been actually subscribed. 

Solano. 

Editors Press: — The weather is warm and 
pleasant, but nights cool and damp, so fruit 
dries slowly. Many are through drying apri- 
cots, and all will be done this week. Three 
cents per pound is now offered for green 'cots. 
From 20 to 30 cents per hundred is paid for cut- 
ting. Cutters are plenty, but there has been a 
scarcity of trays. Twelve and one-half cents 
per pound is offered for dried apricots in cotton 
sacks. The same price has been offered for a 
lot of dried peaches. The Chinamen struck 
for $1.25 per day and got it. White men are 
generally getting $1.25 per day and board. 
The new Oregon fruit-cutter, that is said to 
cut 1000 pounds per hour, has been tried, and 
does not seem to be much liked. It cuts the 
fruit in all sorts of ways, and takes as much 
help to run the machine, pick out the pits, and 
spread the fruit, as it would to cut it without 
the machine, and then does not do it half so 
well. Peaches are ripening very fast and soon 
there will be plenty of work cutting them. — G., 
Vacaville, July 'Jlh. 

Sonoma. 

An Energetic Hen. — Index Tribune, July 
7: Frank Weiler of Agua Caliente is the own- 
er of a little Bantam hen that has raised two 
broods of chicks since the 7th of last March. 
This week she left her last brood of seven 
chicks, which are only two weeks old, and com- 
menced laying for a third brood. 

Canning Briskly. — Petaluma Courier, July 
4: The Petaluma cannery is putting up from 
.•{0,000 to 40,000 cans of fruit per day. It is a 
perfect bee-hive of life, but everything is done 
in order and there is no confusion. Wagon- 
loads of women and children come in from the 
country every morning to aid in the work, 
and all make fair wages. The daily expense 
amounts to about $5000. 

Tehama. 

Irrigating Project. — Red Bluff Cause, July 
7: L. W. Frisbie and W. L Brown of Shasta 
county were before the Board of Supervisors 
yesterday, and talked on irrigation. It is the 
desire of these gentlemen that Tehama join 
with Shasta county in the irrigation project al- 
ready formed. A survey has been made in 
Shasta county for a ten-foot ditch, the water to 
be taken from the river near Redding. The 
survey has been made as far as Anderson, and 
a map of the route was shown. If Tehama 
should agree to join in the enterprise, the ditch 
will be increased to 20 feet. It is not known 
whether the plan is a feasible one for Tehama 
county, and the board took no action in the 
matter. 

The Ostriches' Reception Days. — The Red 
Bluff Sentinel of July 7 th contains a notice that 
the birds at the ostrich farm will be on exhibi 
tiou Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. (Ad- 
mission, 50 cents; children, 10 cents.) Visitors 
are requested not to bring dogs to the farm, a? 
all dogs found on the place will be destroyed. 
No shooting is allowed on the farm. 

Tulare. 

Weed Ashes and Hay Harvest.— Visalia 
Times : J. E. Lowrey, who has been farming 
in this vicinity for the past 28 years, Bays that 
he is just beginning to learn the capabilities of 
the soil in this section and how to farm it. 
Until last season his ranch grew up to weeds 
after the crop was harvested in June and July, 
and they were allowed to stand there so thick 
that a milch cow could not be found among 
them before Christmas, or when the frost nip- 
ped them down. List season he waited till 
they bad fairly started, when he ran a mower 
through them and cut them down; then he 
raked them up and burned them, and after- 
ward thoroughly plowed the land. The result 
was that the ground retained the moisture bet- 
ter than ever before, and this season he har- 
vested from the cultivated portion 3} tons of 
hay per acre — the largest crop ever realized on 
the place, and this, too, in what is termed a dry 
season. 

Blinded Cattle.— Han ford Sentinel, Joly 5: 
,; . W. Clute of Lakeside is raising a herd of 
nice cattle, and one night last week was sur- 
prised to find a couple of fine heifers so blind 
that they would run against a fence or tree. 
On examination the pupil of the eye was cov- 
ered with a white film and the lids were in- 
flamed. He put about a teaspoonful of pure fine 
salt into each eye. The next day they could 
see tolerably well. A half-dozen calves were 
corraled on Sunday evening and several treated 



to the salt remedy. Some had a white spot in 
one eye, while the other was not sufficiently 
diseased to make the animal blind. The cattle 
seem all right otherwise and it puzzles Mr. 
Clute to know the cause of the strange eye-dis- 
ease. 

Irrigated Wheat. — Traver Advocate, July 
7: O. S. Brewer finished thrashing his grain 
last Saturday. He has realized 512 sacks from 
35 acres, 15 acres being irrigated. Mr. Brew- 
er probably has the heaviest crop of any one in 
this eection this year. His land is located a 
few miles east of Traver and surrounded by 
ditches from the 76 canal. As we have said be- 
fore, 15 acres of the land was irrigated from 
the surface, while the remainder received 
moisture by seepage, the water rising to within 
a few feet of the surface all over the land. 
While many thousands of acres in the 76 
country, not irrigated, produced but a few 
sacks to the acre, Mr. Brewer's average for his 
wheat, in a dry year, when the prices will nec- 
essarily be high, is a trifle over J 4.1 sacks to the 
acre. 

Ventura. 

Apricots in Ventura. — Free Press, July 6 : 
The apricot season is just opening in fine shape. 
It is thought now that the crop will all be saved 
in this county for what with the additional dri- 
ers built this season and the outside buyers who 
have come in to purchase for other points, a 
very good market is found. One cent per 
pound delivered and packages found by buyers, 
is what they are bringing. At this price a five- 
year orchard, if properly cared for, will yield 
from $100 to $159 per acre. 

Hereford Stock. — Editors Press: — Jas. 
Robertson, of the firm of George & Robertson, 
raisers of thoroughbred Hereford cattle, has 
just moved a portion of their herd to an in- 
closed pasture on the Piru in Ventura county. 
He does this to facilitate close breeding, as 
their range is not suitable for that purpose at 
present. They commenced breeding this stock 
about two years since, have now over 30 head 
and are well satisfied that they are the right 
cattle for this coast, being good rangers, 
healthy and maturing early — and early matur- 
ity is what stockmen are looking for. An ani- 
mal that will mature and be ready for the 
market at two years old is the animal that will 
pay the stockmen best; and to all appearance 
these cattle will " fill the bill." These stock- 
men brought out a carload of this stock two 
years ago from the famous herd of Miller & Son 
of Beecher, 111., and are well satisfied with their 
investment. — Occasional, Ravenna, Los An- 
geles Co., June 20th. 

Yolo. 

Man Glandered. — Yolo Democrat, July 5: 
L. L. Leroy lives at present in Cacbeville, hav- 
ing a wife and one child. Formerly he lived 
on the ranch of Mr. Webb Curtiss, and for 
about two months was in close contact with 18 
or 20 horses, which he believed he could cure 
of the glanders. While in this business he felt 
the symptoms of the disease which he had been 
studying in the animals growing upon himself. 
First indicated by a thumping in his bead, it 
has now set its hold firmly upon his lungs, 
throat and bead, indications of which appear at 
the nose. Being in Woodland yesterday, he 
went to Drs. Kier and Davidson for advice, 
and each of these gentlemen gave the same un- 
qual lied opinion — that he unquestionably has 
glanders. He seems not to have energy or 
strength enough to care or wish for anything 
but death. 

Yuba. 

Pickings from the Marysville Appeal, July 
6 : Several boxes of tomatoes were brought in 
from the gardens in this vicinity yesterday and 
put on sale. They retail from 6 to 8 cents a 

pound A practical nurseryman informed a 

reporter yesterday that the orange trees in this 
city are looking much better than they were a 

year ago. The scale has vanished The hop 

crop in and around Wheatland is looking excep- 
tionally well, and will be ready for the pickers 
soon. All the growers say that they will em- 
ploy white men aud boys if they will work. 

Potatoes.— Wheatland Four-Corners, June 
30: S. D. Wood shipped several carloads of 
potatoes over the mountains last week. He is 
the pioneer potato-grower of this section and 
does a large trade shipping for other growers. 
The prices have been low, and there seems very 
little prospect of immediate improvement. 
Niemeyer Bros, shipped a carload of Bear 
River potatoes to Hot Springs, Wyoming Terri- 
tory, last Tuesday. They are the first Wheat- 
land potatoes ever shipped to that locality. 

OREGON. 

Codlin Moths Missing.— Oregonian, July 
6: Something has been the matter with the 
codlin moths ! The infesting worms that were 
spoiling apples both wholesale and retail do not 
put in their appearance, and the apples are 
now half-grown. Also the pears miss their ac- 
customed infliction and grow smooth and per- 
fect from stem to stern. They do say — and the 
" they " are apple-growers acquainted with the 
codlin moth and all the family— that they have 
examined apples and made thorough search for 
the invaders, and they are not to be found. 
Of course, as " one swallow don't make a sum- 
mer," so one man's apple trees don't prove the 
case for all Oregon. In one section of this val- 
ley, however, where the apples have been great- 
ly infested for some years past, examination of 
fruit on trees, heretofore seriously affected, 
shows no worms in many pears as well as 
apples. 



HE V IJ^JEYARD. 



The rebate on the Tariff on Raisins. 

[D'spatch to California Associated Preps.] 
Washington, July 10th.— The tariff debate 
in the House late this afternoon was one of the 
liveliest of the session, and the political effect 
of which will be far-reaching. The clause re- 
ducing the tax on raisins from - to 1 ', cents per 
pound was taken up. Vandever of California 
offered an amendment restoring the duty to 
two cents. He called the attention of the Dem- 
ocrats to the seriousness of the step they were 
about to take. The raisin industry in Cali- 
fornia was one of the most important in the 
State. It had been said that this reduction did 
not amount to much, when in fact it would 
amount to more than $150,000 a year. He did 
not believe that the Democrats, if they thor- 
oughly understood the situation, would insist 
upon the reduction. The treatment meted out 
to California so far had been anything but 
justice. It would seem a pity that that State 
was separated by the Territories from the rest 
of the Union. Did an ocean instead roll be- 
tween them — did the Spanish flag, instead of 
the stars and stripes, float above California's 
soil, they might reasonably hope for better 
things. This proposed reduction from 2 cents 
to \\ per pound, he said, was a direct blow at 
a prominent industry of California, and a severe 
one. The producers of raisins in his district 
were small land-owners. It was like striking 
a blow at the homestead and comforts of home. 
It practically amounts to just as much as a rob- 
bery of the farmers. The majority of this 
House could not assume a more unfortunate 
position than the present one, favoring, as it 
does, foreign products at the expense of home 
products. 

McKenna's Plea for Home Industry. 

McKenna followed and made a strong plea for 
Vandever's amendment. He said he hoped the 
amendment would be adopted. The industry 
needed it and must have it, or else it would 
perish. He appealed to the Democrats of the 
House to support it. He believed they could 
be loyal to their party and yet support the 
amendment. He thought there must te some 
limitation for both protectionists and tariff re- 
formers. This industry, being a new and diffi- 
cult one, demanded consideration. He showed 
that experiment and toil had to be gone through 
with and markets found for the product, all of 
which took time and capital. He said that im- 
ported raisins varied in price from 10 to 30 cents 
per pound, and the domestic from 5 to 40 cents. 
He expected that this year's production of Cal- 
ifornia raisins would be 150,000 boxes. The 
duty, he thought, ought to be kept at 2 cents 
per pound, and declared it to be for the interest 
of the Democrats, if they wished to consider 
political reasons, to support the amendment. 

Biggs Argues for Low Duty. 
Representative Biggs declared that he was in 
favor of protecting raisins and everything of 
the kind produced on the Pacific Coast, and 
therefore supports the Mills bill, which he 
thought was better protection, since it does 
away with the pernicious damage rebate. 
There was no ten per cent damage under this 
bill, and the protection thus offered would soon 
enable the United States to supply the world 
with raisins. 

Morrow Replies. 

Mr. Morrow, in answer to Biggs, said that 
the proposed reduction was to give the product 
at cheaper prices, but that could not be done 
without ruining the industry. In a new indus- 
try like raisins, the growing of a vineyard 
needs from four to five years' care, with no re- 
turns to the grower during that time, and he 
falling in debt. He declared such to be the 
condition of the raisin industry in California to- 
day, and the reduction would destroy the small 
margin of profit now enjiyed. When the Dem- 
ocrats came to rice, they would retain the 100 
per cent protection. But raisins they would 
reduce 25 per cent. Was that just? Both 
were necessary for good pudding. He said most 
of the raisin-growers of California are poor and 
struggling for existence against Spain and 
Southern Europe. 

McMillan of Tennessee spoke of the benefit 
that woull result by the abolishment of the 
damage rebate. 

Morrow here interrupted and said that the 
damage on raisins was too small to be consid- 
ered a factor in the case. 

Felton Stands Up. 
Fclton said that a great deal had been uttered 
regarding the depressed condition of American 
agriculture, and he declared it to be due to com- 
petition at home, and said we could not afford 
to compete with Europe. The duty on raisins 
and other products should therefore be main- 
tained. 

The amendment was defeated by a vote of 67 
to 77. The position of active hostility to the 
maintenance of the tariff assumed by Biggs, and 
his vote against it, is taken as significant of the 
way he will vote on the wool clause. Thomp- 
son was absent, although it was a well-known 
fact that the raisin clause would be taken up 
to-day. 

What Mr. Blowers Will Do. 
Washington, July 10th. — The present duty 
on raisins is 2 cents per pound. Mills' tariff 
bill proposes a duty of U cents, a reduction of 
one-half cent. Shippers decline that the crop 
of Spanish raisins will be a large one, with low 



prices. Under this circumstance even the pres- 
ent duty is considered an inadequate protection 
for the raisin-growers of the Pacific Coast. 

_ In this connection attention is called to the 
significant assertions of R. B. Blowers, a prom- 
inent raisin-grower of the coast, who says: 
"Tinkering the tariff is ruining the business of 
raisin-making in California. When the tariff on 
raisins was reduced before, it crippled the in- 
dustry. I took up a large portion of my raisin 
vineyard then and converted it into an alfalfa 
patch, and another part of it I grafted with ta- 
ble grapes. From the alfalfa tract I will get 
from 10 to 13 tons per acre. I am getting ready 
to take up the rest of my raisin vineyard in an- 
ticipation of another reduction of the tariff in the 
interest of the Spanish raisin-grower, for another 
reduction will kill the business here. We can 
barely make a profit now during an average 
year, but if there should be a good crop in Spain 
and a poor one here, we would not make a cent 
after paying freight to Eastern markets, which 
is several times as much as the foreign producer 
has to pay. The foreign raisin-maker would, 
therefore, drive us out of the market." 



News in Brief. 

Saloons in San Diego are compelled to close 
at 11 o'clock every night. 

A great deal of property was destroyed on 
Sunday night by storms at Kansas City. 

Senator Dorsey has bought a ranch for 
40,000 head of cattle at Tonto Basin, Ar. 

The Northern Pacific Company will spend 
$500,000 for shops and depot at Tacoma, W. T. 

George Francis Train has come out from 
his retirement and will again take the lecture- 
field. 

Superior Judge Keyser of Marysville has 
decided that vagrants are not entitled to jury 
trials. 

The Locomotive Brotherhood Engineers on 
the Chicago roads are threatening another 
strike. 

At the Colusa election the people decided in 
favor of district irrigation. The district era- 
braces about 700,000 acres. 

The Conference Committee on the River and 
Harbor Appropriation bill has been unable to 
agree on California's apportionment. 

It costs Butte county taxpayers over one- 
third of the county rate each year to build new 
roads and keep the old ones in repair. 

Puget Sound fir, for fine car-work, is replac- 
ing the higher-priced walnut and the Louisiana 
ash, as well as West India mahogany. 

About seven -eighths of the town of Suisun, 
Solano county, was destroyed by fire on Mon- 
day. The loss is estimated at $600,000. 

The last hope of Goldenson, the murderer, is 
gone, Judge Field of the United States Supreme 
Court having refused the application for a writ 
of error. 

The bark Bella Vista from British Columbia 
to this port was abandoned off Point Reyes, and 
sunk. All the crew were saved by a passing 
schooner. 

Much of the property stolen by Charles 
Pitcher, the Providence, R I., bank-teller, has 
been recovered in London. He stole $500,000 
of the bank's funds. 

A Disastrous fire occurred at Cherokee, 
Butte county, on Tuesday morning early, and 
Miss Annie O'Donnell was burned to death in 
her room in the hotel. 

Dr. Charles F. Underhill, at one time 
one of Cincinnati's most eminent physicians, 
has just been sent to an insane asylum, a rav- 
ing maniac from the effects of cocaine. 

The construction of an engine-house for the 
Howard-street cable line was commenced on 
Saturday last on the corner of Tenth and How- 
ard streets. It is expected that the road will 
be finished in two years. 

Gov. Waterman has sent a circular to the 
leading business houses in the State asking 
their judgment of the wisdom of complying 
with the request of the Native Sons of the 
Golden West, that September 9th be declared a 
holiday. 

An appeal from the decision of Judge Nash of 
Spokane Falls that the Washington Territory 
woman suffrage law is unconstitutional is to be 
argued before the Territorial Supreme Court 
at an adjourned sitting which will occur on 
July 16th. 

The Atlantic & Pacific railroad is to build a 
new $90,000 iron bridge across the Colorado 
river, near the Needles. It will be about 800 
feet long, and high up above the river to per- 
mit of the passage of water craft without the 
use of a draw. 

J . A. Fillmore, general manager of the 
Southern Pacific, states that the company has 
in course of construction, and nearly completed, 
40 first-class locomotives. They, as fast as they 
arrive on the coast, will be distributed among 
the different divisions. 

According to the New York Herald, which 
has been investigating the subject, Italian im- 
migrants have been coming to New York this 
year at the rate of about 6000 per month, and 
the movement, so far from being a natural one, 
is prompted and furthered by fraud. 

Preparations for the 23i annual fair of the 
Mechanics' Institute in this city are being 
pushed, and the prospects are unusually bright. 
The leading counties in the State will compete 
for prizes, and embarrassment is already caused 
by their demands for space. The machinery 
department will be much better filled than last 
year, and in other classes the entries made 
promise a comprehensive exhibit of California 
industries. 



26 



pACIFie f^URAla f RESS. 



r.Tni.Y 14, 1888 




Mount Hamilton. 

Watch-tower of the Pacific! As the mist 
And loam of daybreak down the valley glide, 

Or surging high in waves of amethyst 

Flow back before the day's incoming tide, 

Serene thou standest in the morning red, 

Greeting the sunrise with uncovered head. 

As roll the mists away, where now a sea 
Of vapor tossed, in many a rock-heaved crest 

The billowy mountains lie, thou seem'st to be 
A light-house, lifted from some ocean's breast — 

An ocan motionless and dumb and deep, 

Smitten, in some dead past, with endless sleep. 

Beyond these wave-like hills, in dreamy calm 
The vale of summer lies. A rich expanse 

Of orchard, vineyard, gardens green with p ilm 
And flushed with roses, meets the eager glance. 

There life is warm and new; the mission-btrll 

Alone repeats a century's song and knell. 

The white Sierras like an armed band 
Guard in long ranks the eastern gate of day; 

Northward, Diablo from his lortress grand 
Watches the golden city of the bay; 

Westward, a single d lzzling line of white 

Shows where the blue Pacific meets the sight. 

But not for this shall wise men from the East 
Ascend the winding path to Hamilton; 

Fair as the view on which their eyes may feast, 
Sublimer scenes unfold at set of sun. 

Earth yields her b?auty t:> the morning light, 

But heaven itself is opened to the night. 

In hushed expectancy a noble guard 
Of mountains fitly named attendant wait 4 ;; 

Kepler, who heeded not the w orld's reward, 
Gizing, entranced, through wisdom's fairer gates, 

Copernicus, who seized heaven's outer key, 

Sad Galileo, ancient Ptolemy. 

These and their kindred searchers of the sky 
Wait the new revelations. Unto tliem 

Was given the scorn and scouige of bigotry; 
Not then as now the ready diadem 

Of the world's praise and recompense to each 

Interpreter of the celestial speech. 

To the keen watchers on this mountain hight 
God's writing on the skies shall be unrolled; 

Star after star with lips of fire shall speak 
The secrets hid in hieroglyphs of gold; 

The moon shall draw aside her silver veil, 

And even the sun with angry wonder pale. 

Oh, who can tell how soon the hour will be 
When some large planet, drifting full in sight, 

Shall send response across the ether sea 

To lightning-signal from this glorious hight — 

When world to world shall answer from a'ar, 

And life to come be promised by a star ? 

Calm be his rest who gave this lofty dome, 
Asking a grave beneath its corner-stone — 

A mausoleum w hich in lime to come 
Shall be at once an altar and a throne. 

For Science here as king, and Truth as priest, 

Shall bid the world to a perpetual feast. 

— Frances /.. Mace. 



Aftor Long Waiting. 

Out in an old English garden, full of roses, 
violets, migonette, old-fashioned pinks and 
sweet peas, a lady sat beneath one of the tall 
trees, twining with de t fingers a snow-white 
wreath. She was neither very young nor 
very old, though her soft white muslin dress, 
a wealth of pale go'd hair and an exqusitely 
fair skin, gave her the appearance of a gir 
still in her teens. A Very beautiful and lov- 
able woman was Anna Mayner, as rich and 
poor for miles arou.d could tell. 

The white, scared face of a little girl 
pressed against the pilings of the garden 
gate, and a shiill p ping voice called out, 
" M.ss Anna ! oh, Miss Anna ! Ha>e y.-u 
heard about the bank ? There's awful do n's 
in town. Bill Watk ns is swearing murder, 
Joe Clark is cuising everything, and Andy 
Grey is layin' down by the m 11 drunk, and 
his wife's tnere with her baby, a.ryin' to get 
him home !" 

What is it you are talkingabou', Dorcas; 
of what bank are yt-u speaking, and why are 
the men drunk and cursing and swearing ? : ' 

There was no exciteirunt in Anna's tone, 
noth ng ever excited her, but she came and 
stood before the child and by her very calm- 
ness drew out a coherent story. 

" It's Grigg's bank. Joe CI irk said it was 
broke, that Griggs Brothers were scoundrels, 
and the people were round it in crowds, the 
men swearing and the women crying. It's a 
sad day for Rosamond Drew, Dame Riley 
says, for her lover's money was in the bank, 
that they were to have to go to America 
with, and to night their wedding night, too.'' 

Poor Rosamond ! Anna dropped a tear 
on the white lose wreath that she had 
twined for her, and then she thought, " It is 
only the money and they are both young and 
strong,' 1 so she smiled at Dorcas, and said 
p easantly; " Dame Riley always looks on 



the dark side of things, and they may not be 
so bad after all." 

The scared look left the child's face, and 
she went away trying to imagine what kind of 
a world th s would be if the women in it were 
all like Miss Mayner. "She was just as 
cocl as a sliced cucumber,'' she said to her 
mother. " I wonder if there ain't angels 
with her a tellin' her not to fear, for she 
must a known that her father had lots in the 
bank, too." 

If Anna had thought, she would have 
known that they had lost heavily, but she 
was so accustomed to think of others first, 
sorrowing for those in humble circumstances 
who had lost what little they had, in many 
cases the hard saved earnings of years; so 
busy wondering what Rosamond would do, 
that she had no time to think of herself, but 
when she met h r father at the door she 
knew their l >ss had not been a light one. 
He seemed to have grown years older since 
the morning, and there were hard lines in his 
face that she had never noticed before. 'We 
are beggars, Anna,'' he said, with a groan. 
'• I doubt. if there is a pound left us ! ' 

Her arms were around his neck, her so r t 
cheek against his, " What if the money is 
gone papa, am I not well and strong 1 Beg 
gars we are not and never wi.l be, while God 
gives us health and strength." 

"Yes, you are brave and strong;'' he said, 
stroking her hair, " brave and strong like 
your brother Roy, but to think of the work- 
ing and struggling is more than I can bear. 
If I had had a thought of this perhaps — " 

Why that perhaps ? he did not say, but the 
color left her face and she put one hand over 
her heart as if to stop the terrible thumping. 
No need to tell her why, she was thinking 
of ten long years befote, when she had stood 
n that very place and said good by to one, 
the only one whom sr/e had ever loved. 

Two brothers had gone to war; one, quick- 
tempered, warm hearted Clifford, had found 
a grave in the far East, the other, blue-eted, 
sunny-haired Roy, had sickened and died on 
the way home. How many times had Anna 
sobbed herself to sleep, grieving for him ! 
" You must be son and daughter b th,"hehad 
said, "while Cliff and I are away, but keep 
up a brave heart, Ii .tie sister, it won't be long 
before we 11 have peace and be back again 
in old Engl-ind. There, bru^h away those 
tears and give me a bunch of your yio ets, 
they look so delica e and yet are so hardy 
and brave, just like the sister I leave at 
home," and with a laugh and a heart full of 
hope he had gone away, never to return. 

It was in those days that Hugh Lyndon 
had found Elm Hall so attractive, and its 
greatest a traction, Anna. Gordon Mayner 
and his wife could not feel that in Anna's 
marriage they would gain a son, but instead 
would lose their daughter, and so frowned at 
Hu^h, and objected to his coming, but frowns 
and gruff words d d not keep h.m away, and 
Mr. Mayner dtcided to take a m ire decisive 
step. Mee ing him one day when he was 
coming up the walk, he said: *' Mr. Lynden, 
it is not often I am obliged to speak so p ainly 
to people, but it seems impo sible for some 
persons to take a hint. You're not wanted 
here, and I should think you would have 
known it before th s. but you keep coming, 
and coming, now let this be the last of ic.'' 

Hugh replied boldly: "I know you have 
never bid me welcome. Itwasnot)ou but 
Anna, I came to see, and with her consent 1 
will marry her, whether you are willing or 
not; if she consents no or.e shall part us.'' 

" You might as well spare yourself fur- 
ther trouble, for of this I am sure, she will 
never many without her parents' consent, 
but she may answer for herself." Anna had 
just opened the garden gate when he said 
that, and seeing them together, came bound- 
ing up the steps and stood before them, with 
an eager, earnest look on her face. Her 
fither'sgrim smile softened and his voice 
trembled a little while he said: " This gentle- 
man has something to say and you are to 
answer it." 

She knew as well what that " something '' 
was then, as she did after it had been said. 
The warm blood rushed into her face and 
then died out, leaving it as pale as marble. 
After Hugh had spoken she looked at him 
and said: " 1 cannot be your wife." Then 
Mr. Mayner turned away and left the two 
alone. 

' You say you love me, and I know you 
do," he exclaimed passionately; "then why 
should anything comebetweei us? Does 
not the Bible say, a man shall leave father 
and mother and cleave to his wife, and does 
i. not apply to woman as well ? Come with 
me, be my wife.' Oh, Anna, you cannot re- 
fuse." 

"If you love me, leave me," she said, im- 
ploringly, " and do not persuade meto do that 
lor which I shall abhor myself. Leave me 
and be happy with some other." 

He was calm then, so calm that it was 
more pitiful th^n his passion and pleading. 
'■ I will go away," he said, "because it would 



only make us more miserable if I should 
stay, but promise me this, and promise me 
tru*, that you will never be the wife of 
another while I live, and when duty no 
longer b'nds you here you will be mine." 
She gave the promise and he went away. 
Would he be true, who could tell. 

This was ten long years be 'ore; they were 
poor now, and if — Ah, there are so many 
buts, and ifs, and perhaps, in our poor human 
lives, and Anna hid long since Larned it 
was best not to sgh for ihe past, but to go 
on hoping and doing, with a cheerful heart, 
whatsoever she found to do, thus making her 
own life brighter as well as the lives of those 
about her. And what time was there to 
ponder over what might have been, or shed 
foolish teirs over the thought, if we had 
but known?' If they were poor, a means 
of livlihood must be found, and she must 
work lor her father and herself. 

She had just taken up the rose wreath, 
wondering it it would be worn that night, 
when light feet p rttered on the gravel walk, 
and panting, a 1 out of breath, Rosamond 
herself bounded up the steps. "We are go- 
ing to be married, just the s ime, Miss Anna," 
she exclaimed, breathlessly. " Uncle Joe 
has g ven us fifty pounds, and Walter will 
work his passage. He had not put in his 
last lump of savings, so we have that much 
more. It won't be g ing as we intended, but 
we'll do the best we can and trust to luck 
when we get to America. It might have 
been a great ded worse, so neither of 
us are going to fret about it.'' 

And neither of ihem did, and a menier 
wedding the country folk seldom saw. The 
bride, in a simple white muslin gown, looked 
as pretty and sweet as brides are ever ex- 
pected to look, and there was a bonfire in 
the evening and merry makings, and then 
farewells were said, and Rosamond and 
Walter entered upon a new life. 

The be utiful place that had been the 
home of the Mayners for so many years was 
sold, and Anna and her father went to live in 
a small cottage that had once been a tene- 
ment house. The idolized mistress of E'm 
Hall en ered it now as governess to the 
children who made the old halls ring with 
their sports, and the stately mistress would 
look at the gentle lady who bore her trials 
so patiently and wonder. 

Day after day Mr. Mayner sat in an easy 
chair on the cottage porch and looked toward 
his old home. " The flowers don't smell so 
sweet heie as they did in the old garden, 1 ' he 
would say, " and somehow the air seems 
closer here," and the words would end with 
a sigh. 

One day there came a letter from Rosa- 
mond. Fortune had favored them Walter 
had work and good pay, " and we have the 
dearest little girl," she wrote, " so pretty and 
cute, and we named her for the noblest 
wonun I ever knew, and her name is Anna. 

" I must tell you how Walter got his 
place. A gentleman he applied to said, 
' Well, there is no vacant place here, but 
where do you hail from?' 

" Walter told him, and when he mentioned 
the old pi ice, a fine looking gen leman who 
was standing there came to him and said: 
' So you are from Lennox, are you? I lived 
there myself a number of years ago, and 
many a pleasant recollection 1 have of the 
place, too.' Walter looked hard at him, and 
said: ' Yes, and your name is Hugh Lyndon!' 

" ' You are better at remembering faces 
than I am,' said the gentleman, 'though 1 
don t believe I have entirely forgotten Walter 
Bell,' and then he spoke to the firm and 
Walter was hired. 

" Mr. Lyndon has taken supper with us 
twice, and the last time he asked would 1 
send a message from him to you. 1 told him 
whatever he had to say he could word better 
than 1, and if he would write it on a slip of 
paper I would send it in my letter." 

The substance of that little slip was this: 
" If you are willing to receive a letter from 
me, let me know. Oh, Anna, these are long 
years of waiting ! " 

And this was the substance of her answer: 
" My father is old and feeble and requires all 
my care. I do not think it b st to grant your 
request, but my wish is that you may forget 
me, dear friend, and love a better woman." 

The struggle it cost her to pen those words, 
no one can tell. She scolded herself, she 
laughed at h rself, the idea of a woman thirty 
years old kissing a 1 ttle bit of paper with a 
few marks of ink on it ! The idea of a 
woman who should long since have outgrown 
such folly, blotting a page with tears, be- 
cause his hand had touched it, and after 
these self-admonitions, those sorrows, too. 
found a grave in the past, the cares and 
duties of life were taken up again, and the 
smothered pain only heaven knew. 

Day by day her father grew feebler, and 
Anna rejoiced wnen a letter came from an 
old friend begging them to come to the 
Scottish coast. 

" You remember, Gordon," wrote this friend, 



"that years ago you were sick. No one knew 
what was the matter with you, no medicine 
did you any good; and you Came here and 
our bracing winds, roaring waves and Scotch 
diet put you right on your feet, so I shall not 
take no for an answer, but shall have rooms 
put in readiness f t your coming." 

Urgent invitations had come from this 
friend many times before, but Mrs. Mayner 
had no love for the cold and storms of the 
of the Highlands. '■ Let me live and die in 
England, and I shall be content,'' she had 
said, and her wish had been granted. She 
had gone to her rest before Elm Hall was in 
the possession of strangers, and Anna and 
her father were left alone Now there was 
no cause for hesitation or delay, and prepa- 
rations were made for their departure. 

Their host, Captain Gerald King, was an 
Englishman, who, early in life, had been 
transplanted to Scotch soil. He was blunt 
in manners, made no pretense to fashion, was 
quick tempered, warm hearted and shrewd; 
in truth, an odd mixture of the genial En- 
glish and the sharp Scotch. 

" We cannot boast of much grandeur," he 
said, when we coining his guests, " but to 
such as we have you are welcome," and, 
bowing gallantly, he kissed Anna's little hand 
and pron junced her " the faire .t of English 
women. ' 

" She"s a bonnie lass," his old housekeeper 
exclaimed, " and it wad na be strange if she 
come h.re fur gude." 

" But the mester's sae auld," said Bessie, 
the maid. 

" Auld, Bess ! He's na auld and dinna ye 
ken, the spring follows winter ? " she asked, 
with a look of scorn, and then, sagely nod- 
ding her head, she went about her work with 
a knowing smile. 

Though Mr. Maynor improved but little, 
the north winds brought the roses to Anna's 
cheeks, her step was rimer, her laugh gayer 
and more frequent, and Captain King was the 
jollirst and most hospitable of hosts. " She's 
a dainty flower," he said to himself, " and the 
old man can't stay long, and then what is to 
become of her ? Gerald King, what are you 
any way but a rough, blunt old captain, and 
have you f.n idea that she would be your 
queen? Why didn't you go and polish your- 
self up, instead of staying on these rocks as 
if you grew here! Humph ! You II get htr, 
won't you, if jou wait till she asks you! 
Muster up courage, man, and find out what 
she thinks of you. Yes, and by the King's 
armv, you'd rather storm a town ! " 

He was a man of few words, blunt and to the 
point, and once, while alone with Anna, he 
touched on the subject that was nearest his 
heart and blurted it all out. " I m not a young 
man, and there is gray in my hair and beard, 
but my heart is as young as ever. I know 
I'm not good enough for you — well, con- 
found it, if you think you ever could love 
Captain King, say it, and, hang my awkward 
tongue, I d rather run a man of war up the 
Tham:S and fire the city of London than try 
to storm a woman's heart, but I mean as 
much as any man could say." And the Cap- 
tain ran his fingers through his hair, and 
Anna looked so pained and surprised that he 
wished he was on board a man-of-war and 
sunk in the bottom of the ocean. 

If it were possible to ever love another be- 
side Hugh, she felt that she could love this 
man. She was not amused at his awkward- 
ness, nor disgusted with his bluntness. She 
knew he was honest, that he loved her, and 
wLhed to make her his wife, and that it could 
not be. If he could hear the story of her life 
he would understand why, and though it was 
painful to call up those ghosts of the past, 
for his sake she could bear the pain. 

In a simple, straightforward manner, she 
told him all, and when she had finished he 
drew his hand across his eyes and said: 
" Forgive me, if I had known this you migi.t 
have been spared my fooli-h words.'' 

When alone, he slapped his hands together 
empha ically and excla med: " Gerald King, 
what a fool you are ! If you were not a total 
idiot you'd have known there was something 
of that kind and found it out and helped her 
instead of making such a dunce of yourself! 
And now what are you going to do, sit here 
in your old building, see Gordon die and let 
her go out in the world and work? No you 
don't, no sir ! You can't talk love to a 
worn m, but you can write a letter to a man, 
and now let's see how you'll do it." 

After much storming and puffing and 
scratching away, the warm-hearted cap ain 
produced this: 

DcwriBTH, Scotland. April . 

" Ihigh Lyndon— Most Worthy Sir: — Though 
writing jjf not much in my way, I am in hopes 
that when you have read this you will under- 
stand what I mean and know what to do. I 
am a blunt man, not given to much palavering 
of speech, and if you think you've wasted your 
time when you've read what I have to say, you 
are not the man I take you to be. Coming 
right down to the bottom of things, you used to 
know and love the bonniest lass in England, 
Miss Anna Mayner. She and her father are 



Jcly 14. 1888.1 



f ACIFie F^URAlo fRESS 



27 



now guests at my house, and, to tell the truth, 
the old gentleman is pretty near gone. If there 
ever was a woman who ought to he praised and 
loved, Anna is the woman. Now, as I under- 
stand, there was an agreement between you 
twu, that neither of vou would ever marry un- 
less you married each other (though I don't 
say much for the agreement, for I wanted to 
marry her myself and told her so), still it was 
an agreement between you two, and she has 
been faithful to it. It won't be long before she 
is all alone, for Gordon Mayner is going fast, 
and if you are worth anything and are anybody 
(which I believe you are), and if ever you in- 
tend to marry her, take the advice of a rough 
old Captain, and set sail for Scotland, tie the 
knot and wind up this everlasting long court- 
ing and engagement. Now do you under- 
stand? If you don't, write for particulars to 
Captain Gerald King." 

' There now,'' siid he, "if that don't fetch 
h'm I'll hunt him up myself, and, when I've 
found him, I'll hold his head under water till 
he can't breathe any more." 

But the Captain was not put to so much 
trouble. The letter was handed to Hugh 
du ing business hours, and the busy clerks 
were astounded to see him jump nearly three 
feet, put on his rut and coat and rush out, 
whistling "Amiie Laurie. ' 

On the next steamer that went out Hugh 
Lyndon had passage, and not very long af er 
he reached the Scottish coast. The first one 
to meet him at Dun firth was the Captain 
himself. " 1 have been looking for you and 
am glad you have ome," said he: " we laid 
him down there under tt e t ees, three days 
ago, and the last thing he said was that he 
wiscied s^e was your wife. I think she ex- 
pects you, though I've tried to keep it from 
her." 

" Captain King,'' said Hugh, " you have 
more sense than any twelve men I know 
of, and if you are not blessed with happiness 
it won't be because you do not deserve it." 

'' Hush," admonished the Captain," Anna's 
in there, I think it is lime you met." 

"Alter long waiting,' said Hugh, as he 
clasped her in his arms, "after long waiting 
we meet, never more to part until death, 
please God." — Emma C. Voge/gesang, in 
Voice of Masonry. 

Ranmbai. 

It is an unprecedented and most significant 
fact that America has been able to weloome a 
Hindu widow, a high-caste Brahmin woman, a 
woman so learned in the wisdom of the ancients 
as to have gained in her own country the hon- 
orable title of Sarasvati. Thai a woman of 
India is educated at all is a marvel; but wonder 
is added to wonder when she traveles alone 
across oceans and continents, for the sake of 
emancipating her sisters still in the bondage of 
petty laws and restrictions. Unless she be the 
mother of sons, a woman has no place in this 
world or the next, but is a burden and an outcast, 
in by far the larger number of homes. Should 
an unfortunate maiden be married — or even 
only betrothed — while still hardly more than 
an infant, and the man — perhaps an old man 
—die, she is a widow for life. And such a life! 
Devoid of all that makes existence attractive, 
tbe slave of the household, half-starved, and 
the recipient of blows and abusive language. 

Is it any wonder that of the many millions 
of widows in India, hundreds prefer suicide 
or shame? From such scenes of misery comes 
the Pundita Kamabai Sarasvati, exhibiting in 
her own life the wonderful phenomenon of an 
educated, independent Hindu widow. To 
briefly sketch her life is to do injustice to the 
careful history given by Dean Richel Bodley in 
the Introduction to the Pondita's book, "The 
High-Caste Hindu Woman," wherein is most 
simply, most eloquently told the story of the 
deep suffering, the great possibility of her 
countrywomen. Ramabai owes her own intel- 
lectual acumen and remarkable learning to the 
advanced theories of education held by her 
father, a Marathi priest. He married, for his 
second wife, a lovely gitl of nine years of age, 
whom he carefully instructed, being obliged to 
seek a home in the forest to avoid the hindrance 
and annoyance of his more narrow-minded 
friends and relatives. In such seclusion was 
Rimabai born, and from such thoroughly earn- 
est parents did she learn wbat no Hindu wo- 
man had ever befoie attained. Her gentle 
mother taught her thousands of Sanskrit verses, 
from their truly great poets, in the early dawn 
preceding busy days of hard work. Her father 
did her the further kindness of allowing her to 
remain unmarried — a wonderful privilege and 
advantage to the little girl. At the age of six- 
teen Ramabii was an orphan, alone with an 
older brother, with whom she traveled through- 
out India, lecturing and teaching her great 
evangel, that Hindu women may and shall have 
the opportunities lavished upon those in other 
countries. It was daring, but the brave 
woman won all hearts, English and native alike, 
compelling admiration and respect by her true 
character, her pure womanliness, and her re- 
markable talent. From " Societies for Chris- 
tian Work" in Woman. 




Her Lssbon. 

f Written (or the Rural Press by E. C. L. ] 
" We must try and have a little dessert for 
to night, Emma dear. Mamma is so worn out 
and tired she will not be able to go into that 
warm kitchen and do so. Let us give her a lit- 
tle surprise. I have a good recipe for corn- 
starch pudding. We will try it." 

Emma put down her book and followed her 
sister into the kitchen. 

These two girls never had very much expe- 
rience in cooking, and consequently had many 
failures in their various attempts. Berta, the 
oldest, a girl of eighteen, always followed 
strictly the receipts in her cook-book. With 
Emma it was different. Her mother had once 
called her " a cook after her own heart," be- 
cause she relied more on whit she thought to 
be correct. If she wished to make a stew she 
knew the meat had to be cut into slices, but 
with Berta it was different. To be sure that 
such should be done she would go to her re- 
ceipt-book. 

Despite their failures, these two young girls 
persevered, and in time felt that they would be 
rewarded for their patience. This afternoon 
they were going to make a pudding. 

" I think this will be delicious," handing 
Emma tbe receipt. 

" Yes, it does read as though it would be 
nice, and papa is so fond of pudding, we might 
as well try it," said Emma. 

This was the recipe: 

Four tablespoonfuls cornstarch; one quart of 
milk; four eggs, whites and yolks separate; ihree- 
fourths cup sugar; nutmeg and cinnamon; one table- 
spoonful butter. 

Berta busied herself in getting milk, butter, 
cornstarch, all in readiness, while Emma had 
gone out in the chicken-yard to gather the 



Some European towns forbid the occupation 
of newly built houses until four months after 
completion, as there are nearly 5000 gallons of 
water used in the mortar and building of 50,- 
000 bricks, which should first dry out. 



Impatient Frank forgot his manners and be- 
gan to eat before the others were served. He 
quietly placed his spoon on the saucer and made 
a terrible face behind his napkin as he tasted 
his first mouthful. 

" I'll let the others taste it before I say any- 
thing," he said to himself. 

" What are you making suoh a face for, 
Charley ? " sternly asked papa of his eldest son. 

"Just taste your pudding and see if you 
don't make a face, papa," was his reply, and 
indeed papa did make a face. 

" That is the most deceiving pudding I ever 
tasted. Who made it?" asked their father 
with a smile. 

The giils began to look annoyed. Berta, not 
stopping long enough to explain what part she 
had made, ea d, " I did, papa." 

"You have put cloves in it, my child, by 
mistake," her mother said quietly. 

Berta looked at Emma and in an excited tone 
said sternly, " Why did you play this trick on 
me? I never thought it of you, Emma," and 
Berta left the table, her face all flushed with 
excitement. 

"Let me explain, mamma. I didn't play 
any trick at all. When Edna came to take 
her lesson, of course Berta had to leave, and 
she left me in the kitchen to finish. I cannot 
imagine how 1 made the mistake. I never 
thought to look at the can from which I took 
the spice, and so the consequence." 

Emma went to explain to Berta, and as she 
left the room she heard her father say, " She 
will not forget to look the next time, I'm sure, 
for this is a good lesson," and so it was. 

hland Home Farm. 



" We must try and hurry up with this and 
have it made before the children come from 
school, because they are always bound to know 
what is going on in the kitchen," Emma said, 
looking at the clock. 

About fifteen minutes after this remark, Tina 
and the boys all crowded into the kitchen with 
one of their schoolmates, who came to take her 
music lesson. 

Berta, dispersing the hungry young members 
of the family, took her pupil into the parlor. 
In ten minutes she returned and told Emma to 
" put the cornstarch into the milk as soon as it 
comes to a boil, and take it off in three min- 
utes." 

" Well, if that isn't funny. She tells me to 
put the cornstarch into the milk when it begins 
to boil, and in three minutes take it off. Three 
minutes before or after it boils — I wonder 
which?" Emma begins to study out the 
recipe, and soon gets everything straight. 

After removing the cornstarch from the fire 
she at t. it aside to cool and started in to mix the 
eggs, sugar and spices. 

" As I am making this pudding now, I'd put 
onlv cinnamon in," she said to herself. 

Poor Emma ! Why didn't she look at the 
label on the can on which was in large black 
and yellow letters the word "cloves"? Most 
of Emma's mishaps and calamities were on ac- 
count of her quickness. Emma patiently 
waited for the cornstarch to cool before she 
mixed the eggs in. 

Berta, having finished the lesson, came into 
the kitchen to finish the pudding, but Emma 
had carefully put the pudding into the oven to 
brown on top. 

"All finished, Em? Had to give Edna a 
longer lesson than usual to-day," and Berta 
surveyed the pudding in the oven. 

" Does it look all right ? " was Emma's 
answer. 

" You wanted this to be your dessert, Berta, 
and so if papa asked who made it you must not 
say that I did. All I did was to mix the eggs 
and spices and put it in the oven. I am sure 
that's not making a pudaing." 

" Very well, Sis," was Berta's reply, little 
knowing that she was risking her reputation as 
a cook. 

In the course of five or six minutes Berta 
took the pudding out of the oven. How nice 
and brown it looaed ! 

" I am sure it will be a success, but I don't 
feel as though I had made it, Emma." 

" Oh ! you little goosy. You proposed it, 
and I am sure if it hadn't been for you that pud- 
ding wouldn't be on the table," said E i.ma, 
going out of the door into the yard to get 
cooled off, for the kitchen had made her feel 
flushed. 

At six o'clock the supper bell rang and the 
girls hurried from the yard to perform their 
various duties. They picked up hats, brushed 
the boys' hair and saw that their faces and 
hands were well washed, and many other things 
that boys so like to have done for them. They 
all then went into the large dining-room, where 
mother and father had already seated them- 
selves. Frank, the youngest, was the first to 
break the silence, after all were seated. 

"Boys, the girls made a pudding," he said. 
" It looks good, too." 

This pudding the girls made, and they were 
always anxious to taste and pass their opinions 
on anything "the girls made." 

" Now, please don't act as though you had 
never seen or tasted a pudding before," Emma 
said, as she straightened the mat on the table. 



G[oOG) ^E/rLTH. 



can flap her wings more than 400 times per sec- 
ond, and that each flap involves the extension 
and contraction, through a nerve impulse, of 
the muscles employed in the wing movements." 
This being the case, as Mr. Cheshire says, " we 
shall see at once that the ' no ' time difficulty is 
is removed." When a person has been stung by 
a bee, he should remove the sting immediately, 
" if possible, by the nail, running it in the di- 
rection opposite to that by which it has en- 
tered." On no account let him take hold of the 
sting with his thumb and finger, or a forceps, 
for then he will probably squeeze more of the 
virus into the wound from the poison bag, which 
is generally left attached to the sting. Although 
the virus of a bee sting is a strong acid, it does 
not always follow that an alkali will cure it. 
Much depends upon the temperament and con- 
stitution of the patient, and while arnica moo- 
tana and ledum palustre will give relief in 
many cases, in others they are injurious. 
We may dismiss the subject of bee stings by 
giving the young bee-keeper two pieces of com- 
fort — the first, that at swarming time the bees 
are nearly always in an exceedingly good tem- 
per; the second, that each time he is stung he 
will probably become less susceptible to the 
effects of bee poison. — Saturday Review. 



Slum Worry and Excitement. 

Regarding the preservation of youth and 
vigor, we find the average of longevity greater 
than 50 years ago. We find some men and 
women decaying and growing old much sooner 
than others. We find one man as fresh and 
vigorous at 55 or 60 as another may be at 35. 
There must be causes for these differences in 
the preservation of the body. And- as there 
are causes for such variations in the condition 
of the body, may there not be other causes, still 
unknown, which may tend to preserve physical 
and mental vigor for 100 years, or even longer ? 

Mental worry and ditquiet, arising from any 
cause, is the strongest agent in "aging "men 
or women. It is an incessant source of exhaus- 
tion to the vital forces. You do so exhaust 
yourself when you worry about jour business, 
your family, and about anything. It carves 
lines on the face and bleaches the hair. A pee- 
vish young woman at 20 will look old at 30, 
because her peevish or worrying thought rep- 
resents so much of her force used to tear her 
down instead of building her up. 

You can have responsibilities without always 
worrying over them. You do not make things 
a bit better through such worry. You only make 
them worse. Worry does not plan. It does 
not make a clear bead. It does but fume, fret, 
and cause indigestion and old age. It affects 
your sleep at night. It causes you either loss 
of sleep or a poor rest when you do sleep. If 
you carry your cares to bed with you and they 
are "on your mind " when you fall into slum- 
ber, they will stay on your mind all night and 
cause you troubled dreams. There is a health- 
ful sleep coming of the permanent, cheerful, 
composed, non-worrying frame of mind, two 
hours of which will give you ten times more 
rest, strength and refreshment than tbe un- 
healthful sleep coming of the mind which en- 
tertains care and worry and makes them con- 
tinual guests. 

We often use up our force faster than we 
make it. We work through a whole day's ex- 
citing business, and are then at a theater or 
some place of amusement until 10, 11, or 12 
o'clock. So long as the body is awake there 
must be outlay of force to sustain it. There 
can be as much exhaustion in this search for ex- 
citement or amusement as in work. We get 
force to sustain the body in these ex-drafts 
upon it in two ways — either through artificial 
material stimulant or artificial mental stimulant. 
By artificial mental stimulant is meant the ex 
citement caught and absorbed by crowds sim- 
ilarly influenced, and occupied as ourselves at 
night. It is not a healthful nor natural source 
of supply. It will eventually, if relied upon, 
strain the body and " age it " prematurely. 

Mental stimulant and the mental intoxica- 
tion ooming from it is evidenced at noisy, tur- 
bulent public meetings, where thousands com- 
ing together, influenced by partisan prejudices, 
likes and dislikes, stamp and cheer, and cry 
themselves hoarse, according as the sentiments 
expressed are agreeable or the reverse to them. 
It is the stimulus produced by great numbers of 
minds acting on each other. It is exhausting, 
and every one of the participants feels the re- 
action within a few hours. — N. Y. Sun. 



Faith Cures. — The latest addition to the list 
of victims to the "faith cure" mania is a young 
lady at Des Moines, Iowa. Some weeks ago 
she sustained internal injuries by reason of a 
fall. During this time she has been treated by 
an exponent of the doctrine of healing through 
faith; but, failing to receive benefit therefrom, 
she at length resorted to medical advice. Had 
she done this at the time of the accident, all 
would have been well, but physicians now pro- 
nounce her case hopeless, as the morbid condi- 
tions have existed too long to be susceptible to 
medical treatment. We are along-suffering peo- 
ple, and probably a few more deaths will occur 
through the treatment of workers of miracles 
ere legislative aid is invoked against this form 
of fanaticism; but it would seem as if we had 
nearly reached the point beyond which for- 
bearance ceases to be a virtue. 



Bee Stinos. — It is a common mistake to sup- 
pose that an angry bee is certain to sting on 
alighting upon a human hand. On the contrary, 
she will usually examine the skin very carefully 
first with the palpi — very delicate and nervous 
feeling organs, which are situated near the 
sting. It may seem that she stings at once and 
without care or reflection, but a bee can do a 
great deal in a very short space of time, in 
proof of which it may be mentioned that "she 



DojviESTie QeOJMOJVIY, 



Canning Vegetables. 

Editors Press:— Will some of the readers tell 
me how to can peas and corn?— Mrs. Donna 
Dun lap, Connor Creek, Oregon. 

Editors Press: — As I have not noticed an 
answer to the question, " How to Can Corn ? " I 
will give a recipe that I have used with very 
good success both in glass and tin cans. 

Cut the corn from cob and to nine pounds of 
corn put one ounce of tartaric acid. Place 
corn on stove and let boil for ten minutes; then 
dissolve acid in a little hot water, add to the 
corn and let boil for ten minutes longer, then 
can. When preparing for table, add small tea- 
spoonful of soda to quart of corn. Then season 
to suit taste. — Mrs. L. S. Colby, Temecula. 

In addition to the foregoing we give the fol- 
lowing from the New York Tribune: Canning 
vegetables requires more judgment on the part 
of the housekeeper than tbe daintier canning 
of fruit. Vegetables which cannot be canned 
in their juices must be covered with boiling 
salted water. Green peas, asparagus, string- 
beans, okra, cauliflower, should all be placed 
in the jar, washed and prepared as for the 
table. Packed in the jar, covered with boiling 
salted water, the top of the jar should then be 
screwed on without the rubber. The boiler 
should be filled with boiling water up to the 
tops of the jars, and the vegetable should be 
cooked in tl.e jar about as long as is required 
to prepare it for the table. After the vegeta- 
ble is cooked in the can remove the cover, and 
if the water has boiled down, fill it up with 
fresh boiling water, put on the rubber without 
removing the can from the boiler, screw on the 
top and in an instant set the jar out to cool. 
Some housewives cover the top of the vegeta- 
ble jar with a spoonful of olive oil before they 
scretv it on. This will not affect the flavor, as 
it may be removed before the vegetables are, 
but there is some danger of the oil becoming 
rancid. Tomatoes and corn should be preserved 
solely in their own juices, without the addition 
of any water. Tomatoes should be cooked in 
the jar about 20 minutes and corn about half 
an hour before the rubbers are put on, and both 
a few minutes after. The contents of one jar 
may be used to fill up the others which are 
boiled down. Cover the vegetables also care- 
fully with papers to exclude the light. One of 
the principal merits of the tin can in preserving 
fruits and vegetables is that it is effectual in 
excluding all light, which is proved by philoso- 
phy to be a powerful cause of decay. 

Baked Macaroni. — Cook the macaroni 
tender in broth, and take twice its weight in 
minced chicken or meat, adding two well-beat- 
en eggs, three ounces of butter, cayenne pepper 
and salt to taste. Mix the ingredients well, 
put them in a deep dish and bake until a light 
brown crust shall be formed upon the top. 



Cold Meat Loaf. — Chop any kind of good, 
cold meat, season with salt and pepper and 
place in a mold. Take the bones and bits 
of meat and boil them with an onion or two cut 
fine. When boiled enough strain, and add one 
spoonful of geletine dissolved. Pour this over 
the meat and set away to cool and harden. 



28 



fACIFKB l^URAb f RESS. 



r.Tui.Y 14, 1888 




A. T. DEWEY. 



W. B. EWKK. 



Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Market St., -V. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tW Take the Elevator, No. IS Front St.'Wk 



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advance. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
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Advertising Rates. 

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Registered atS. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 14, 



1S88. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS. — New Scale Destroyers frrm Aus- 
tralia: A Fine-English Shire Stallion, 21. The Wtek; 
The National Educational Association; Distribut'on of 
Dried Fruits, 28. The ( Jreat Lick Telescope, 29. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -Imported English Shire Stall- 
ion Agricola. 21. The Lick Te'escopc, 29 

CORRESPONDENCE. — European Horticulture, 
22. 

THE APIARY.— The Honey Crop at the South; Foul 
Brood, 22 

PODLTRY YARD— A Few Words About Ducks, 

22. Hints for Practice, 23. 
HORTICULTURE.-l'runing Fruit Trees; The 

Critic Cr'ticiied, 23 
THE DAIRY.— silos and Ensilage, 23. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY -The Orange in 

Po'itics; A Word from Connecticut; A Typical Patron; 

Farmers' Convention in Texas; March Orange Reunion; 

New Orange Music, 24- 
FRUIT MARKETING.— The Auction Sales in 

Chicago, 33- 

THE VINEYARD. —The Debate on the Tariff on 
Raisins, 25. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 

counties of California, 24-5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Mount Hamilton; After 
Long Waiting, 26. Ramabji, 27. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — Hei Lesson, 27. 

GOOD HE ALTH.— Shun Worry and Excitement; 
Bee Stiniis: Faith Cures, 27. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Canning Vegetables; 
Baked Macaroni; Cold M»at Loaf, 27. 

THE VETERINARIAN.— Blicding in Veterinary- 
Medicine, 30 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS.— Our Local Interests in Tariff 
Reform, 30. 



Business Announcements. 

[NBW THIS IgSUB.] 

Agricultural Implements— Baker & Hamilton. 
Hopkins Academy — Oakland, Cal. 
Laurel Hall College— San Mateo, Cal. 
Santa Clara College— Rev. R. E. Kenna. 
Windmills— E. B. Saunders, Sao Jose, CaL 
Simi Land and Water Co. — Los Angeles. 
Wine Tanks— Wells, Russell & Co. 
Short Horns— Baden Farm Herd. 
Cattle— Souther Farm, San Lcandro, Cal. 

tS" See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

This exceptional year is getting in its peculiar 
work again in the shape of July showers, chief- 
ly at interior points and on the southern coast. 
Such incidents may lay the dust for the coming 
troops of visitors, but they are exceedingly un- 
comfortable for the acres of dried fruit which 
are spread out. But we can stand it, as it is 
our usual light share in outrageous weather, for 
there was snow in Massachusetts last week, 
and to-day's cable speaks of snow in London 
and other points in Kngland which never saw 
snow in July before. Surely the world is all 
agog. 

Producers are usually confident and con- 
tented. Fruit prices are fine at the Kist and 
at home. The auction method is doing all that 
was expected from it, and don't forget that 
Capt. Weinstock and the Rural Press are to 
be largely blamed for it. We like to write a 
little history as we go along, Wheat-growers 
are sharing the general confidence in produce 
values, and propose to sell the moderate amount 
of wheat available this year at good figures if 
possible. 

And now for the schoolma'ams — God bless 
'em — thousands of them and not a birch rod in 
the State. May they enjoy their visit ! 



The National Educational Association. 

The convention of the National Teachers' 
Association will begin its sessions at the Grand 
Opera House in thiB city on the 17th of this 
month. Since the meeting of the Triennial 
Conclave of Knights Templar and the Grand 
Army of the Republic, no event has occurred 
in thiB State equal to this assemblage. Perhaps 
it is the greatest event that has occurred. It 
is estimated that we will have among us as 
our guests not less than 10,000 of the most in- 
telligent and observing people of the EaBt. 

The meeting of this great body of educators 
last year in Chicago was a grand success. The 
local papers claim that it was the greatest 
meeting ever held in this country. This suc- 
cess may be largely owing to the fact that that 
city is the oenter of a populous region, but was 
also attributable to the public spirit and hos- 
pitality of the people. The city donated about 
§15,000, the State of Illinois appropriated S2500, 
and the State of Iowa appropriated $5000 to 
that end. Then the people of Chicago and its 
numerous beautiful suburban villages showed 
their appreciation of the compliment of the 
visit by the most munificent liberality and hos- 
pitable reception of the guests. The result is 
that Chicago has become fragrant in the mem- 
ory of the members of that association. 

The royal way the Knights Templar and the 
Grand Army were entertained in this city has 
given this State a great reputation for its fra- 
ternal feeling and bounteous good cheer. The 
people of this city and immediate surroundings 
should see that our good name is not dimmed. 
Indeed the convention is an assured success 
The Committee on Hotels and Accommodations 
have thoroughly explored the field and give 
assurance that our visitors will be handsomely 
entertained. The other committees have left 
no stone unturned to make their sojourn among 
us both pleasing and profitable. There will be 
concerts, banquets, excursions on the bay and 
to various points of interest in the interior. 

The fact is, there are a good many reasons 
why we should put on our best clothes and 
manners. We are far away from the center, 
quite on the verge of the sunset shore. It is 
only by long journeys that we can be reached, 
and at a considerable outlay of money. 

Other places much nearer home, backed by 
powerful railroad influence, contended for the 
honor of this visit. But these people, the most 
poorly paid of all the professions, have decided 
to come and see us. Besides, the great bodies 
that have been out here were chiefly composed 
of men; those who are now coming, to a large 
extent, are ladies, and the chivalry of Califor- 
nia will not fail to render them knightly hom- 
age. 

Then this convention is a formal recognition 
of the educational standing of California. The 
recognition has been tardy, but better late than 
never. California has long been known for its 
wealth of gold and silver, its magnificent cli- 
mate and picturesque mountains, its big trees 
and big melons and squashes; but our home 
life, schools and educational progress have been 
very little studied. 

The trainloads of tourists who annually visit 
our State live in our great hotels, and as a rule 
have no time nor inclination to look into our 
social and educational status. There is no 
doubt that many Eastern people regard the 
l'oker Flat and Roaring Camp literature as a 
picture of the average Calif ornian. The selec- 
tion of California as the place for the next 
meeting of the National Educational Association 
will greatly help to place our State in its proper 
intellectual orbit. 

Hence it is a matter of hearty congratula- 
tion that so vast an army of teachers is coming 
among us, and there is little doubt that we are 
largely in debt for this honor to the able and 
comprehensive address read before this body 
last year by Hon. Fred M. Campbell. 

Then there is a selfish reason why we should 
appreciate this gathering. It gives us, per- 
haps, the best opportunity we have ever had to 
display the wonderful resources, natural beau- 
ties and climatic charms of our State. The del- 
egates attending this convention are thinkers 
and talkers. They come in personal contact 
with the whole of the next generation and the 
millions of parents of the children that throng 
our public Bchools. Hereafter their speech and 
metaphor will have the odor of the Sunset land. 
Then the influence of this convention is not an 
ephemeral pageant vanishing with a parade, 



ending at the adjournment, for the proceedings 
will be published in a bound volume, and may 
reach the majority of teachers and school 
boards in the nation. 

It is said that one of the arguments used in 
the interest of other places and against Cali- 
fornia was not only the expense of the trip, but 
that the local attendance would be small. In 
reply, the promise was made that the Pacific 
Coast would furnieh at least '2000 members. 
This promise was repeated by the Citizens' 
Committee of San Francisco to President Gove 
during his visit here last October, and 
must be redeemed. No doubt the teachers of 
this coast will conscientiously help to make the 
meeting a success, but all good citizens as well 
should do all in their power to set the State 
and coast ablaze with educational enthusiasm. 



Noxious Imports. 

The list of undesirable immigrants ranges all 
the way from cholera microbes and scale insects 
to alien paupers and dynamiters, and against 
the entire line of them we believe an honest, 
industrious, self supporting people is not only 
at liberty, but in duty bound, to defend itself. 
And among such noxious invaders we do not 
hesitate to class the " English bulldog, war- 
ranted never to open its jaws when once they 
had closed on an enemy," which was recently 
imported by a Mr. Keiter of Detroit. Mr. K., 
so later dispatches state, was very proud of his 
purchase, exhibited it frequently to a select 
circle of friends, and assigned it quarters in one 
corner of the stable where he kept a fast-pacing 
horse. 

Last Sunday week he locked the two animals 
in the barn and went away on an excursion. 
When he returned in the evening he found the 
horse on the floor nearly dead, while hanging to 
its under jaw was the bulldog, alive but badly 
bruised. We spare our sensitive readers a 
more particular account of the horse's horribly 
mangled condition, and of the various tortures 



Distribution of Dried Frait. 

The distribution of dried fruit to the utter 
most parts of the earth is a subject which 
should not be overlooked when we get the dis- 
tribution of fresh fruit on this continent fully 
achieved. To win all consumers, to remove 
friction from high transportation charges and 
undue profits to intermediate handlers, and to 
deliver and sell the product at fair rates every- 
where under the sun, is the problem. The 
following letter just received presents the 
subject in an interesting light: 

Consulate General of the U. S., \ 
Vienna, Austria, Jane 13. J 
Pres. Cal. State Horticultural Society: — Will 
yoa have the kindness to inform this Consulate- 
General at what price California dried apricots 
can be purchased in your market, and what 
firms offer the best terms for this article for ex- 
port trade for Earope? For some reason inex- 
plicable to me the dried apricot is retailed at 
an enormous price in this market. The com- 
mon dried California apricot retails at 40 cents 
per ponnd. When, some weeks ago, Mr. David 
Lubin, who introduced himself at this Con- 
sulate General as a representative of your so- 
ciety, discussed the question of the introduc- 
tion of California fruit to this market, during 
his visit at my office, he claimed that the Aus- 
trian tariff on dried fruits was so high as to be 
prohibitory. The gentleman has, however, 
been misinformed, for the duty upon dried 
fruits is not quite one cent per ponnd — a small 
fraction less than the American doty upon 
prunes. 

I am informed that the quotation for the com- 
mon dried apricot is S cents per pound in your 
market. Transportation, insurance, etc., to 
Vienna is 4 cents a pound, add 1 cent duty 
and we have a total of 13 cents per ponnd, while 
the retail price, as stated is to-day 40 cents 
per pound in Vienna. Possibly the article 
passes through so many hands before it 
reaches the Vienna dealer that the accumnlation 
of 27 cents profit is unavoidable, bnt it is at 
the same time indisputable that this ac- 
cumulation of profits is ruinous to your 
export trade. You will permit me to say if 
the fruit-growers of your State intend to ex- 
tend their trade in dried fruits to this market, 
they must in the first place secure the best 
terms as to transportation, and must form their 
connections as directly as possible with the 



inflicted on the dog, in vain attempts to make 

him relax his grip, before his head was at last | Austrian dealers so as 'to avoid the accumula 



chopped oil with an ax. 

It was surmised that the dog, after breaking 
his rope, had wandered into the pacer's stall, 
and coming too near his heels, got kicked, retali- 
ated with his teeth, and the fight began. There 
was hardly a whole bone left in the dog's body, 
and the horse will not be good for anything if 
he lives. 

In commenting on this occurrence the Rec- 
ord Union says: Breeders have been for some 
years developing a class of the animal much 
more ferocious and " staying " than the ordi- 
nary bulldog. But that there is any need for 
these animals has not been shown. They are 
not " honest watch-dogs;" they are not so 
" wakeful" as the most ordinary whiffet; chey 
are quite as likely to fasten on friend as foe, and 
they have the vice of not knowing when to 
"quit." The vicious brutes ought to be put 
upon the outlaw list along with wolves, coyotes 
and other enemies of men, and whoever at- 
tempts to cultivate the breed — a constant 
menace to his neighbors — ought to be required 
to answer to a law prohibiting the existence of 
this worthless and dangerous class of dogs. It 
ought to be unlawful to raise or import snch 
dogs. It ought to be a grave offense to keep 
such animals in any community. 

The above position is perfectly sound, and 
we think legislation to that effect can be secured, 
on the grounds of public safety demanding it, 
long before the time when the law of the land, 
as well as the dictates of humanity, shall for- 
bid the breeding and keeping of any beasts or 
birds for the sole purpose of pitting them 
against one another in battles, to witness which 
gratifies savage tastes and fosters cruelty. 



Smyrna Figs.— We hear that the fig trees 
believed to be the true Smyrna which were im- 
ported by E. W. Maslin, Secretary of the State 
Board of Equal Nation, are bearing this year. 
The fruit is small as yet, but we hope it will 
hold fast and develop. If so, we shall expect to 
have data for fuller accounts later. 



Hanoed by Accident. — An old lady in Will- 
iamsport, Penn., got upon a box and was look- 
ing through a hole in the loft of a barn, when 
she fell off the box and caught her head in such 
a way that she was hung to death. 

Work on the Folsom canal is going forward 
actively, and the convicts are Baid to be work- 
ing cheerfully and well, and earning the com- 
mendation of those who are directing their 
labors. 



tion of unavoidable profits, etc. 

There can be no question that there it a de- 
mand here for California dried fruits at reason- 
able rates. Dealers are quite emphatic in their 
praise of the quality, and admit that the proc- 
ess by which such an excellent quality of dried 
fruit is produced in your State is quite un- 
known to the growers here. Inasmuch as fruit- 
dealers here have requested me to furnish them 
addresses of California fruit-growers and ex- 
porters, you will give me the information de- 
sired covering all the points in question at an 
early date. Your obedient servant, 

Edmund Jussen, 
U. S. Consul-General. 

We have thought that the best way to bring 
this interesting communication to the attention 
of our producers and dealers in dried fruits was 
to give it prominent place in our columns, so 
that all may have the benefit of it, and all par- 
ties are free to address the writer in answer to 
his questions. 

We are not sure what Mr. Jussen means by 
" common dried apricots." If we read the 
phrase in connection with what he says about 
the excellence of the fruit, one must infer that 
he refers to a good article of dried apri- 
cots, and they certainly cannot be bought for 
eight cents per pound ; in fact they are worth 
nearer twice eight cents and have sold for thrice 
eight cents in our markets at wholesale. We re- 
fer, of course, to a clear, bright fruit, either evap- 
orated or snn-dried in a fogless district. Prob- 
ably it would not be safe to count on getting 
snch fruit for less than 15 cents per lb. at present, 
and the tendency this year is upward because 
of the short crop and the brisk Eastern demand. 
What the range of prices will be in coming 
years is, of course, conjectural. We shall have 
a vastly increased product because of the great 
area of young trees now coming forward, 
and growers can well afford to sell lower if the 
supply and demand force it, but it is not likely 
that eight cents per pound will be reached im- 
mediately. 

The way to provide against its being reached 
is by taking hints from such friends of our 
State as Consul-General Jussen, and doing 
everything possible to smooth the way for our 
fruits to the most distant markets. Even if 
our growers get 15 cents per pound for their 
product and it costs 5 cents more to get it to 
Austria, there is no earthly reason why the 
Austrian consumer should pay 40 cents for his 
fruit. That is just one of the things which is to 
be overcome. 



July 14, 1888. 



PACIFI6 I^URAb press. 



29 



The Great Lick Telescope. 

[Written for the Press by E. E. Barnard.] 
Majestic on its grand old mountain stands the 
great refractor of the Lick Observatory — an en- 
during and noble monument for all time to the 
man whose patient industry accumulated the 
means for its erection and whose bones rest 
peacefully beneath its mighty and vigilant eye. 

This magnificent instrument, complete at last 
in all its details, not only stands a monument 
to the man whose money called it into being, 
but it will remain a still greater monument to 
the genius of the men whose brains and energy 
called forth from the sand and the mines the 
subtle materials and formed them into this 
noble telescope. 

It is quite needless to explain how even the 
rough casting of the glass from which its lenses 



but in that style of instrument the rays of light, 
instead of being transmitted through a re- 
fracting medium, are reflected from a 
concave or rather a parabalio surface made of 
metal and which absorbs agreat percentage of the 
light. They are much inferior to the refractory 
form of telescope and have now gone out of use 
almost entirely. [This last remark does not 
include the silver on glass reflecting telescopes, 
some of which are doing valuable work and are 
not much inferior to refractors for certain par- 
poses. ] 

The great refractor on Mt. Hamilton was 
built by two American firms, something indeed 
for Americans to be proud of. The optical 
part was made by Alvin Clark & Sons, and the 
mechanical work — the tube, pier, and the 
equatorial mounting — was done by the firm of 
Warner & Swasey. 



for bringing an objeot into the field of the great 
telescope), one of which is shown in the 
cut, are placed on the side of the telescope 
near the eye end. The largest of these has an 
object glass six inches in diameter — an in- 
strument that a few years ago was considered 
a large and certainly a powerful one; and ar- 
rangement is also made for attaching the object 
glasB of the 12-inch equatorial to the big teles- 
cope for a finder in photographic work, should 
it be required as a pointing telescope. In the 
upper part of the pier an opening shows 
the olock-room in which is the double con- 
nioal pendulum-driving clock, which gives the 
telescope a slow but uniform motion about the 
polar axis (which is set perfectly parallel to the 
axis of the earth) at the rate of one complete 
revolution in 24 hours of sidereal time. As the 
earth rotates once upon its axis from west to 



stars. Measurements of the photographs of th 
stars will give in many cases the means of de- 
termining their distances. As the photographic 
plate is more sensitive than the human eye, it 
is expected that many discoveries will be made 
by thus photographing the heavens that the eye 
alone could never reach. 

With the visual objective and the large spec- 
troscope (which was made by Brashear from de- 
signs by Mr. J. E. Keeler) the light from the 
celestial bodies can be analyzed and their chem- 
ical composition made known. With this in- 
strument the motions of the celestial bodies will 
be studied and their velocities toward or from 
us will be determined by the displacement of 
certain lines in their spectra. 

Though an assistant is required upon the gal- 
lery, near the center of motion, when the tele- 
scope is to be moved to distant points of the 




THE GREAT LICK TELESCOPE IN ITS POSITION ON THE PIER UNDER THE DOME. 



are made met with a score of failures, each fail- 
ure meaning months of delay. Nor how these 
glasses finally made the hazardous journey 
across the ocean; nor how the great optician 
who fashioned their meaningless forma into the 
wonderful lens, lived but to see his work just 
finished, crowning thus grandly the end of a 
remarkable life. Nor need we mention the 
endless difficulties that were overcome in the 
mechanical construction of its mounting, so 
that when the great glass was finished it could 
be used successfully; nor the danger it ran in 
being transported across the continent and 
finally carried up a steep mountain over 4000 
feet high. These are subjects that have been 
well gone over by others, and a mere descrip- 
tion of the telescope and its purposes is all that 
is needed here. 

The Lick is the largest refractor ever con- 
structed, and is the most powerful telescope in 
existence. It is not the largest; the great re- 
flector of Lord Rosse at Parsonstown in Ire- 
land is the greatest telescope yet constructed, 



The object glass or principal lens of the tel- 
escope is 36 inches in diameter and the tube is 
56 feet long and tapers gracefully from the 
middle where it is 4 feet in diameter to the 
ends which are 38 inches in diameter. The 
weight of this tube with all of its attachments 
is 8600 pounds. 

The center of motion of the tube about the 
head of the pier is 37 feet above the base, and 
when observing in the zenith the object glass 
is 65 feet above the same point. 

The object-glass forms a small image of an 
object at its principal focus — at the eye end of 
tube — this image by the aid of small micro- 
scopes, or eye-pieces, as they are oalled, can be 
magnified at will, only limited by the bright- 
ness of the object and the steadiness and purity 
of the atmosphere. The eye-pieces of this great 
instrument magnify from 180 to 4000 diameters, 
but the actual working power will be much less 
than the mean of these two numbers. 

Three finders (small telescopes that take in a 
considerable portion of the sky, which are used 



east in one sidereal day, the telescope is made 
to move in the contrary direction and at the 
same rate, so that when once pointed on a star 
it will follow it ceaselessly for any length of 
time, from rising toward setting. This great 
telescope, besides being the most powerful in 
existence, consists of really three distinct in- 
struments. The visual telescope for observing 
and measuring the celestial bodies, a gigantic 
spectroscope for; analyzing their light, and an 
immense photographic camera for accurately 
picturing and recording forever their physical 
appearance. In a few minutes the telescope is 
converted into a photographic one, by placing 
in front of the visual objective a correcting lens 
33 inches in diameter, which shortens the focus 
some 10 feet and brings the rays from that part 
of the spectrum beyond the violet, which are 
strong in actinic power, to a sharp focus form- 
ing an image, which, though invisible to the 
eye, is rich in photographic power. 

With this it is intended to photograph the 
moon, the planets, the nebulae, comets and 



sky, an observer at the eye-end can control all 
the motions of the instrument when observing 
»ny special object without leaving his seat and 
without assistance. 

The Mounting for the 36-lnch Telescope, 

This mounting was made by Warner k 
Swasey of Cleveland, who had previously made 
many mountings for instruments of smaller size. 
They had diligently studied the problem for 
several years before undertaking this work, and 
by consultation with practical observers had 
learned just what conveniences were requisite 
or desirable. 

The mounting proper rests on an iron column 
37 feet high, made in sections of euitable size 
for transportation. The base of the column is 
10x17 feet, and the top is 8x4 feet. The whole 
column weighs 36,000 pounds. Above this is 
the head, which weighs 8000 pounds and sup- 
ports the polar axis. Around this head is a 
balcony on which an assistant astronomer can 
be stationed. By a system of wheels, the assist- 



30 



fACIFie f^URAlo p RESS. 



[Jolt 14, 1888 



ant can adjust the instrument on any star de- 
sired, and can read the position of the telescope 
by microscopes, illuminated by electric light. 
The polar axis is of steel 12 inches in diameter 
and weighs '2K00 pounds. The declination axis 
is of steel 10 inches in diameter and weighs 
2300 pounds. The tube is also of steel, 56 feet 
long. It is 4 feet in diameter at the center and 
tapers to 3S inches at each end. The tube com 
plete weighs 8600 pounds. The entire weight 
of the mounting is 65,000 pounds. 

The eye end of the telescope is made from de- 
signs by Prof. Langley and Prof. Holden, and 
is fitted for use with micrometers, spectro- 
scopes, photometers, photographic apparatus, 
etc. This is the first mounting in which the 
wants of an observer with a spectroscope, a 
micrometer or a photographic apparatus are 
fully provided for in a convenient manner. 
The mounting has been inspected by competent 
authorities and pronounced to bs satisfactory. 

Hours for Visitors to the Lick Ob- 
servatory. 

Edward S. Holden, director, haB i> sued the 
following: 

The obaervatorv buildings will be open to 
visitors during office hours every day in the 
year. 

An hour or so can be profitably occupied in 
viewing the various instruments and in walks 
to the various reservoirs, from which magnifi- 
cent views of the surrounding country can 
be had. 

Admission of Vihilori nl Sight. — For the 
present, visitors will be received at the ob- 
servatory to look through the great telescope 
every Saturday night between the hours of 7 
and 10, and at these times only. 

Whenever the work of the observatory will 
allow, other telescopes will also be put at the 
disposition of visitors on Saturdays between 
the same hours (only i. 

At 10 r. m. the observatory will be closed to 
visitors, who should provide their own con- 
veyance to Smith creek, as there is no way of 
lodging them on the mountain. 

It is expected that by setting apart these 
times for visitors (which allow freer access to 
the Lick Observatory than is allowed to any 
other observatory in the world) that all inter- 
ested may be able to arrange their visits in con- 
formity to them; and that the remaining hours 
of the week will be kept entirely uninterrupted, 
in order that the astronomers may do the work 
upon which the reputation and the good name 
of the observatory entirely depends. 



JIJhE "V~ETE^INARIjOrN. 
Bleeding in Veterinary Medicine. 

Editors Press : — I am requested by a sub- 
scriber to state my views with reference to 
bleeding in veterinary practice. There is 
scarcely any one enthusiastic enough over an 
ancient system to advocate a recurrence to the 
old, indiscriminate bleeding, but there are cer- 
tainly many medical men, both human and vet- 
erinary, and those not altogether of the old 
school, who are inclined to look with more 
favor upon blood-letting in some of its forms 
than has of late been usual, and who find in it 
one of the most potent means of combating 
some of the most serious conditions met with in 
their daily practice. It is not so long ago that 
it was common for men to be bled every year to 
considerable amounts, and not only did no harm 
follow, bat after the bleedings they declared 
tbey felt better, stronger, and conld work bet- 
ter than before. Therefore it is not safe to 
rush to the conclusion that the disuse of bleed- 
ing in its various forms has been the result of 
philosophically observed and well-ascertained 
proofs of its perniciousness. The change of 
practice is to be attributed to causes less credit- 
able, to that oscillation from one extreme to the 
other, which is to be observed in medicine, as in 
all other professions. There are signs of the 
return of the balance. 

Bleeding is certainly getting to be more re- 
sorted to in daily practice (especially with the 
veterinary surgeon) in cases of pneumonia, 
pleurisy and that general plethoric condition for 
which, among the overfed human family and 
animals, the doctors, while fully recognizing 
its existence, have not yet designed a compre- 
hensive title. Perhaps, too, in these days of 
hard-worked school children and scientific 
students, and consequently cerebral affections, 
we may see bleeding more confidently prescrib- 
ed in place of that eternal bromide of potas- 
sium with which the sleepless undergraduate is 
so familiar about the time of his examination 
for honors. 

Dr. A. E Bczard. M. R. C. V. S. L. 

JVb. 11 Seventh St., S. F. 



Correct in the Main.— The St. Helena Star 
remarks: "The Pacific Rural Press has en- 
tered upon its :;Ut volume. It is one of oar 
most valued exchanges. The Press should be 
in every household." The above needs just 
one correction, namely, this — we have entered 
upon our 35th volume. We are glad the Star 
appreciates us so highly, and we beg leave to 
emphasize its third remark. 



Chicago Fro it Sales. — We are indebted to 
Porter Bros. Co. of Chicago for fruit-auction 
catalogues of July 2d and 3i, which Bhow the 
continuance of good prices. 



J?UBL>ie j9VFAIF^S. 
Our Local Interests in Tariff Reform. 

(Being intended as a prize essay, in answer to an offer 
bj the Keiortn Club of New York City, ol $250 for the 
best essay, and $100 to the publisher, open for all parts 

of the United States.) 

CHAPTER IV. 
Give as you may to any ne'er-do-weal, 
Rut when you take it back they always squeal. 

Our present tariff system was devised for 
revenue and protection. It has proven that 
for revenue it is too much and for protection 
time has called for ohange. 

The best friends of protection hold that it is 
only a temporary device as to some things, till 
we acquire the necessary skill, and may then be 
abolished. While as to others there must be 
an eternal barrier between oar well-paid labor 
and the pauper wages of other lands. In others 
our natural advantages place us beyond com- 
petition, and render all protection superfluous. 

We are now asking for an investigation of 
the facts, that we may determine wherein to 
introduce a change. 

What has passed beyond the need of protec- 
tion ? 

What, on sound principles, should never 
have had any ? 

What can now bear a modification ? A little 
more or a little less ? 

And all with a view to reduce rather than in- 
crease revenue. 

Who shall we consult? The parties in inter- 
est? Never! As a congressman aptly said: 
" The calves will never admit that weaning 
time has come." Right or wrong, they will 
squeal when we propose to withdraw the milk 
from them. 

Shall we consult locations ? No t The Na- 
tional weal is the only true consideration. Con- 
gress does not convene to promote the inter- 
ests of New York, Louisiana, California or 
Florida to the damage of the balance of the 
Union, but of the whole Union, now and for- 
ever. 

Herein lies the trouble in Congress, and the 
peril of the Mills bill or any other bill on tariff 
reform. There tre a thousand items. Each 
one has its friends. On a proposition to amend 
on any one, the motion is lost. Si wool, iron, 
coal, lumber, fruits, nuts, etc., are passed in 
committee. On each the friends are defeated 
by the general voice — they are declared free. 

But when the bill comes up for passage as a 
whole, all these defeated ones unite in voting 
no < The bill is lost. 

Amend again ! The same process. Every 
amendment voted down, in particular, but the 
bill again lost as a whole. All omnibus bills 
are subject to this process. There is need of a 
division of the subject into classes, and to pass 
upon each class in a separate bill. There is no 
good reason for considering them in mass, and 
inviting these combinations that defend wrong 
and perpetuate mischief. This classification is 
of the first importance. It is natural, logical, 
and lies at the root of all tariff reform, and 
must be well settled before national legislation 
can be had. Considering only revenue and 
protection as the objaots of tariff reform, we 
find these divisions: 

1st. Articles in which we excel, and need no 
protection, and ask for none. Either entire 
freedom or absolute prohibition is indicated. 

2d. Articles that we do not produce at all 
or expect to produoe. Revenue only can be 
the motive for tariff on these. 

31. Articles that are produced cheaply and 
in abundance in one State, but being more re- 
mote from other States than a foreign supply, 
the latter commands the market. Here a tariff 
is indicated to meet the cost of transportation. 

4th. Articles that need only a small tem- 
porary encouragement till our skill, etc., can 
meet the open market. To be granted, bat 
watched, as to quantity and duration. 

5th. Articles in which labor is the prime in- 
gredient, and our high wages need a general 
and perpetual advantage, that we may cultivate 
the habit of meeting our own wants. This is 
the solid center of the tariff policy. It is not 
to make high wages. We have shown that it 
cannot do that. It is simply that with those 
high wages we may cultivate all those arts that 
are necessary to our comfort in case of war and 
blockade. 

tith. All those things that are absolutely 
necessary to our defense and home comfort in 
case of war and blockade. These should re- 
ceive such an encouragement as will compel 
oar people to cultivate their skill in the manu- 
facture. All the monitions of war are included 
here. 

But there is another element above and be- 
yond either revenue or protection that should 
enter here and play a conspicnous part in tariff 
reform, and, indeed, in the entire administra- 
tion of our Government. It is moral reform ! 
Our Government was formed to secure liberty 
and happiness to the people, and all its meaa 
ures should have that end in view. Revenue 
and protection are both good things, but to 
protect, aid and encourage virtue and to deter 
vice, crime, disorder, anarchy and ruin are 
better and greater and more deserving the at- 
tention of our just and beneficent Government. 

We hear much of a tariff for revenue and a 
tariff for protection, but not a word of a tariff 
on vice or the protection of morality, which 
are a thousand times more necessary to the 



safety of the Republic and the happiness of the 

people. 

CHAPTER V. 

All law should be a kindly, gentle leaven, 
To render earth a stepping-stone to heaven. 

The principles above enumerated are but in- 
troductory to the true tariff system, the Moral 

Tariff. 

We have seen that a wise people, surrounded 
as we are, may well protect themtelves from 
present evils, and possibly future calamities, by 
a judicious tariff. Other nations, full of tyrants 
and slaves, should not be free to derange our 
markets and degrade our people by cheap goods. 
We admit it. We do not contend for an abso- 
lute free trade. Far from it. We believe with 
the President, that only a judicious revision is 
necessary. 

Bat that provision should include a moral 
system and put a tariff on their vices, their fol- 
lies, their extravagances and their crimes. 
What damage can their cheap shoes do us com- 
pared to their oheap poisons ? Our moral tariff 
would take a form like this, classed as before : 

1st. All those articles that tend to the de- 
struction of health, morals and social order, 
such as liquors, opium, tobacco, etc. Tariff 
all that the traffic will bear without inviting 
perjury and smuggling. 

2J. All manner of perfumes, cosmetics and 
patent medicines and things of that ilk. Tariff 
only a little below the above. 

3d. All absolutely useless articles, such as 
precious stones, etc., that sink capital that 
should go to make farms and homes in useless 
gewgaws and imitation of royalty. Tariff a 
little less than the last. 

4th. All other articles properly designated 
as useless, luxurious and extravagant. Tariff 
less than the last. 

5th. The solid needs and comforts of life, 
with all means of education of the solid sort, 
absolutely free, unless revenue should be wanted 
or protection to labor demand some duty. 

Blend the schedule given in the last chapter 
with this one, and you will have a revenue sys- 
tem indeed, for revenue, the protection of 
labor, the protection of virtue, and the sup- 
pression of vice. 

We would pursue all these pernicious com- 
modities into the interior, and tax t'lem there 
by a license system that would confine the 
traffic to licensed persons, and thus prevent 
smuggling. All along the line we would col- 
lect about as much as possible. 

It is believed that within a few decades, un- 
less our morals and our tastes improve, these 
taxes, thus levied on vice, would pay all the 
expenses of Government, and leave the virtu- 
ous citizens entirely untaxed for its support. 

It would not be unjust. The virtuous citizen 
needs no Government. He is a law unto him- 
self. Millions live, labor, raise families, make 
fortunes and die in peace, unknown to the law, 
the courts, or the police. Vice makes the cost 
and vice should pay for it. 

Revenue for protection is a sort cf two-edged 
sword, and we have need to be very oareful 
that the sharpest side be not turned so as to 
cut the people at large, in favor of some 
favored class, or location, at the expense of the 
public. There is need that it be closely con- 
sidered on every side. 

The revenue received by the Government 
bears no certain proportion to the tax on the 
people. There is a wide difference in this re- 
gard in the different articles. 

In tea we produce none. The tariff is for 
revenue only. Every cent the people pay goes 
into the public treasury. 

In wool it is just the reverse. The Govern- 
ment receives only $5,000,000, while the people 
are taxed $35,000,000. This is because our 
wool-growers prodoce six pounds where we im- 
port one. 

If all our tariff revenue followed the tea con 
dition, then the people would pay only just what 
the Government received. 

If all followed the wool program, then a rev- 
enue of $200,000,000 would cost tbem seven 
times that sum. The general average is prob- 
ably between the two. But, in any event, it is 
an enormous burden upon our people and its 
advocates should be able to show a clear gain 
in the end. This protection oommends itself 
to us again on this account. If no protection, 
then what? One of two things. Either ab- 
solute open free trade with all the world, or 
closed doors, and do all things for ourselves. 

Which should we prefer ? Either would be 
a revolution of which few could predict the re- 
sults. Either would be absurd, and for a time 
ruinous to many. The open free trade may 
come in time, as other nations assimilate to our 
condition, or we to theirs. 

But the closed doors will never come. Yet 
that would be the more tolerable of the two. 
We can produce all the necessaries and com- 
forts and many of the luxuries of life; and in a 
few decades we might not feel the loss of the 
balance of mankind. 

And even now, so varied are oar resources 
and so skilled our people, that our borne mar- 
ket casts all our foreign commerce into the 
shade of insignificance. 

At a simple quarter of a dollar a day for all 
our people, the home market is worth $.3 000.- 
000,000 a year. All our foreign commerce is 
not a quarter of that. As we increase our peo- 
ple and diversify our industries, these propor- 
tions will give more to the home trade and leas 
to the foreign commerce. The United States is 
capable of being a world to itself, and will sub- 
stantially become so. 

We are great producers, on a natural soil, 



rich with the accumulations of ages. We have 
skill and implements above all other people. 
We work with an energy and will unknown to 
them. Working ten hours a day, we can pro- 
duce twice what we need. 

Shall our workers strain themselves to feed 
and clothe the world ? What for ? 

They can buy no more from ub than we buy 
from them, on a general average, or we shall 
get all the money of the world. We may sell 
them solid comforts for gewgaws. What good ? 
We may send our daughters to the scions ot 
their nobility deoked in jewels and gold. What 
good to as ? 

Let us rather seek the greater comfort of our 
people ! Let every family have a good home ! 
Let every child have a good education ! Let 
us reduce the hours of labor, so that all may 
have leisure for enjoyment and culture : Why 
this yearning for a commerce we do not need, 
and that is so small compared to our own ? 

Let us ha wise and virtuoua and happy, 
rather than rich ! Let us revise the tariff as 
the President advises ! 

Let labor be protected by the exclusion of 
slaves, paupers and criminals, the only real 
protection ! 

Let capital be watched and restrained, that 
it do no contrived mischief against the Repub- 
lic ! 

Encourage the honorable and sturdy yeomen 
to develop new homes in the wilderness ! 

Keep all vicious influences far from us by 
taxing them ! 

Encourage education and refinement ! 

Punish villainy wherever it may appear, 
promptly 1 

And let our people reap the rich harvest God 
has given to us, in their own way, restrained in 
nothing that is good ! 

And we need no ingenious contrivances from 
cranky statesmen to make us the happiest and 
greatest people on earth, in either tariff or 
aught else. Only see that the people be not 
robbed, and they will do all the rest. X. K. 




For The Nervous 
_ , The Debilitated 
The Aged 

■ URES Nervous Prostration, Nervous Head - 
~~ ache, Neuralgia, NervousWeakness, 
^^^^^^ Stomach and Liver Diseases, and all 
^"■"^ affections of the Kidneys. 
AS A NERVE TONIC, It strengthens 
and Quiets the Nerves. 

AS AN ALTERATIVE, It Purines and 
Enriches the Blood. 

AS A LAXATIVE, It acts mildly, but 
surely, on the Bowels. 

AS A DIURETIC, It Regulates the Kid- 
neys and Cures their Diseases. 
Recommended by professional and businessmen. 
Price $i.oo. Sold by druggists. Send for circulars. 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO., Proprietors, 
BURLINGTON, VT. 




son- i stamp for 100-page li.u stratum CtTALoeus ot 

FISHING TACKLE. 

Ouns, Pistols, Cartridges, Air Uuns, Hunting Coats, t>e- 
gings, Loading Implements, Base Ball Goois, Lawn 
TennU, Boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium Goods, Ham- 
mocks, etc. 

Fine Uun work done by flrst-class smiths. 
GEO W. SHREVE, 
525 Kearny Street, San Franclneo. Cal. 



HALL'S 

SARSAPARILLA ! 

The Best Blood Purif ier and 
Tonic Alterative in use. 

It cures (llseasenriglnatingfromadlsordered 
BUteof the Hlood or Liv«*r. It invigorates 
*» toinaeh . I.ivi-r and Koneht. rn- 
Itavliig l>.VN|M'p«in, Indirection an<l 
Constipation; restor e* the Appetite 
aud increase* and hardens the 1 I h. 

It stimulates the Liver mid Kidney w 
to healthy action, I'nrifleHtbe lllood and 
Leant iflest the Complexion. 
Sold by all Druggists. 

or. n. (.ates eks co. 

417 Sansome Stree'.. S 7. 



ORANGE 

I III 1 1 K r at 'educed price of 76 cts. per copy 
UUL.I UIIU by DEWEY 4 CO., Publisher*,!}. V 



A practical treatise by T. A. Gassy, 
giving the result* of long experi- 
ence in Southern California. 1M 
pages, doth bound. Sent post-paid 



July 14, 1888.] 



PACIFIC RURAlo PRESS. 



31 



Educational. 



HOPKINS ACADEMY, 

OAKIiAND. CAXLs. 




EIGHTEENTH YEAR. 
Next Term begins July 31, 18*8. 

Large additions have been made to the buildings and 
furniture. New corps of instructors. Send for Circular?. 

W. W. ANDERSON, A. M., Principal. 



VAN NESS SEMINARY, 

(Ralston House) 1222 Pine Street, 

BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL 



YOUNG LADIES and CHILDREN. 

ENGLISH, 

FRENCH, 

GERMAN 

AND 

LATIN 

TAUGHT BY COMI'KTKNT PROKESSORS. 

A Sunny Primary Room and Gymnasium have been 
added to the establishment. 

WILL RE-OPEN JULY 30, 1888. 

tS~ For particulars apply to 

MRS. SARA B. GAMBLE. 




IRVING INSTITUTE. 

A Select School for Young' Ladies 

TWELFTH YEAR. 
Fiffeen Professors and Teach era. 
For Catalogue or information, address the Principal, 
REV. EDW. B. CHURCH, A. M. 
1036 Valencia St., San Francisco, Cal 

California Military Academy 




NKXT TERM BEGINS JULY 23. 1888 

Thorough instruction in all Departments. Business 
Course complete. Location unsurpassed Send for 
Circular. COL. W. H. O'BRIEN, Principal. 

BAINBRIDGE 

Business College 

NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Institute of Sbort-HaDd and Type- "Writing 

SACRAMENTO, CAL 
Send for C iralngue. J. C. BA1NBRIDOE, Principal. 
( Ferine j I v Principal of Stockton Business College and 
Normal Institute.) 

SISIELL SEMINARY 

FOR YOONG LADIES, 
668 Twelfth Street, Oakland. Cal. 

fall TVnn begins Monday, Aug. 7, 1888. 
Full Seminary Course of Irstruction. Pupils fitted to 
enter the State University, and Vatsar or Smith College. 
Send for circular to. 

MARY E. SNKLL, > p rin( . iDala 
RICHARD B SNELL, r rint 'P al8 ' 



Laurel Hall College, San Mateo, Cal. 

las 




PARK PLACE. 



Farmers will find this a safe and pleasant school for their boys. It is a mile and a half distant from San Ma'eo, 
surrounded b, farms and j astures and remote from saloons and all forms of temptation, j et within 40 minutes of 
Sin Francisco The climate is good, the buildings handsome and commodious, and all the appointments fir«t-rate. 
The quality of the instruction may be inferred from the fact that the highest distinctions ever gained by California 
students at the great colleges of the East have been won by pupils of this school. Send for Catalogue. 

JOHN GAMBLE, B. A., Ph. D., Principal. 



ST. MATTHEW'S HALL, 

SAN MATEO, CAL. 

A SCHOOL FOR BOYS, 

UNDER MILITARY DISCIPLINE. 

Thorough Preparation for College or for 
Business. 

The Next Term will Commence Thursday, 
July 26, 18S8. 

S3T For Catalogue, address, 
R1CV. ALFRED LEE BREWER, M. A., 

Principal 



BOWENS ACADEMY, 

University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. 

Preparatory, Commercial, and 

Academic Departments. 

Next Term begins Monday, July 30, 1888. 
Special preparation for University. 
T. STEWART BOWENS, B. A., T. C. D., Principal. 



SANTA CLARA COLLEGE. 

SANTA CLARA. CAL. 
Fall Term hegins August 6, 1888 

Rev. R. E. KENNA, S. J., President 



TRINITY SCHOOL, 



1534 Mission Street, 



San Francisco. 



Prepares Boys and Young Men 

"OR 

College, Unlv-rsity and Business. 
Christmas Term opens Wednesday, Aug. 1st. 

RfcV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 

FIELD SEMINARY," 

SCHOOL FOR GIRLS and YOUNG LADIES 
1825 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

The Seventeeth Year of this well-known 
Institution will open 

WKDNESUAY AUUUST 1, 1888 

For further information apply to 

MRS. R. G. KNOX, Proprietor, 
Or to MRS. D. B. CONDRON, Principal 

THE O _A_ KS, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

The next year will begin on Wednesday, July 25, 1888. 
For information address, MISS L. TRACY, Principal. 

GO TO THE OLDEST AND THE BEST 




LIFE SCHOLARSHIPS, $75. 

No Vacations. Day and Evbning Sessions. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A., President. 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

24 POST ST., S. F. 

FOR SEVENTY-FIVE DOLLARS THIS 
College instructs in Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to bunnei^s, 
for six full months. Wo have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school hu 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
<4TSknd fob. Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. S. HALEY, Secretary. 




WATER TANKS! WINE TANKS! 

Our well-known TANKS are made by machinery, from 
the best of materials, and Bhipped to all parts of the 
country. Each piece numbered. No skill required in 
setting up. 

Wells, Russell c*s Go. , 

Proprietors Mechanics' Mills, 
Cor. Mission & Fremont Sts , San Francisco 



Artistic Box Brands-Brass 

AND 

STENCIL PLATES. 

Estimates and designs furnished on application. 

S. F. STENCIL AND BRAND WORKS, 

J. L. GRBENLEAF, Prop. 
405 Front Street, San Francisco. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD! 

"caw 

DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine, 
(t is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS, 29 Post St., S. F. 

RODERICK'S HAY PRESSES. 




the customer 
keeping the ona 
that suits 




ANY one wishing a bargain in the way of a new 
carriage, or wagon, will do well to call at this office. 



Order o i trial, address for circular and location of 
Westen and Southern Storehouses and Agents. 
P. K DEOERICK & CO.. Albany. N. V. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society, 

58tt California Street. 

For the ha'f-year ending June 30, 1S88, a dividend has 
been declared at the rate of fjur and one half (4J) per 
cent per aLnum on Term Deposits, and three and three- 
quarters (3j) per cent per annum on Ordinary Depositi. 
Payable on and after Monday, July 2, 1888. 

WM. HERRMANN, Secretary. 



Carriages. 

We are receiving 10 carloads of Carriages, Buggies and 
Wagons from the Briggs Carriage Company of Amesbury, 
Mass., which will be Bold at prices that will ho satisfac- 
tory, considering style and workmanship. Quality of 
material guaranteed the best. 

F. A. BRIGGS & CO., 
220 & 222 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 




Nilcs's now 
manual and 
r e f e re nee 
book onsub- 
j e cts con- 
nected witb 

successful Poultry and Stock Raising on the Pacific Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely illustrated with 
handsome, life-like illustrations of the different varieties 
of Poultry and Live-Stock. Price, postpaid 60 cts. Ad- 
dress PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, Sao Francisco, Cal 



Land Between Fruitvale and 
Mills Seminary. 



To parties desirous of establishing homes, a rare 
opportunity is offered to secure land at a price lower 
in comparison than any where else in Californ'a. 

It is located only a short distance from Oakland, 
between FRUITVALE and MILLS' COLLEGE, 
and immediitely adjoins THE grounds ok the 

LATTER. 

The land is just rolling enough to render it beauti- 
ful for building sites. Situated at the base of the 
foothills, it has a most des ; rable climate, and its 
proximity to the best Female Seminary in the State, 
makes it suitable as residence property for families 
having girls to educate whom they wish to live at 
home. 

1 he land can now be purchased at a low price, 
in quantities to suit, and its nearness to Oakland, 
the best market in the State, makes it desirable for 
the growing of Orchard, Small Fruits Fowl, etc. 

That the land is specially adapted to Fruit culture 
is guaranteed by the reputation of this famous Fruit- 
vale district for fine Fruit*. 

The best large market in the StUe, Oakland, be- 
ing only four miles away, and several Canneries in 
the vicinity, make the paying of freight charges un- 
necessary. 

The setting out of Fruit Trees would increase the 
value of the land, besides furnishing an income. 
The value will also be enhanced by the building of 
the Alameda County Railway, now in course of con- 
struction, which is to have a depot on the land, and 
then San Fiancisco can be reached in 55 minutes, or 
Broadway, Oakland, in 15. 

For investment it is an opportunity which rarely 
occurs, as Oakland is rapidly extending in this di- 
rection, and must, in the near future, include this 
land within its limits. This is proved by the fact that 
in i860 Oakland had but 1000 people ; in 1870, 10,- 
000; 1880, 30. coo ; and now 60,000, and growing 
more rapidly than ever. 

People in the interior who desire to educate their 
children at the State University, in Berkeley, or at 
schools in Oikland or Sin Francisco, can establish 
here a rural home and be constantly with them. 

This land was part of the Laundry Farm, that 
old and well-known Summer Resort, and is just far 
enough from the Picnic and Camping Grounds to 
be desirable and add value. 

Address, JOSLPH H. DORETY, 529 Commer- 
cial street, San Francisco, Cal. 



'iewey & Co.'s Scientific PreoS 
Patent Agency. 




Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agenov 
presents many and important advantages as ■ 
Home Agency over al! others, by reason of lon^ 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects »'■' 
inventions in our own community, and om 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
raining official American and foreign reports, 
files of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illuBtra 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. We transact every branch o> 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coud 
tries which grant protection to inventors The. 
large majovity of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-clans agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO.. Patent Agents 
No. 220 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 
S. F. Telephone No. 658. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER, GEO. H. STRONG. 



I LI L. mil* lu neaitn, nanus auu disease. breeo> Ail 
nt uuu and treatment; 60 outs; 26o. This office. 



32 



f ACiFie f^URAlo fRESS. 



[Jolt 14, 1888 



Lands tor ?ale apd Jo Let. 



Orange Orchards 

FOR ONLY 

SOSO JZk.'N ACRE. 



For a short time only, I can furnish a few 
ten-acre Orange Groves at the above prices, 
with over 1000 Orange Trees of the best va- 
rieties in each grove. 

Fine Climate! 
Fine Soil! 

Abundance of Water! 

And within sight of Riverside. The cheapest 
Orange Groves ever offered in California. In- 
rjuire of 

GEN. J. H. FOUNTAIN, 

RIVERSIDE, CAL. 



Agricultural and Grazing 

LANDS FOR SALE. 



7975 Acres of im< u'razni.- ami agricultural Unci, in- 
cluding 4000 heail of fine grade stock sheep; abundance 
of water; 9 miles from Merced City, and near Merced 
River; price, 97.2A |ier acre; 10O0 acres good wheat land. 
Addresa 

OSTRANDER & SONS, 

Merced, Cal. 

Or N. O. CARNALL CO., 
624 Matket Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



CHICO VECINO! 

Beet location in the State of California for beautiful 
suburban 

33:o:ivx:e:s. 

Located near the thriving ci'y of CIMCO, ButteCounty, 
California. Subdivided from the heart of the famous 

H.ANCH0 CHICO, 

The well-known property of 

GENERAL JOHN BID WELL. 

Town Lots and aereaee propertv. from fractions of an 
acre upward. TKRMS RE .sJNABLE. For further 
particulars, address: 

CAMPER & OOSTAR, Real Estate Agents, 
Chlco, Butte Co., (Jul. 

Or WM. H. MARTIN, 
809 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal 



Artesian Belt Land 

AT LOW FIGURES. 

The southwest quarter of Section fifteen, Township 
twenty-three, Ringe twenty four west, one hundred and 
sixty acres of rich level land, near the center line of the 
Artesian Belt in Tulare County, five miles noithwest of 

Alila, on the S. P. R. R., is offered for sale at the ex- 
ceedingly low price of fifteen dollars per acre. Address, 
" Landowner," Box 2361, San Francisco P. O , or to the 
care of this paper. 

LAND & WATER FREE! 

800 Acres Rich, Level Land. 



To some one who will summer fallow and cultivate 
well, will be furnished free water and use of 1 60 acres of 
good land (S. E. Sec 13, T. 21, R. 23) within 9 miles of 
Tulare, S. W. Forty acres formerly plowed. lj»nd on 
all sides cultivated and pastured. Water for irrigation 
(if needed) free. Also (without water) 640 acres (Section 
13, T. 23, R. 24), four miles westerly of Tipton and S P. 
R. R., all in Tulare County and the Artesian belt. For 
particulars . all on E. M. DEWEY, 7 miles S. W. of Tu- 
are, or A. T. DEWEY, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 

FOR SALE (^EXCHANGE. 

Ranch of 200 acres on Coquille River, Coos County, 
Oregon; 40 acres bench land 160 acres bottom, 80 acres 
under cultivation; lj miles from Coquille City, one half 
mile from steamer landing. An abundance of fine 
spring water on place. Pri -e, $1500 cash, or will ex- 
change for California property in vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bav. For further particulars apply to 
H. QOBTZ. 
659 Clay 8t., San Francisco. Cal. 

FOR SALE OR RENT. 

THE YOLO WINERY PROPERTY, 

Situated In Woodland, Tolo Co., Cal., 
Consisting of large cellar, press, rooms and distillery, all 
ocmplete and new, having been used onh two seasons. 
Fur particulars inquire of 

L. D. STEPHENS, 

Woodland, Cal. 



LANDS I FOREIGN ESTATE AT PUBLIC AUCTION! 

TO THE HIGHEST BIDDER! 

Sold by order of the Superior Court of Ventura County to close the estate of THOMAS A. SCOTT, I '-ceased. 

A.* HTTEZTXTEiTVIE;, Ventura County, 

Commencing MONDAY, JULY 30. 1888. 

Only Ton Ooxxt Hociuirecl at Time of Sale. 

16,000 ACRES 

OF THE FINE FARMING LANDS OF THE 

RANCHO LA COLONIA IN VENTURA COUNTY, 

INCLUDING CHOICK LOTS 100x200 IN THE TOWN OF 

HTJENEME, 

From wbioh port is annually shipped by sea more Grain than is shipped from any other port in Oalifornia, excepting Sin Francisco. 

The Lands are Divided into Tracts of from 10, 15,20, 40, 80, 160 Aces and upwards, including 
many improvements. Lots in the Town of Hueneme to be Sold Separately. 
Also Town Lots in SAN BUENAVENTURA. 

Here is an opportunity for even Indy to buy choice lands now under cultivation at fair and reasonable prioes, in the moat fertile and pro- 
ductive valley in California, upon CREDIT. 

ARTESIAN WATER AT 140 FEET. NO COMMISSION! NO AGENTS! 

car Remember the date of Sale, JULY 30, 1888, and that it will be continued from day to day till all the property shall be sold. 
For maps or further particulars address, THOMAS R. BARD, Huenema, Cal. 

Persons desiring to purchase and not able to attend the sale may do so by addressing, T. H. MERRY, Hpeneve, Cal. 



PALM VALLEY! 



TROPICAL WONDERLAND 



EARLIEST FRUIT LAND IN THE WORLD. 

EARLIEST VEGETABLE LAND IN THE WORLD. 

FINEST WINTER CLIMATE IN THE WORLD. 

DO YOU WANT to buy a fine tract of land at a low figure, that will double in value in 
three months, and that will produce a crop in six months that will more than pay for the land? 

DO YOU WANT a tract of lind that will produoe ripe grapes six weeks in advance of any 
other section of California now cultivated? 

DO YOU WANT a tract of land that will raise watermelons that will ripen seven weeks 
earlier than they will in any other section in the State, and that will sell for a dollar apiece in 
Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, San Bernardino, San Francisco, or any other Pacific Coast 
town or city? 

DO YOU WANT a tract of land where there is practioally no frost? 

DO YOU WANT a tract of land where no hard wind strong enongh to blow fruit from the 
trees is ever known? 

DO YOU WANT a portion of the tropical valley of the State? 

DO YOU WANT to quadruple your money on short notice? There is a chance for you 
to do it. 

THE PALM VALLEY LAND COMPANY 

Has secured 2000 acres of this choice land; has subdivided it into 5 and 10 acre lots, which they 
are now selling at $200 per acre, with a PERPETUAL WATER RIGHT, sufficient to irrigate 
the land. 

The lands were placed on the market with the announcement that as soon as each hundred 
acres were sold, the prioe would be advanoed $25 per acre, and that this rule would be f jllowed 
up to the selling of 500 acres. Two hundred acres have now been sold on this basis, starting at 
$150 per acre. The prioe is now $200 per acre. 

The Company has a Stone-walled Irrigating Canal, over ten miles 

in length, completed. 

They have completed a railroad from Seven Palms, a station on the main line of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad, to PALMDALE, the town site owned by the Company. 

They are planting 160 acres to an orange grove, of Navel oranges, and many other improve- 
ments are now in progress, that will make this one of the most attractive Colonies in the State. 

No safer place for the investment of capital, and no more delightful place to live in the 
winter can be found. 

PALM VALLEY is sure to become the greatest sanitarium in the world. 

THERE IS NO FROST, NO FOG, NO HARD WINDS. 

There is here all that can be desired to make Palm Valley one of the most attractive places in 
Sunny Southland. Maps, circulars and further information by calling on or addressing 

BRIGGS, FERGUSSON & CO., General Agents, 

314 Oalifornia Street, San Francisco, Oal. 



H.H.H. 

HORSE UNIMfJIT. 
Man 



UO 5 




TTHE H. H. H. Horse Liniment puts 
J- new life into the Antiquated Horse I 
For the last 14 rears the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment has been the leading remeoi 
among Farmers and Stockmen for ths 
cure of Sprains. Braises, Stiff Jointa, 
L naviDs, Windfalls, 8ore Shoulders, etc- 
n? T F,umly Use is without an equ».\ 
o»r Khpumatism. Neuralgia, Aches, Pains 
Bruises, ( 'nts and Sprains of all characters 
rhe H. H. H. Liniment has many imita 
Ijons, and we caution the Publio to so* 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is c - 
?very Bottle before onrchasing. Ft- wis 
■?v»rrwber» for SC cents and $i.0i rot 
bottle 

For Sale by all Druggists. 
NOW READY ! 

ABC BUTTER MAKING 

Bt F. 8. BUKCH. 



CHEAP LANDS! 

For Actual Settlers. 

Wc own. In fee simple, nearly 100,000 acres of very 
fine land* in the Eastern part of Ventura County, Cali- 
fornia, which we are offering in tracts of from' 10 to 
10,000 ai res, and at prices varying from *:> to »100, ao- 
cordlne to quality, situation and extent. Climate as 
healthful as any in California, and water very abundant. 
For particulars address, 

SIMI LAND AND WATER CO., 
19 West First St., Los Angeles,, Cal. 



Back Filib o: the Pacicic Rural Pkbss (unbound) 
can be had lor *M [er volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) ?o. Inserted in Dewey's patent binder, 
50 cents additional per volume. 



A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases 

By B. J. KlKDAbL, kf. D. 

86 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dla 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal medicines used 
for the horse, and a few pages 
ou the action and uses of me- 
dicines. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at each year. It is printed on one paper 
nad has nearly 100 pages, 7tx6 Inches. Price, only 86 
oents, or live for fl, on receipt n( which we will send 
bv mail to sny address. DEWEY & CO., 

220 Market St, 8. F. 




JlLU£Tn;ATED. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



Sixty. four pages, cloth 
bound, containing chapters 
on Milking, Milk Setting, 
('ream Raising, Churning, 
Working, Salting, Packing, 
Shipping and Marketlnc. 
A Hand Book for the Be- 
ginner. Full of useful in- 
formation aod worth many 
times h cost. Price, by 
mail, 30 cents. Address, 
DEWEY* fe CO . 230 Market 
'. St., 8an Francisco, Cal. 



THE WHITE IS KING 

OF. ALL 

SEWING MACHINES. 

Simple in Construction, L'ght Running, Most Durab'e 
and Complete. 
Visitors always welcome. 

WHITE SEWING MACHINE CO. 

108 & 110 POST ST , 8. F. 



DR. A. E. BUZAHD. 

VETERINARY SURGEON. 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London. (Diploma dates April 22, It 70 ) For two year 
Veterinary Inspector of Live Stock for the British Gov- 
ernment Parties having sick or injured horses, cattle, 
doirs, etc., can have advice and prescriptions by return 
of mail by sending full particulars rf diseate and tl. 
Calls to the country' by mail or telegram promptly at- 
tended to. Fees reasonable. Residence and Pharmacy. 
No. 11 seventh St., near Market, Sao Francisco, Cal 

All horse, cattle and dog medicines kept on band. 



WANTED— A WINE MAKER. 

A first-class and experienced Wine Maker of iteady 
habits wanted. For particulars address or interview 
It. C TERRY. 
Clayton Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



Joly 14, 1888. 



fACIFie RURAlo press. 



33 



Tehama County. 

[CONTRIBI 1KD.] 

Tehama county lies in the upper Sacramento 
valley, and is bounded on the east by Plumas 
and Butte counties; on the south by Butte, 
Colusa and Mendocino counties; on the west by 
Mendocino and Trinity counties; and on the 
north by Shasta county. The eastern part ex- 
tends into the Sierra Nevada mountains, while 
the western part lies among the Shasta mount- 
ains, a branch of the Coast Range. The middle 
of the county, between the two mountain 
ranges, holds a rich section of the northern part 
of the great Sacramento valley. In addition to 
this broad plain of fertile soil, there are among 
the mountains and foothills many smaller val- 
leys of rich land, which are cultivated to a 
greater or less extent. In the mountains are 
also to be found rich mineral deposits, that 
though only partly developed, have yielded 
princely revenues. The section of this county 
lying between the mountains and the great cen- 
tral valley is made up of low rounded foothills, 
which on the west are covered with a scattering 
growth of oak and nut pine, with chaparral 
and manzanita underbrush. Most of it is sus- 
ceptible of cultivation for grain, fruit or grapes. 
The foothill region east of the Sacramento is 
more broken, but a great deal of it is suitable 
for orchards and vineyards. Among the 
mountain peaks in this county, the most con- 
spicuous are Mount Linn, on the western bor- 
der, and Lassen Butte, the magnificent altitude 
of which is a landmark for nearly every part of 
Tehama county. It is 11,000 feet high, and 
on its apex may be seen the cone of an extinct 
volcano. 

The Sacramento river flows through this 
county from north to south, in the midst of the 
great valley portion; the other rivers of the 
county, and they are numerous, being tributary 
to it. The South Fork of the Cottonwood 
creek, Reed creek, Red Bank creek, Elder 
creek, Thomas creek, Dry creek, Regan river, 
Moon river and Coyote creek, all take their rise 
in the Shasta mountains, flowing easterly into 
the Sacramento. Having their source among 
the Sierras and flowing westerly into the Sac- 
ramento, are the Antelope creek, Dry creek, 
Mill creek and Deer creek. These are all clear 
and impetuous mountain streams, abounding in 
trout and other fish, and pass, in nearly every 
case, through valleys and sections of level land 
in the process of cultivation. 

Tehama county has been greatly favored by 
nature in the variety of its resources, and to 
these, of late, attention has been turned in a 
greater degree than for many years past. Its 
scanty population (considering the opportuni- 
ties for making a good living and acquiring 
wealth) is rapidly being added to. Prosperous 
as the county has been with sparse settlement, 
there is no reason why it should not be vastly 
more so were the number of inhabitants aug- 
mented many thousands, with support demand- 
ed for large manufacturing towns upon its 
promising streams. Among the mountains, 
mineral indications are scattered everywhere, 
traces of gold, silver, copper, sulphur, petro- 
leum, iron, coal and mercury having all been 
found. Here are also vast belts of magnificent 
timber, pine, fir and oak, another source of 
wealth to the county. The sawmills at the pres- 
ent time actually turn out for use between 
30,000,000 and 40,000,000 feet annually. Agri- 
culture is destined to become, in this county, 
as in most other counties in the State, of the 
greatest importance. Grain of every kind 
grows readily in the rich and productive valley 
lands, and the sidehills are planted to a consid- 
erable altitude with orchards. Fruit and grape- 
vines all do well here, the hardier trees being 
planted on the hill slopes to an altitude of 4000 
feet. In the valleys and on the hillsides, in 
favored localities, all of the fruits that can be 
grown with profit in any part of the State do 
equally well here, including grapes for raisins 
or wine, apples, pears, plums, prunes, apricots, 
pomegranates, figs, quinces, olives, nectarines, 
gooseberries, strawberries, blackberries, cur- 
rants, almonds, English walnuts, chestnuts and 
pecans, all of which do especially well and yield 
abundant crops. The orchardists of Tehama 
plume themselves on the fact that the fruits 
grown in the county ripen before Yolo county's 
and two weeks earlier than Santa Clara's, and 
that the completion of the Oregon through line 
of railroad means the opening up of a short, 
cool, natural route, which will give their early 
pomological treasures over a week's exclusive 
sale in eastern markets. The grass-covered 
mountain slopes and valleys are also valuable to 
the ranchmen, whose cattle are herded in the 
higher ranges of" the county, where the small 
park-like, fertile hollows are found. 

The California & Oregon railroad passes 
directly through the county, following the gen- 
eral course of the Sacramento river along the 
central valley portion. The California North- 
ern railroad also crosses the county. These 
two roads make part of the great railroad sys- 
tem of the State. 

The climate of some parts of Tehama is very 
nearly perfection itself, and in the lower parts of 
the county, while the summers are " ardent," 
with frosts in winter, the extremes only slight- 
ly exceed those of Los Angeles; and owing to 
the dryness of the atmosphere and to the nights 
being cool and refreshing, even the heated 
terms of summer are not found oppressive. It 
may be said that almost any desired climate 
may be found in this county. In the valleys 
and foothills it is quite hot and dry during the 
months of July, August and September, the 
thermometer sometimes reaching as high as 110 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps. U. S. A.] 





Portland. 


Eureka. 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


3. Francisco. 


Fresno. 


Keeler. 


Los Angeles. 


San Dlego. 


DATE. 


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9 


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60 


N 


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86 


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74 


SW 


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.03 


61 


w 


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92 


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8 


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74 


w 


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.00 


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w 


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.00 


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N 


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84 


s 


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82 


SW 


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62 


w 


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90 


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.00 


90 


Sw 


01. 


.00 


76 


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72 


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Total 


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on 








no 








.00 








on 








T 
















01 








00 









explanation.— i L lor clear; <Jy., ciouuy; j<r., t.ur; r y., loggy; um., calin; 
with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. 



degrees for several days at a time, followed by 
cooler spells. However, nine months of most 
delightful weather follow the heated term. In 
the valley and foothills the rainfall begins gen- 
erally in September and continues at intervals 
until May. During the rainy season the 
weather is delightful; soft, balmy davs like the 
spring days of the Eistern States. Daring this 
period in the high mountains there is, instead 
of rain, considerable snowfall. The average 
yearly rainfall varies in the different localities 
from 15 to 25 inches, which is increased about 
half an inch for each hundred feet of elevation. 

Red Bluff, the county seat, has been compli- 
mented by the name of the " Queen City of the 
North." It lies upon the west bank of the Sac- 
ramento river, at the head of steamboat naviga- 
tion, and on the line of the California & Ore- 
gon railroad. The place is an important one, 
and has attained great prosperity in late years. 
The business men of Red Bluff have devoted 
themselves zealously to booming its many ad- 
vantages, as well as those of the country gener- 
ally. Red Bluff is a well laid-out city, with 
streets nicely graded. Its public and business 
structures are architecturally striking; its pri- 
vate residences elegant in proportion and sur- 
rounded by tastefully arranged grounds. The 
streets are lined with shade trees. There are 
several large iron works where agricultural im- 
plements and carriages are manufactured. Its 
hotels are commodious. There are also several 
livery, feed and sale stables, marble works, gas 
works, two banks and two newspaper offices. 
The churches include the different denomina- 
tions. For educational purposes, the city is well 
provided. In addition to the public schools, the 
city boasts a newly organized college, with a 
scientific and classical course; also an academy 
and a kindergarten. There are three large pub- 
lic halls where fraternal societies meet. The 
water works are ample, and the supply plenti- 
ful and of the best quality. This town is the 
center of trade for a large surrounding country. 
A productive agricultural area environs the site 
of the city, and new lands are being continually 
taken up, and an increased acreage of grain 
planted, large crops being real zed in this part 
of the country. The population of Red Bluff 
may be estimated at 4000 and over; that of the 
county at 10,000 and upward. Seven miles be- 
low Red Bluff, and five miles north of the town 
of Tehama, is located the Rosenthal Colony and 
Proberto, on the line of the railroad. Asa col 
ony tract for fruit farms, and an eligibly locat- 
ed" town-site, they are not surpassed in the 
State. The climate is delightful, the scenery 
charming, the soil richly productive in all the 
fruits of the temperate and semi tropics, and 
everything points toward the prosperity and 
coming importance of Proberto and the Rosen- 
thal Colony. Extensive improvements are now 
under way, and many more are contemplated. 
The land is being sold on liberal terms at a low 
price, and the town lots offer an excellent op- 
portunity for profitable speculation. It may be 
said that the Rosenthal Colony and Proberto, 
at the present prices, present a rare chance for 
either the home-seeker or those who feel in- 
clined to make investments. 

Tehama is distant 12 miles from Red Bluff, 
and is pleasantly located on the west bank of 
the Sacramento, the site being a plain, dotted 
with oak trees, the Shasta mountains looming 
up in the distance. It is upon the line of the 
California & Oregon railroad, and numbers its 
population at about 600. Vina, in this county, 
is the location of the largest vineyard in the 
world. 

The other towns and precincts in the county 
are Antelope, Butte Meadows, Coast Ringe, 
Cascade, Copeland, Elder Creek, Elktown, El- 
more, Elkins, Farquhar, Floyd, Gleasonville, 
Henleyville, Howell, Hunter, Johnston, Junc- 
tion, Lowery, Liveoak, Lassen, Moon's Ranch, 
Montgomery, Murray, Oak Creek, Orion, Pas- 
kenta, Payne's Creek, Riceville, Bawson, 
Reed's Creek, Red Bank, Sierra, Stcney Creek, 
Jesma, Toomes and Washington. 

The inducements that this highly favored 
county of the north hold out to settlers at the 
present time are unsurpassed in any other part 
of the State. Lands are good and cheap, and 
the climate desirable. The large tracts of land 
are being divided into smaller and better culti- 
vated farms, which will produce untold quanti- 
ties of fruit. 



Bl UIT (IJa^keting. 

Reports of Auction Sales. 

Chicago, July 7. — Prices realized to-day at 
the auction of California fruit were: Bartlett 
pears, $2 25@2 30; cling peaches, $3 35; plums, 
$2.25fe2 70; apricots, $2 35; German prunes: 
boxes, $2 30; crates, $1.25. Grapes, $2 35; 
nectarines, $2.90. Nineteen hundred packages 
were sold. 

Chicago, July 9. — Five carloads of California 
fruit were sold at the auction sale to-day. 
Peaches brought $2.75 to $2 25, plums, $1.65 fo 
$2.60. prunes, $2.05 to $2.60, and grapes, $2.25 
to $2 35. 

New York, Jury 9. — Five carloads of Cali- 
fornia fruit were sold at auction to-day. Bart- 
lett pears sold at $2.15 and $2.40 per case, 
peaches at $2.15 and $2 50, few yellow peaches 
at $2.95, plums at $1.30 and $1.65, and German 
prunes at $2.75. No apricots are expected, but 
New York gets some of the Chicago surplus. 

Chicago, July 10. — At the California fruit 
sale to day peaches sold for from $2.30 to 
$2.80; pears, $1.95 to $2.25; plums, $1.65 to 
$2.20; grapes, $2.30; prunes, $2 15 to $2.35, and 
nectarines, $2 60. Three carloads were sold. 

New York, July 10.— Six carloads of Cali- 
fornia fruit, principally pears, sold at auction 
to-day at the following prices: Bartlett pears, 
$2 55C« 3; Crawford peaches, $2.90; do. Hale's 
Early, $1.20(« 1.55; plume, $1.20@2.75. The 
market on Bartletts is lower, owing to heavy 
arrivals of green stock unfit for immediate con- 
sumption, but as the quality is steadily improv- 
ing prices should recover very shortly. Peaches 
and plums of good quality are in demand. 

Chicago, July 11. — Four carloads of Califor- 
nia fruit were Bold at auction to day. Craw- 
ford peaches brought $3 10; plums, $1 25(5 
2.75; pears, $ l.75@2 25, and grapes, $1.65(» 
2.30. 

New York, July 11. — Four cars of Califor- 
nia fruit, principally pears, were auctioned to- 
day, as follows: Bartlett pears, $2.50 to $2; 
Crawford peaches, $3.35 to $2 05, prunes and 
plums, $3.40 to $1.60. The conditions are un- 
changed since last advices. Pears still pre- 
dominate in all arrivals. Firm quality of 
peaches and plums is in demand at high price. 
Good Time Being Made. 

The Record- Union says: The California 
fruit trains are b?ing sent through on good 
time now. On the Union Pacific the other day 
a special fruit train ran the distance from Ogden 
to Omaha, 1032 miles, in 32 hours, beating the 
record of the famous "flyer" by three hours. 
The time from Cheyenne to Sidney, a distance 
of 120 miles, was made in 130 minutes. 



About six miles of sewer have been laid in 
Alameda during the past six months. During 
the same length of time one and a half miles of 
street have been macadamized at a cost of $65,- 
652.02. 



Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Our Agents. 

Our Fribndb can do much in aid of our paper and the 

cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

G. W. IngamjS— Arizona Territory. 

A. F. Jewett — Tulare Co. 

C. E. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Co.'s. 

R. G. Huston — Montana Territory. 

Wm. Wilkinson— Butte and Tehama Co.'s. 

W. W. Theobalds— Sonoma, Napa and Yolo Co.'s. 

F. B. LooAN— Placer Co. and Nevada State. 

S. J. Littlffield— Santa Uarbara, Los Angeles and 
San Diego Co. 's. 

The Hoi'iUiNS Academy at Oakland has b^en 
known long and favorably among the educa- 
tional establishments of California. It affords 
young men a practical training for business life, 
or prepares them for the higher classical and 
technical courses. The health and morals of 
students, as well as their intellects, are cared 
for, and W. W. Anderson, the newly chosen 
principal, brings with him from the Sacramento 
High School a record and reputation which 
augur well for the continued and enhanced use- 
fulness of the institution. 



List or U. 8. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

Prom the official report of U. S. Patents In Diwit * 
lo.'s Patent Office Library, 250 Market St., S. F. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JULY 3, 1888. 

385 401.— Windmill— F. Boccard, Oakland, Cal. 
385,500 — Cak Coupling— S. Byrne, Brown's 
Valley, Cal. 

385,603.— Hydraulic Wei.l-Boring Machine 
— G. W. Durbrow, Los Angrles. Cal. 

385,346.— Billiard-Table— W. P. Flint, Marys- 
ville, Cal. 

3 8 5i55'.— Ore Concentrator -- G. F. Gould, 
Grass Valley. Cal. 

385.457. — Stump Extractor— A. C. Hall, Cedar 
Mill. Ogn. 

385.458. — Dynamo-Electric Machine — A. 
Harding, Oakland, Cal. 

385,460. — Hydraulic Step— F. G. Hesse, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

385,516.— Spirit Level — J. C. Hutton, Cor- 
vallis, Ogn. 

385.466. — Fence— D. B Matlock, San Jose, Cal. 

385.467. — Fence— D. B. Matlock, San Jose, Cal. 
385,470. — Hay St.v ker— D. McRae, Umatilla, 

Ogn. 

385,473. — Harmonica Holder— W. Mulliollan, 
Portland, Ogn. 

385 423.— Insecticide — M. Orgeith, Alameda, 
Cal. 

385,372. — Carpet Stretcher — S. S. Pearl, 
Halsty, Ogn. 

385 431.— Slide Valve— W. J. Thomas, Sauce- 
lito, Cal. 

385.486.— Lamp Bracket — A. Thurber, S. F. 

385 389 —Device for Fumigating Trees— L. 
H. I iius, San Gabriel, C.il, 

385,653.— Nozzle — Benj. Wright, Los Gatos, 
Cal. 

385,495. — Commode— W. R. Wythe, Santa Bar- 
bara, Cal. 

Notb.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coa it 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest Dossible time. 



Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, fo those 
who pay fully otie year in advance of date, n? requested 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the right : 

1. — The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 

Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 
colored maps (full price $1) S50.25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1250 illustrations ; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

3. — Dewey's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper stamped in gilt 60 

4- — Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 
pamphlet, 120 pages, illustrated 25 

5. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations 05 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nos. of the 

Rural Press, "good as new " Free 

7. —Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie's and most other first- 

class IT. S. periodicals, 15 per ct. off regular rates- 
9. — Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies, Books and Period, 
icals, except special publications, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 26 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .25 

12. — $1 worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .25 
14.— Dewey's Pat.Newspaper Fileholder(18to 38 in.) .25 

15-— European Vines Described, 63 pages 05 

19.— Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1600 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 50 

23. — Architecture Simplified, 60 pages 06 

24. — Mother Bickerdjke's Life with the Army; patriotic 

and ably written; 166 pp., cloth, 81.00 60 

25. — Ropp's Easy Calculator, cloth, 80 pp 25 

26. — How to Tell the Age of a Horse 06 

a7. — Percheron Stud Book— French — bound in 

leather, 192 pages (full price, $3) 1 .00 

28- — What Every One Should Know; a cyclopedia of 
valuable information; 510 pp.; cloth; (full price 
$1) 50 

29. — Knitting anil Crochet, by Jennie June; 144 pp., 

200 illustrations V5 

30. — Needle Work, by Jennie June; lzopi,.,.. m. ti- 

trations 26 

31. — Ladies' Fancy Work, by Jennie June; 152 pp., 700 

illustrations 26 

32. — The Way to do Magic; illustrated, 60 pp IO 

33 —The Taxidermist's Manual; illustrated, 64 pp.. .10 
Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive ; 

35 pages (a handsome and pleasing present).. .25 

Notb. — The cash must accompany all orders. Address 
this office, No. 252 Market St., S. F. 

Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 

In writing correspondence, items of information, or on 
other business, please use a separate sheet. 

Sample copies of this paper mailed free to persons 
thought likely to subscribe. 

Send for free circular describing most of these pre- 
miums, and any further information desired. 



The Colton Packing Company is putting 
up 15,000 cans of apricots every day. 



34 



pAClFie RURAb PRESS 



[July 14, 1888 



Breeder?' Directory. 



f.| 4 lines or less in this Directory at P« r " ne P* r m0ntn ' 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 

P. H. MURPHY, (Brighton,) Perkins P. O., breeder 
of Recorded Short Horn i and Poland Chiua Hogs. 



OOTATE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Pages 
Station, S. F. & N. P. K. R. P. O., Peun's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



VALPARAISO PARK. Thoroughbred Durham 
Cattle. ThorouifhDred Berkshire bwine. Address 
r. D. Athertoo, Menlo Park. 

f^ETtJ COOK, breeder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von, Durham, Polled Aberdeen Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breeds on hand for 
gale. Warranted to be pure bred, recorded and aver- 
age breeders. Address, Gen. A. Wiley, Cook Farm, 
Danville, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



W. J. MARSH <St SON. Dayton, Nevada. Regis- 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred stiains. 

J.H.WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holsteiu Cattle. 

R. J. MERKELEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

HOLSTEINS— New lot Eastern-bred animals, includ- 
ing Netherlands; Aagffie'l and Case Straina Punch 
for ringing bulls, il.00 postpaid. Beikshire Swine. 
Catalogues. F. H. Burke, 401 Montgomery St., S. F. 

M. D HOPKINS, Pctaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and Heifers for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every' variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Registered Uolstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 

EL ROBLA BAN CHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal.. Francis T. Underbill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mail. C F. Swan, manager. 



J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Souoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

T E. MILLER. Boecher, 111. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 



POULTRY. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 



E. H FREEMAN, Santa Clara, Cal., breeds the best 
strains of thoroughbred poultry. Send for circulars. 

PIEDMONT POULTRY YARDS, cor. Piedmont 
Ave. is Bjoth St., Oakland. Wyandotte*, L. Brahmas, 
P. Rocks. Langshans, B. Leghorns, B. B. R. G. Bantams. 
Eggs #2 for 13; circular tree; Mrs J. N. Lund, Box 116. 



W. C DAMOU, Napa, i2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Leghorns, Lt. Brahmas, Houdans. Eggs, H. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St.,S. F., Importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

"J. J. ALBEB, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Holstein-Friesians & Jerseys 

A chrice lot of young Cattle of the above breeds fur 
gale at verv low figures. Their breeding is A No 1 aud 
from the B EST MILKING FAMILIES. Prices and 
QUALITY will suit. ELEVEN YEARS' experience- 
on this Coast Correspondence solicited. 

Publisher of "Nile*' Pacific Coast Poultry anil 
Stock Kimk," a new book on subjects connected with 
successful Poultry and Stock raising on the Pacifle Coast. 
Price, 50 cents, post-paid. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles. Cal 



KIRKPATRICK & WHITTAKER, Knight's 
Perry, Cal.. breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

JULIUS WEYAND. Little Stony, Colusa Co , Cal., 
breeder of pure blood and graded Angura Goats. 
Choice Bucks and Does for sale. 

I''. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep. Premium band of the State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 



A. G STONfc.SIF'ER, Breeder of pure-blood French 
Merino Sheep. Hill's r erry, Stanislaus Co , Cal. 

.11. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
* breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes s. rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
•lerino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 





POPLAR 

GROVE 

Breeding 
FARM, 




BARON VALIANT N2-4Q52. 

TXT. STnyvrjJBE. P. O. Address, Fresno, Ca.1. 

IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 

4 X I> 

iiii.iii.r 

BBCD 

For inf rotation address or call on S. N Straube as above. No trouble to show stock to intending purchasers. 



POLLED ANGUS CATTLE 



TROTTING HORSES. 



swine. 

JOHN RIDER, Saoramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbrod Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
r»oorded In the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
►hornnrhWd Rorkahlre and Essex Hoes 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Clrcnlars free 



ANDREW SMITH. Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't 

LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID 

NON-POISONOUS 

SHEEP DIP. 

LITTLE'S PATENT POWDER DIP 

(roisosous). Information by mail. 
CATTON, BELL St CO., successors to Falkner, 

Bell & Co , 406 California St., 8. F. 
Wool Agency Warehouse. 8ixth and Townsend Streets. 

APIARIAN SUPPLIES for sa'e by Mrs. J. V. 
Enas, Napa City, Cal. 




LARGE AND SMALL 

Received First Premium, State Fair, September 24, 1887. 



GO 




r 




No Failures. None Ever Returned. Beware of Experiments. 

BUY THE HOUSBR ! 

They Have a Larger Sale than all Other Harvesters Combined. 

THE SMALL HOUSER 

Is adapted for Small Farms — few animals; rolling or foothill land. In weight, one-half of the 
Large Houser. Both the Large and Small Houser have our 

Improved Double Shoo Oleanoxr, 

Which received the Premium over all competitors at both State and County Fairs and Field 

Contests in 1887. 

The MILLER LIGHTNING HAY PRESS 

AWARDED 

First Premium at 
State Fairs, 1884, 
1885, 1886 & 1887. 

AWARDED 
Gold and Silver 
Medals at Nevada 
and California 
State Fairs, and 
won Contest 
Money, §50. 
g 



CAPACITY 30 TONS PER DAY, 



rKi> t 

•85. f 



For Standard Size Baling Press, 

Or seven and half tons per day for each man 
employed, which is more than has been or 
can be accomplished by any other Press yet 
manufactured. Twenty Tons a dav with 
Tight K.lin. Press. Can put Ten Tons in 
a car. 




Does not requ're Hay Slacks 
built to suit our Press. 



CORRRSrOKbKM K SOLICITKD. FOR Kl Kill Ml lXFuRM ATION, ETC., ADDRRSS 

STOCKTON COMBINED HARVESTER & AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 



Sole Manufacturers for the Pacific Coist, 



Box M. STOCKTON, CAL 



TO STOCKMEN. 

For Sale, at the Souther Farm, 75 Head 
of Young Heifers. 

Will he sold cheap if taken at once. A fine chance for 
am one who has pasture or plenty of hay. 

SOUTHER FARM, 
P O. Box 149. San a. eandro, Cal. 



COLTS JSROKEN. 

THE SOITBKR FA KM, one and a half miles 
northeast of San L°andro, Alameda county, I as every 
facility fur Breaking Colts properly. Kates very reason- 
able. Horses boarded at all times. 

SOUTHER FARM. 
P O. Box 149. San Leandro, Cal. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 



Cor. 17th & Castro Sts., 



Oakland, Cal. 



Manufactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
BrtOODER. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Pood, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
Also every variety of land 
and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited Eggs for 
hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send 2c stamp for M) page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR Co., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 

HATCH CHICKENS 

■V ITU Till — 




"Walnut Grove 



?.^rlThure n <. d POLAND-CHINA HERD 

My herd consists of the best strains that can he found. 
StocK all recorded in A. P. C. R. I have a fine lot of 
spring, summer and fall pigs, also a few choice yearling 
sows, for sale. Prices to suit the limes. 

J. MELVIN. DavlBville, Gal. 



BADEN FARM HERD 
Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASH BURNER, 
Baden Station, - San Mateo Co., Cal. 




INCUBATOR. 



The Most Successful Machine 
Made. 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 16 

I irst Premiums, 
Hatches all kinds of Eggs. 
Made In all Sizes. 

Write us for Large Illustrated Cir- 
cular Free, describing Incubators, 
, How to Raise Chickens, etc. Address 
PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 

JOHN McFARLING, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Brown and White Leghorns, 
Peitin Bantams, Light Brahmas. Part- 
ridge Cochins, Bull Cochins, Black; Ml- 
norcas, Registered Berkshire Figs. Also 
one pen of Langshans direct from China. 
706 TWELFTH ST., OAKLAND, CAL. 
Large lot of young birds ready for sale; send for circulars. 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St , Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred l'oultry and Kggs. 

, Send Stamp for Circular. 




WELLINGTON'S IMPROVEO EGG FOOD. 
STANDARD POULTRY preparation for TEN 
YEARS. Sold by every principal merchant; also at 
125 Washington Struct, San Fbancibco. 



S. CHILES, 

DAVISVILLE, CAL., 




Breeder of SHORTHORN CATTLE 

Of the best families. A choice lot of young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale, 4 years old and under, from the cele- 
brated Kirklevington Oxford Count. 36723. 

Baden Farm Herd 

OF 

SHORT HORNS 

Will be sold at AUCTION on the premises 



AUGUST 16, 1888. 

' Particulars hereafter. 



VETERINARY COLLEGE. 

INCORPORATED 1883. 

FAnr.rriKS foh Tkachinu asi> Ciixtoat. A» 

VANTAGES I'NSIRI'ASSKD. Session <>t 1MNB-W 

t ..nimences October 1*1. t3TV»r Catalogue aud 
turilKT information. aoMress the Swretarv. 

tlONI-.lMI 111 <■ II I *. M. It < *.. 
;i.>:t7 and *53B State Mtreet, « hlciiiro. 

FOR SALE. 

Two Thoroughbred Red Mazurka Bulls, 

One 13 months, the other 15 months old. 
' also 

200 Full Blooded Angora Ewes. 

M. WICK. Sundale, Butte County. Cal. 
LARGEST STOCK OP 

SADDLERY AND HARNESS 

On the Pacific Coast Wholesale and Retail. 
AVSend order and try goods and prices. 

C. L. HASKELL. No. 10 Bush St.. S. F. 



SPECIAL OFFER. -I will ship 
in localities where, as yet, I have NO 
agent, one sample Improved "New 
Becker" Washer at wholesale prices, 
Dercrii'tite pamphlet free. E.W. Melvin 
Prop. Office, 80* J St., Sacramento, Oal. 




|" Superior Wood and Metal Eugrar 

h 11 Pit* VI lit? log, Kluctrotypimr and Stereotyping 
lallQI Uf IF.IQ •door at theoffiw of this paper. 



July 14, 1888. 



PACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



35 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Incorporated April, 1874. 




Authorized Capital $1,000 000 

Capital paid up in gold coin 624,160 

Reserved Fund 40,000 

Dividends paid to Stockholders.. 515,620 
OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

Geneial Banking. Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a stecialty. 

Jan. 1, 1838. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

HORTON & KENNEDY'S 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulating 

WINDMILL 

s recognized as the 
BEdT. 




Always gives satisfaction. 8IMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with doi'rlk bearings for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency, JAMBS LIN FORTH 
120 Front St. .San Francisco. 



No. 107 $23.00. 




MONARCH GASOLINE RANGES 

ARB THE BEST. 
Gasoline Stoves, $5 to $35. Gas Stoves, 75 cents to $35. 
Oil Stoves, 75 cents to $30. 
WOOD AND COAL RANGES.— Royal, No. a, 
$16. No. 7, $20. Pacific No. 6, $18. No. 7, $25. 
Lamps, 20c. to $10. Hanging Lamps, $2 to $20. 
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, and Kitchen Ware at low prices 
JOHN F. MYERS & CO., 
Opp. Baldwin Hotel, 863 Market St, S. F. 



J. L. HEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS. 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers k Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u_.<in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor. Etc. 



GIVEN AWAY. 



■ill give m 
Double ( ;i ii - 
HAY KRES 
away if it wi . 
not till the de- 
mand of mv circulars. Send for Circulars and Price to 
the Manufacturer, JAS. KEMP, Kempton, Ji.. 



Farmers and Fruit-Growers, Attention! 

To grow large and profitable crops and at the same time to make the farm 
better each year, is the problem for the farmer. 

FERTILIZ E! FERTILIZE I 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATE. 

Ukivbrsitt of California, Nov. 3, 1886. fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use In 

Dr. J. Korbio — Dear Sir: I have analyzed your sample California, on wcount of the predominance in 

of "Nitrogenou. Superphosphate," with the >t of Phosphoric Acid, which is generally in small 

following retulf supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that "com- 

, ., , . ' . . . . ' plete" fertilizers be used in our orchards and vineyards, 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid. . 12.90 per cent ftDd yours is of that character in furnishing 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid 95 Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully. 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " E W HILGARD 

Pota-h 2.23 " ... 

Ammonia 1.87 " The value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 

Nitric Acid. 2.96 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid— the chief 

„. . i t t»tii t * "»** ri "i" i » n oc element of all plant food— in combination with the 

The above amount of Nitric Acid is equal to 0.85 necessary quantities of Potash and Ammonia, and 

per cent Ammonia, therefore total of Nitrogen calcu- the * ,? d che e ss with which it can be applied. 

lat ^ a V mm -° *' i^fi kV ht«„ f i In ordinary coils the following quantities will be found 

This Fertilizer is a Valuable Manure for vine- 8ufficient; / or wheat , Barley, Corn and Oats, 300 to 350 

yards, orchards, gardens, farms and I recommend ,ts dg acre Fo ' r Q £ g Beet9 ' and V ege- 

use by the cultivators of the sort 1 generally, m Call- ubIe8i 2 50 to 300 pounds per acre. For Vines, Fruit 

fornia. V ours truly, DR. E. A. SCHNEIDER. Tree s,Wn i pound to 6 pounds each. For Flower Gar- 

.. . ., i n ft • n ii la- dens, Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 

University Of California, LOllege Of Agri- applied at any time, will be found very beneficial. 

CUltUre ' « o n „ F0R SALE IN L0TS T0 SUIT > 

Berkeley, Nov. 20, 1886. 

Dr. J. Kokbio, San Francisco-Dear Sir: I take pleas- 0n board car3 at Sobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 

ure in adding my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 

phosphate" Fertilizer, analyzed by him at your re- _ „ _ „ . 

quest. It is a high-grade article, and as such re- CO., H. DUTARD, President, room 7, Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, Or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 31 1 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



MERY'S IMPROVED PIONEER 



BARLEY CRUSHER 

Using tbe Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 

still at The front. 




This Mill has been In use on this Coast for 7 years, 

TAKEN THE PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR 

Four years in succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 225 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon. 

It is the moit economical and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole manu- 
facturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all ready to mount 
on wagons. 



Oraikland, Butte Co., Cal., June 9, 1887. 
Mr. M. L. Men/— Dear Sir: We have used one No. 2 
Roller Birley Cru-her now for eight years and have u-ed 
it steady during that time; have crushed 45 tons a day, 
and the crusher is as good to day as when it came out of 
your bhop. I am satisfied that it is the best mill made 
You may rec nstruct this testimonial to the best advant- 
age for you and sign our names, for you cannot overrate 
the merits of your mill. F. E. RF.AM, 

JOHN P. SUTTON. 
I thank the public for the kind patronage received th 

M. L 



Durham, May 21, 1887 
Mr. M. L. Mery— Dear Sir: In reply to yours of the 
19th, would say that I crushed from two to two and a 
half tons per hour, but could crush three and a half tons 
per hour if my elevators were large enough to carry the 
barley from the machine. The No. 1 machine I used at 
Gridley was run on a sack a minute, but if we got be 
hind we rould run through five tons an hour, and do 
good work. The machine I use here is a No. 2. 

Yours, WM. M. TAYLOR, 

is far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

MERY, Chico Iron Works. Chico, Cal. 



The Western Whipsocket. 

The Best Whipsocket and 
Best Combination Tool in 
the world. A half-inch 
longer than the ordinary 
socket; yet carrying with 
it an oiler and wrench, 
without which no vehicle 
is thoroughly equipped for 
the road. In it a whip 
touches nothing but rub- 
ber. No rattling, no leak- 
age. Price, by mail, $1.50. 
Mention desired size of 
wrench. Address P. O. 
Box 70. 

WESTERN WHIPSOCKET CO., 

San Buenaventure, Cal. 





When Visiting the City 

STOP AT THE 

HOTEL MARQUETTE, 

1206 MARKET STREET. 

Strictly nrst Class! 

Board by the day, week or month. Rooms may be 
ngaged by telegraph or letter. 

R. DIEPENDORP, Proprietor. 



BEST TREE WASH. 

" Oreenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA rtests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St and 8 California St, S. F. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE 

HOTEL, 
319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco, 

One door from Bank of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior ac- 
commodations to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $1 50 per day 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 
CHAS. & WM. MONTGOMERY, Prop'rs 

MISSION ROCK DOCK 

AND 

GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

rjPi TONS CAPACITY. 7fv ooo 

I (J,UUU Storage at Lowest Rates. ' *->,W\J 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
Cal. Dry Dock Co., props. Office, 303Cal. St. room 1R 



CLAY CRUSHERS. 



WORLD 




O. Box 



lUUCII TfinC on the Pacific Coast shouM secure 
111 ¥ til I UnO their Patents through Dewey&Co.'s 

Mining and Soiektipic Prkbb Patent Agency, No. 220 
Markut St, S. F.. 



FLOUR MILL 



Immense Water Power 

FOR SALE 

At Merced Falls, Merced County, located on Merced 
River; size of Mill, 33x70; two stories in front and four 
stories in rear; latest improved roller machinery; new 
:apacitj; 100 barrels per day; power to increase to any 
capacity desired; title to water and land perfect; 60 acres 
of laLd, comprising the town site of Merced Falls; 
reputation of flour is Al; commands all mount- 
ain trade; fine wheat country surrounding; no failures 
ever known; grain warehouse 80x80; four dwelling 
houses; 28 shares of Merced Falls Woolen Factory go 
with purchase. Address 

OSTRANDER & SONS, 

Merced, Cal- 

Or N. C. CARNALL & CO., 
624 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



EXCELSIOR FRUIT PITTER, 

—FOR — 

PITTING 
Peaches, 
Plums, 

Apricots, Etc. 

We also keep Peach Par- 
ers, Apple Parers, etc. 
Send for Catalogue. 

WIESTER & CO. 

17 New Montgomery 

Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

THE OREGON FRUIT DRIER 





oo ft 



c " 
;o > 



Awarded r irst Premium Oregon and California State 
Fairs, 18S7. Is easily managed, ejonmnical in fuel, has 
large capacity in proportion ti lost; is fire-proof rnd 
durable. Made in various sizes tuitable for Families 
or Factory. 

CHAS. JORY, Manufacturer, 
459 Union Street, - Stockton, Cal. 



SPENCER PIANOS 

Latest Improved Repeating Action 

(PATENTED). 



TONE fJNSURPASSED. 

Durability Guaranteed in any Climate. 
F. W. SPENCER & CO., 

723 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Second Floor, History Building. 
Largest Piano Warerooms in California. Catalogues 
and prices by mail. Visitors always welcome. 



Self-Playing Organ. 

An Automatic Organ Combined with an 
Ordinary Five Octave Organ. 

No Teacher or Practice Necessary. 

ANYBODY CAN PLAY the latest and most difficult 
music of every class. Every home should have one. 
Stnd for descriptive circulars, prices and terms to 

KOHLER & CHASE, 187 & 139 Post St 

Dealers in all kinds of Musical Cloods. 



GOOD CROPS EVERY SEASON WITHOUT 
IRRIGATION. 

Free by mail, specimen number of " The California 
Real Egtate Exchange and Mart," full of reliable infor- 
mation on climate, productions, etc., of 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 
Address, H. MEYKICK, Box 5, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



36 



pAClfie frURAb PRESfr, 



[July 14, 1888 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PKODUCS, ETC. 

San Francisco, July n, 188S. 

The past week was without any features worthy 
of special mention. The weather has been excep- 
tionally favorable for harvest work. The fruit and 
vegetable markets have been active, while in grain 
there was but little doing. The markets abroad, 
which showed an advance, shaded off some. The 
following is to-day's cable: 

Liverpool, July n. — Wheat — Fiimly held. Cal- 
ifornia spot lots, 6s sd@6s 8d; off coast, 33s 3d® 
33s 6d; just shipped, 33s qd; nearly due, 33s 6d; car- 
goes off coast, firmly held; on passage, firm and 
held higher; quantity on passage to Continent, 377,- 
000 qrs.; wheat and flour to U. K., 2,053,000 qrs. ; 
French country markets, strong; wheat and flour in 
Paris, firm; weather in England, vtry :old. 

Foreign Review. 

London, July 9. — The Mark Lane Express, in its 
weekly review of the British grain trade, says: En- 
glish wheat is steady. In the provincial exchanges 
Irom 6d to is more isobuined. The sales of English 
wheat during the past week were 29,289 qrs., at 31s 
5d, against 16,737 qrs., at 34s 2d, during the corre- 
sponding week of last year. Foreign wheal is 
stronger, and buyers are obliged to pay a fraction 
advance in prices. Sellers at Liverpool have ob- 
tained an advance of id per ctl. Flour is firm. Corn 
in Liverpool is scarce. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
in New York: 



Cash. 



Day. 

(Thursday 9e? 

Friday 90 j 

Saturday 90 

Monday 91 J 

Tuesday 89J 



Ju'v. 

89S 
85f 

88i 
87? 



Aug. 

bU 
892 
8-ii 
88J 



Sept. Oct. 

9oJ 

90S 9I| 
89 j 91 
89J !Wj 
89 89( 



The closing prices lor wheat have been as follows, 
at Chicago: 



Day. 


Cash. 


July. 

MB 


All?. 


Sept. 


Oct 


Thursday 


SI J 


82 J 


82J 




Friday 


88J 


Wi 


81 3 


sii 






82i 


82 J 


>2j 


81 J 




Monday 


m 


82J 


8IJ 


80} 


82~4 


Tuesday 


Sl§ 


818 


80J 


80 


80 



Chicago, July ir. — Wheat— 82^c for cash, 82M1C 
for July, 80^ @8o ; B c for August and 8oKc for Sep- 
tember. Corn— 49 %c lor August. 

New York, July 11, — Wheat— 90^(090^ for 
cash, 88K@89C for July, 88y 8 (ft88#c lor August, 
89 %c for September. 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, July 7 — Trade in California dried fruits 
is small and of little importance. Apricots have been 
pretty well closed out, while of other descriptions 
there is a pretty good stock left. Prices are as fol- 
lows: Apricot;, sun-dried, tj? lb, 8@9c; do bleached, 
according to quality, n@i6c; ao evaporated, choice 
to fancy, I4'/S@i6c. Peaches, sun-dried, tj? lb, 9@ 
10c; do evaporated, unpeeled, io(gji6c; do peeled, 
i6@20C. Plums, unpolled, lt>, 6(0470; do pitted, 
10c. 

Raisins, loose Muscatels, 2-crown, {t> box, f 1 35(04 
1.40; do 3 crown, $ box, $1.45051.55; do London 
Layers, tj? box, $2. 20(0)2 25. 

Prunes, small, lb, 5(0160; do fancy, large, 7@9C. 

Hops — Choice grades are in fair request and the 
weather is warm and favorable. Prices rule firm 
because stocks are light and there are no arrivals. 
Ordinary qualities do not sell as well as choice 
grades, still there is something doing, and these, 
too, sell at about the former prices. Pac fic Coast, 
choice, fc? lb, I2@i3c; do common to prime, 9@tic. 

The prices realized to-day at the auction of Cali- 
fornia fruit were as follows: Birllet! pears, $2.20(0/ 
2.25; Crawford peaches, $2.2501)2.30; Tuscan Cling 
peaches, $3.25; plums, $2 25(012.70; apricot;, $2.35; 
German prunes, boxes, $2.20; crates, $1.25; grapes, 
$2 35; nectarines, $2.90; 1900 packages were sold. 

Eastern Fruit Market. 

New York, July 6.— The Mail and Express says 
the fruit crop, with the exception of one or two va- 
rieties, does not promise well in this vicinity. There 
are scarcely any cherries along the Hudson river or 
in New Jersey. Only about one third of a crop of 
peaches is expected from up the Hudson. More 
encouraging reports come from Southern Jersey and 
Delaware. Pears are scarce in this vicinity. The 
grape crop promises to be unusually large. All the 
old vineyards up the river are in good condiiion, and 
hundreds of acres of new vines have come into bear- 
ing (or the first time this season. The usual stories 
about a new kind ol bug are being circulated by 
speculators, but grapes will be very plenty and at 
low prices. 

[Auction sales of fruit at the East may be found 
011 anotner page. ] 

Weather and Crops. 

Washington, July 8. — The weather and crop 
bulletin says: Tne temperature lor week ending 
July 7th was Irom two to three degrees higher than 
u.ual throughout tne wheat and corn regions of the 
central valleys and the Northwest. The large sea- 
sonal deficiency in temperature previously reported 
throughout the Northern Stat s is slowly decreasing. 
The season is from two to three week; late in the 
wheat regions of the Upper Mississippi valley. 
There has been an excess 01 rainfall during the week 
in ihe Upper Mississippi valley. Hiijh temperature 
in the coin regions has greatly improved the condi- 
tion ol that crop. 

Miscellaneous. 

New York, July 10. — Mustard seed is not selling 
so as to much decrease the stock. Reports indicate 
a large crop 01 Iiahan and plenty of cheap East India, 
but tne large stocks o( California old yellow will find 
a place, helped by its quality. 

The season for Lima beans is over till fall. 

Raisins are steady. 

There is a fair trade in the lower grades of hops. 
Parcels placed at 10c are considered to be well sold. 

Wool shows an absence of speculative feeling or 
any desire to purchase ahead of current wants. 
Holders are, however, willing to keep the supply 
moving at recent rates. The sales include 20,000 



lbs low grade spring California at 16c, 10,000 lbs 
spring Texas at 17&C, some 220,000 lbs spring 
Texas, 6000 lbs spring < alifornia, 320,000 lbs other 
domestic qualities, and 65,000 lbs loreign were sold 
on private terms. The other Eastern markets are 
dull, with supplies accumulating. 

Local Markets. 
The closing sales on the San Francisco Call Board 
were as follows: 

wheat. 

Bate. Buyer Season. Buyer Year. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday *1-M>J 

Tuesday *-*H 

BAR LEV. 

Date. Buyer Season. Buyer Year. 

Thursday $1.02 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday .90J 

Tuesday 99 .911 

BAGS— The pool is strong at 8^@8^c, but out- 
side holders are reported to be selling lor less 
money. 

BARLEY— The market has ruled fairly strong, 
with some degree of activity for options. Sample 
pircels have been quiet, although free sales are re- 
ported. On Call to-day the following are the sales 
reported: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1888 — 7ro 'tons, 91^0 
ft? ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer 1888—200 tons, 
91 %c. Seller 1888, new — 200 tons, 81 He; 100, 
81 y t c ctl. 

BUT TER— Choice to fancy fresh roll and also 
pickled are strong at full figures. Poorer grades are 
slower and favor buyers. 

CHEESE— The market is gaining in strength 
under limited supplies and a good demand. The 
cost is hardening also. 

EGGS — The market held at last week's prices 
throughout the week. At the close strictly choice 
are more inquired for. 

FLOUR— The market is without change. The 
feeling is steadier. 

WHEAT— On Monday there was stronger hold- 
ing, but Tuesday the market was easier but no low - 
er. Buyers are trying to break prices. In options 
trading has been fairly active but at a slight decline. 
To-day's sales were as follows: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1888--200 tons, $1.50; 
200, $1.50^; 2000, $i-5oJi; 300, $i.5oM ^ ctl. Af- 
ternoon Session: Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.59 
Buyer 1888— ioo Ions, $1.51; 200, $1.51^; 100. 
$1.51^; 100, $1.51^; 100, $i.5iH; 5°°. S' StK: 
500, » i.S'ft 

ICOMMUWCATBB.] 

Market Information. 

Stocks of Grain, Etc , In the State. 

The San Francisco Produce Exchange has issued 
the following report of grain, etc., remaining in this 
State (crops o( 1887-88) on July t, 1888: 



Q M <S {T 

^ 0C . rr. m nt J r i 



" J- ~ 'I / . 

Cn ■ Ol ^ -I - 

~ ; ■ o . 

OP! 'JL. nr.. 



CO X Q Of 25 g 00 
2 =- T E f 2 ' • M 

i.f J q| »<»?3 
' o c 



' 3 ore 

1 1 .- g 



:5. »! 



S: E 



k 3 

o * a 



I&OD*1*IMn0. i nH .O © ~ 
wbo©"oCl"ix"CC*-'«C& -O SO (O 
iz - C / - — Z /. ii = - I'll- 
_ ;-: Z " Z ~ Z - v X> - 


Ci » QO OS - 1 &C ) 
t_i *» os — 1 i; *>: "as 

00 C-» f *- O i,i 
C — C ZZ ~ c z. 


c 2 
a" 
*c 


tOOO Ob D» O* SB ■* 16 • CJQ 
\c CO 1 0» OC ~ - 1 tc r X. -y » 1 cc 
1 „ j -i:: ~ x r. -ji ~ c u / 

.C. — 'Z. »i 1 i ti. J. jw 1-3 p p — 

V. "i3> - » "0 "tc © "a* OS 00 *» "0 
'— - 1 i 1 i — O — ~ ■ : n 5 
-,L - - crOOwOCOOC 


t— Cl to w © 
_oo ta r. si — os 

3"rcc;oc;o 


K 


M tw " ^ N «*- tO 

m O C/j *• ff. C. ^ Si-I to ^ _ 

- — ~a *- - — ±> "— ti 0*- -1 c. *• u / ^- i; y 
iz. — _p v./. py. jc _w y j— - 1 >. c. cc 

*J- \< lc~ i. — J tc -' -1 / \- '—. \y — \n 

— t. ~ _'< -■ -< ~ _t r _ o 1 c o< c irZ 

Ci ~ O C O — C C ■ Z. O O O O 1 O OCCOCOO 


x a" 


tOHHEoiSo! z& a> C. 

— X, C w X _-l — I* *s 

\-z ~. V: ~- - 1 ■ m 4. w 3 
S 5 a6$»^ BOOfif 
z — - ~ c — — c — 


• tO* M • _ca 

"oo • "en . ~tc,"~i 
-j • to • o- en 
0* ■ O O 


O 
2. » 
.* 00 


^.-DO»V4-OX' O * -1 C M 

oc 4> os ce 1^ n m ; coyi>(-»w 

: : zz ~i ~ 1 ~ J- ■ & : ri -1 
y. w — e • O w o> v w' 


* • • to 
" " " 

S S' • • woo 


sr I 
« S 


i;i ^ c\ Oj 1 c ~i 01 ;o 

f T/. "i- ti — — ■ QOiCd'wk 
■Z ~. ic 1; - ^ O ■ i; m ; ; 

- 1 -1 2 ^ r _ c ■ wooo — 


CO 00 
-1 ; ti cc • 

"«— • t# SJ « "—1 10 

y ■ u» c ■ 9 
3 ■= - c i ■ 00 




800 

1,350 

1.080 

32,875 
01,300 
30,100 
58,910 

23.665 
3,021 


; ■ 1 z 1 s qp 









Cereals. 

Dradstn et says: The harvesting of wheat in the 
Northern hemi-phereis generally in progress oris near 
at hand. In the United Sutes, south of the paral- 
lel ol the Ohio river, wheal cutting is well advanced. 
The winter wheat acreage, as per Government esti- 
mate, is 1,250,000 acres less than in 1887. It has 
been given at 1,750,000 acres less, but the stttistician 
at Washington has discovered 500,000 acres sown 
with wheat not included in his earlier reports. This 
would, at a fair average, add about 6.000,000 bush- 
els to the crop. There are notably four States 
where the wheat crop will be deficient — Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Illinois and Michigan; and some other winter- 
wheat States will not have a full average crop. It 
will be impossible to determine the aggregate defic- 
iency until a record of the threshing is obtained. 



The heavv June rainfall in California is reported to 
have been beneficial to the plant there. California 
wheat, at one time reported at half a crop or under, 
has now a promise ol doing much better. The final 
output may with good harvesting weather nearly 
equal that of 1887, which was 30,429,000 bushels 
from 2,766,235 acres. The total area sown wiih 
wheat in the United Stales in 1887 was 37,641,783 
acres, including 24,223.201 acres of winter and 13,- 
418,582 acres of spring. The National Department 
of Agriculture estimates the area of the spring wheat 
at about one per cent under that of 1887. Other 
estimates make the acreage 2 to 3 per cent larger in 
1888 than in 1887. There has been a large immi- 
gration into the newer St tt-s and Territories, and 
the probabilities favor the report that there is an in- 
creased area sown to spring wheat. All accounts 
agree as to present condition and promised yield, 
provided there shall be no seriously unfavorable in- 
fluences from this time on until harvesting. The 
crop as a whole, winter and spring, has been vari- 
ously estimated, based on reported condition, from 
350,000,000 to 430,000.000 bushels. More recent 
estimates make the probable output about 408,000,- 
000 bushels. Continued favorable weather will have 
much to do in determining the result. The increase 
in winter wheat area of 500,000 acres adds at once 
6.000.000 bushels, making the probable total yield 
414.ooo.oco bushels. It is not unlikely that im- 
proved threshing may even show better results. The 
reserves of wheat (and flour as wheat) on July 1, 
1888. in the United States, ca'culated on the basis 
of 4 l A bushels per capita consumption per annum, 
t e Government's estimate of the crop last year and 
llradslreet's n-part of reserves held July 1, 1887, 
promise to amount to 52,000,000 or 54,000,000 
bushels. If consumption has been only 4 % bushels 
on the average, it would leave the reserves July 1st 
next at 67,000,000 to 70.000.000 bushels, or about 
the same as one year ago. Exports of wheat and 
Hour for the 12 months ended to-day have been 
about 121,000.000 bushels against about 154.000,000 
bushels in the preceding 12 months. In Europe the 
wheat crop generally will be ten days later than 
usual. The outlook is not favorable in Austria- 
Hungary. In Roumania and Roumelia and Russia 
the prospect is promising; in Germany it is fair, and 
in Belgium good. The outlook lor French wheat 
crop is less favorable than it was a year ago. The 
reports of the rye crop in Austria- Hungary, Germany 
and France are far from favorable. Whrat stocks 
in all the countries of Europe, excepting Russia and 
the United Kingdom, are quite moderate. In the 
Southern hemisphere the wheat crop is made. The 
harvest in Australia was in January and March; in 
India in March and April; in Chili and the Argen- 
tine Republic the harvest was in January, Irom 
which there have been shipped and are now on the 
way to fcAirope seveial million bushels of wheat. 
There have been considerable shipments of wheat 
from the Pacific Coast, Australia and India, via the 
('ape, since May 1st, which cannot arrive in Europe 
lor consumption before September 1st. A late 
European harvest, with moderate reserves of old 
wheat, and unavailable wheat on passage, might 
cause a demand on United States Atlantic ports lor 
new crop rtd winter wheat, and at some improve- 
ment in prices if the demand should be urgent. If 
the United Kingdom should be in want of wheat to 
b.idge over any deficiency during July and August, 
our Atlantic ports c^uld ship 25,000.000 to 30,000,- 
ooo bushels within 60 days. Supplies from Russia 
from the crop of 1887 have been very large, and 
promise lo be quite as much so from the crop of 
1888. Australia in the 12 months of 1888 will have- 
more than her average export surplus, and India, 
Chili and the Argentine Republic will be able to ex- 
port the customary quantities. 

Harvesting is well under way. The returns com- 
ing in are confirmatory of the wheat kernels being 
fuller and plumper in the northern central counties 
than for years. Although there is shriveled, pinched 
grain, yet it is the exception, not the rule. In the 
middle central counties many localities report the 
outturn of wheat much larger than heretofore 
claimed. Although the grain is p'umper than it was 
thought possible lour weeks ago, siill there is a very 
large percentage of poor. This also refers to the 
other counties. On the coast the yield is good. The 
returns that have come to hand, although raising the 
estimated yield, still the aggregate crop will not 
equal last year's, which was about 900,000 tons. 
I he grade this year will be better. Yxom Oregon 
the advices are conflicting and very unsatisfactory, 
so much so that not even a fairly correct idea of the 
outturn can be formed; yet all concur in placing it 
considerably below last ) ear's. 

Owing to the Produce Exchange net opening for 
business until Monday, Hading was at a standstill 
until that day. Under strong-r cables from abroad 
and firmer marktts at the East, this marktt for 
wheat opened higher and fairly active for options, 
but the strength was soon lost under less favorable 
advices from abroad. In the sample market wheat 
was strong, but trading is said to have been light, 
owing chit fly to buyers not showing any anxiety to 
operate. The general feeling app-ars to be con- 
servative, at any rate until the probable outturn of 
the European crop is more fully determined. Al 
present advices indicate a much poorer yield than in 
1877, which, with light reserves of old, would favor- 
ably affect the market. 

Canada exported, from Sept. 1 to July 1, to Great 
Britain, 353,317 bbls of flour and 2,679520 bu. of 
wheat, and to the Continent 1000 bbls of flour and 
186,532 bu. of wheat. Total, 354,317 bbls flour and 
2,866,052 bu. wheat. Reducing the flour to wheat 
it gives 3,829,003 bu. wheat, equal to 127,634 tons. 
From July I to Sept. 1, of this year, the expoits will 
be quite light. 1 he surplus wheat of Canada would 
be consumed in the United States in less than 9 days. 

The outturn of barley in this State, although much 
larger than estimated the forepart of I une, still ihe 
crop will not aggregate last year s, which was the 
largest on record. The grade this year averages 
b tier. The consumption continues very large, con- 
siderably more than at this time in 1887. Although 
the carryover is about 70,000 more than the carry- 
over July 1, 1887, yet the shortage, compared with 
last year, of the crop for 1888 is fully 93.000 tons, 
and may reach to over 100,000 tons. Trading the 
past week, or at least since Monday, has been light 
lor both options and sample parcels. While trading 
was light the tone was strong. Prices have reced.d 
to such low figures that it seems that it L only a 
question of a short time before values must go up, 
at any rate, as soon as the farmers are through haul- 
ing. 

In oats the market has ruled quiet but steady, 



with a firmer closing. It now looks as if the crop 
of the entire coast will be larger than heretofore 

claimed. 

New 1 ye continues to come in, with the receipts 
gradually increasing in volume. Prices are easy. 

Corn is without essential change. Although the 
market in the central States is higher, still this mar- 
k< t is t asy. This feeling is due to Iree supplies for 
the season and the favorable outlook lor the Califor- 
nian crop. 

Feedstuff. 

In ground feed the market was fairly steady 
throughout the week. The consumptive demand 
is large and steadily increasing. 

The market for hay is very sensitive. Free re- 
ceipts cause prices to recede and a falling off in le- 
ceipts sends prices up. This go*s to show that deal- 
ers do not anticipate their wants but buy in a small 
way, as their object is t ) t-y and get prices low. The 
feeling among them is that before the rainy season, 
farmers will crowd the market 10 save storing, when 
values will fall. The market now is strong under 
light -inks and light rece pts. 

Vegetables. 

String beans and peas are htrd to sell. Green 
corn is in over-supply, with large quintities more or 
less wormy. Tomatoes have fluctuated to some ex- 
tent. Rhubarb is out of season and hard to sell. All 
other garden truck is without essential change. 

Potatoes under only a fair demand and Iree re- 
ceipts ruled in buyers' favor throughout the week. 
The quality is good; b tur than last yea r . 

Mure matured choice silver-skin onions are in re- 
quest, but any a ppreciah e advance in the asking 
price causes buyers to withdraw. Red onions are 
easy. 

Fruits. 

The market for all kinds of fruits has averaged 
better prices than last year, and the outlook lavors 
good prices the remainder of the season. 

Apricots are about gone. The late crop did not 
turn out as large as was expected consequently sev- 
eral canners who oversold the canned fruit had to 
pay high prices the past week. Prices opened at 
2 ^c@3c and steadily advanced to 3^c@3Kcat 
the close. Bartlett pears are firmer and tending up, 
owing to the small crop abroad, a lessened crop at 
the Eist, and reports of the fruit dropping off the 
trees in several localities in this Slate. Prices paid 
for the raw now average 1 He, although sales were 
made the past week as low as 1 'Ac f. o. b. cars for 
the orchard. In peaches, the feeling is strong for 
the cling varielie;, but a little < fiiih for freestone. 
The price depends vtry mat-'mlly on the locality 
where cult vated. Firm, rich-tl ivored peaches are 
wanted, and w ill fetch good pne-s. A sileof an or- 
chard was made the past week of selected size, at 
ij^c f. o. b. for both Iree and cling, the first being 
in large quantity. Canners, as a lue, having con- 
tracted for from one-half to thtee-quarters of their 
expected wants appear disposed to buy the remain- 
der in open markt t. In plums, the markt t is quiet, 
canners having bought heavily in last month lor fu- 
ture delivery at the prices then given. 

Apples are doing better, pait cularly the Red As- 
trachan, which fetch from $1.40(04$ 1.60 per box for 
table use. Choice apples are wanted, but poor are 
slow. In peaches and other fruits for t ible use, 
prices have ruled low. Canners clean up the market 
on strawberries at $3. 75(o<$3. 25 per chest Black- 
berries have ruled fairly steady the past week, al- 
though there was a glut for one or two days which 
brought in canners, who cleaned up the maiket. 

There is quite a movement in sun bleached apri- 
cots. Heavy sales have been nude from first hands 
at iiJti(o(i3C per lb., according to quality. The buy- 
ing is both speculative and for shipm -nl 10 the East. 
The East is gradually raising its bids; the last re- 
ceived, so far as the writer can learn, was 14MC per 
lb. delivered Eist, but it is said that a shade higher 
bid has been made. 

The market is entirely b re of lx>ndon layer 
raisins. 

Llve-Stocfe. 

The market is quiet and weak for poor stock, but 
firm for choice, well conditioned. The heavy offer- 
ings of inferior cause a weak- r feeling in the more 
choice. The anxiety to market now ought to be 
followed by better prices later on. The above ap- 
plies to bu locks and sheep alike. In hogs the nrnr- 
ket is strong for the more choice g-a n fed. There 
can be no doubt but the supply of all kinds of hogs 
is light when compared with former seasons. In 
horses there is a slighily belt r inquiry for matched 
teams, single-footers and general utility animals ; 
but former prices still hold good. 

The market for dressed meat is quotable as follows 
by slaughterers to bu'ehers ( oget the price of stock 
on foot, take off one-thiid of the price for sull and 
grain fed and one-half from the pi ice of gia' s fed, 
that is, animals running at large.) 

HOGS — On for.t, grain fed, b'AcGH— if lb.; 
dressed. g%@ioc t? lb. ; soft. 5^(gi6c $ It). ; dressed, 
8K@9&c It). Stock hogs, 4<o)5Kc lb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 8c@— fc* lb.; grass fed, extra, 
7fgi75tiC |ff !b. ; first quality. 6|4(g|6Xc If* tt>.; second 
quality 6<gj— $ lb. ; third quality, 5®— f tb. 

VEAL— Choice E@9c tt> ; fair to good, 6@7C. 

MUTTON— Wethers. 6(u.6«d tj» It).; ewes, 5^® 
6c I? lb.; lamb, spring, 8@9C |ff It>. 

Miscellaneous. 

Poultry, under free receipts from the Missouri 
river, has ruled weaker. 

In seeds there is nothing doing. 

Wool continues unchanged, although the improved 
feeling heretofore noted for choice, clean, lively, fine 
to mtdium clips still prevails. Poor wools are hard 
to s ll, even at marked concessions in prices. 

Suga- continues 10 advance. Poor crop prospects 
for sugar in Germany and France cause the higher 
market 

Honey is firm at full figures— 132 packi£e s of 
this season's having been snipped to England, and 
320 packages will go forward to Germany by a ves- 
sel loading here for that country. 



Domestic Produce. 



Extra choice in good packages fetch au adranoe on top 
quotations, while very poor grades st 11 le*» thou tbe lower 
quotations. Wednesday. July 11, 1888. 



BEANS AND PEAS. 

Bayo, ctl 2 00 g 2 15 

Butter — 8* — 

Pea 3 40 C« 3 65 

Red 1 75 ff 2 00 



Extracted, light II 

do dark 4 iq 4| 

HOPS 

Oregon 6 (* 15 

California 6 f!S 15 



July 14. 1888.] 



f> ACIFI6 t^URAb p>RESS 



37 



Pink 2 00 <a 2 25 

L»rge White — (3 — 

Small White.... 3 00 @ 3 60 

Lima 3 00 (a 3 60 

Fid Peas.blkeye 2 00 @ 2 20 

do green 3 00 fir 4 CO 

do Niles 1 90 <§ — 

BROOM CORN. 
Houth'n tjp..60 00 l/r80 00 

Northe.n 60 00 <*80 10 

CHICORY. 

California — <g — 

German 6 *t 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Com. to fair,tt> 20 @ 24 

do good to choice 25 (a> 26A 

do Fancy br'nds 27) @ £8J 

do pickied 27J@ 28J 

Eastern 14 @ 20 

CHEESE. 

Oalifotnia. It)... 10 @ 12 
Eastern style... 11 @ 13 

Cal. ranch, doz. 25 @ 26 

do. store 20 «» 22 

Eastern 16 <S! 1« 

FEED 

Bran, ton 15 00 @17 00 

Feedmeal 29 00 (330 00 

Gi'd Barley 17 50 @19 00 

Middlings 17 50 (»19 00 

Oil Cake Meal. .28 00 @29 00 
HAY. 

Wheat, per ton. 12 00 ("16 00 
Whe*t and Oats 1? 00 («15 00 

Wild Oats 11 00 <ai3 50 

Clover 12 00 <«14 00 

Tame Oats ....11 00 (o)12 50 

Barley 8 00 @11 50 

Barley and Oats 10 00 @12 00 
Alfalfa, liit cut'g 8 00 (»I0 00 

Straw bale 40 @ 55 

FLOUR 
Eitra, CityMills 4 00 (m 4 25 
do Co try Mills 3 75 @ 4 00 

Superfine 3 25 (C 3 50 

GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl. 72JW S2J 
do Brewing... 92j@ 1 10 

Chevalier 1 10 @ 1 20 

do Coast 90 «J> 1 05 

Buckwheat 1 50 O 1 70 

C"rn, White.... 1 40 @ 1 50 

Yellow 1 25 O 1 32J 

Oats, milling.... 1 40 ur 1 50 

Choice feed 1 30 @ 1 35 

do good. 1 27'(t 1 30 

do fair 1 22J(<ie 1 25 

do Gray 1 20 (d 1 30 

Rye 1 50 @ 1 60 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... 1 42}(* — 

do Choice 1 38,'"' 1 40 

do fair to good 1 35 @ 1 37i 
Shipping, cho'ce 1 33JCS — 

do good 1 31} « 1 32J 

do fair 1 30 @ — 

HIDES. 

Dry 11 @ 11J 

Wet salted 5 @ 6 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 19 @ 21 

Honey in comb. 11 @ 13 
do fancy 14 @ 15 



ONIONS. 

Red 40 @ 

Silver-skin 70 ® 

NUTS Jobbinij. 
Walnuts, Cal. lb 7 (rt> 

do Chile 6i(os 

Almonds, hd shl. 5 (a> 

Soft shell 11 qh 

Paper shell... 14 (a 

Brazil 9 <& 

Pocans 10 @ 

Peanuts 4 AX 

Fillieits 10 <a 

Hickory 5 <a 8 

POTATOES. 

Early Rose 35 @ 65 

Chile 30 @ HO 

Peerless 40 @ 55 

POULTRY AND GAMf. 

Hens, doz 7 00 @ 9 00 

Roosters 5 50 O 9 CO 

'Br< ilers 2 00 4 50 

Ducks, tame.... 4 00 <* 6 00 

Geese, pair 1 25 @ 1 60 

do Goslings. . . 1 75 @ — 

Turkeys, It) 16 <•» 22 

Rabbits, doz.... 1 25 1 50 

Hare 1 00 @ 1 75 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, 

Heavy, lb 11 @ 12J 

Medium 12 @ — 

Light 12;<a — 

Exira Light.. 13 (tf> — 

Lard 9i@ 11 

Cal. Sm'k'd Beef llj<» 12J 

Hams, Cal 12i<a 14 

do Eastern... 14 (« 15 
SEEDS 



8J5* 

34@ 
11 (<t 



Alfalf* 
Canary 
Clover, Red 

White 20 @> 

Cotton 20 @ 

Flaxseed 

Hemp 

ItalianRyeGrass 

Perennial 

Millet, German. 

do Commou . . 
Mustard, white, 
do Brown .... 

Rape 

Ky. Blue Grass. 

2d fjuality . . . 
Sweet V. Grass 



2 m 

4 @ 

10 & 

7 @ 

5 @ 
5 @ 
ll<& 
2 W 
1S@ 

15 (n 
13 @ 
7i @ 



Orchard 17 @ 



'.) m 

8 <g> 
30 ® 
8 (rt 
7 @ 



Red Top 
Hungarian 

Lawn 

Mescjuit. ... 
Timothy... 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tb 3 (a 

Rtfined 6 (<i 

WOOL. ETC. 

K1MIINO-18S8. 

Humboldt aud 

Mendocino 

Sac'to valley. . . . 
Free Mountain. 
3 Joaquin valley 
do m >untai'). 
Cala'v & F'th'll. 
Oregon Eastern, 
do valley 



15 (ffl 

am 

15 

9 (ie 
10 <a> 

12 <jt 

- @ 

- @ 



Fruits and Vegetables. 



Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grail s Bell less than the lower 
quotations. Wednesday, July 11, 1888. 

Apples, bx, com 30 @ 75 | do evaporat-d 5 (66 7 

do Choice 1 00 •» 1 50 Plums, evapo'ed 10 «* 11 

Apricots.br.... — (3 — I do unpi ted. . 4 <® 5 

do Royals lb. 3 «r> 4 Prunes 5J(» 9 

Bananas, bunch 2 00 (<* 4 00 do French 8 (n» 11 

Blacklwrries, ch 2 50 @ 3 50 RAISINS. 



Cherries, wh. bx 50 («> 75 I Dehesa Clus, fey 
do black, bx.. 40 @ 75 Imperial Cabiu- 

do Royal Ann 50 @ 85 I et, fancy 

Crauberries 10 00 (?12 00 Crown London 

Currants ch 1 50 @ 2 50 Layers, fey.. 

Gooseberries lb. U(o5 7 ! do Loose Mus- 

Limes, Mex 2 50 («j 4 00 I catels, fancy 

Lemons.Cal. bx 2 00 ("if 3 ('0 I do Loosj Mus- 
do Sic ly, box, 4 50 @ 6 00 | catels. 



— @ 



@ 



Oranges.Combx 3 00 vr 4 10 Cal. Valencias.. 1 60 <a 1 80 

do Choice — (« — I do Lay. rs 1 60 (9 1 60 

d o N a v e 1 s do Sultanas... 1 60 «f 1 75 

choice 3 50 @ 5 00 |Dried, sacks, lb. 5 @ 6 

do do Com... 2 00 @ 3 00 i Outside b auds of raiuus 

Peaches.br 40 @ 75 sell at from 25 cts to 50 ctsle.s 

Crawford, bx ... fO @ 1 00 |than above quotations. 

Vineapples. doz. 2 50 @ 4 50 1 Fractions come 25, 50 and 75 

Raspberries ch . . 4 f @ 6 00 cents higher for halves, quar- 

Strawberrits ch. 3 00 @ 5 00 it^rs and eighths. 

'g S 'H \ " VEGETABLES . 

Plums, 9'X.... 50 VP 1 00 Asparagus bx . . . 75 (* 1 25 

Fi-s, black, bx.. 15 w 40 i do e xt'a choice 2 00 <w 3 50 

do white, bx. 10 W re Okra.dry,B> ... 15 C<» 25 

(.rapes, bx. ... 40 @ 99 do Green te 1 00 (8 1 25 

Nectarines, bx.. 75 ffl 1 25 Parsr jps ctl 2 00 2 50 



Wa'rmelns, 10U.10 00 <«15 00 , V ppeVdry, 'lb 
Canteloupes, cr. 1 50 @ 2 50 j Q g reelJ) b x 
DRIED FRUIT, 



Apples, sliced. 

do evaporated 

do quartered. 
Apricots 

do bleached . . 

do evaporated 
Blackberries. 



6 @ 
9 @ 

10 ® 

7 @ 

11 @ 
13 @ 



25 @ 

Squash, Sum- 
mer, bx 15 @ 40 

String beans, tb. 1 C» 2} 

Turnips, ctl 1 (0 @ 1 25 

, sk 1 25 @ - 



Citron 18 @ 



Dates ■ 
Figs, pressed. . . 

Figs, loose 

Nectarines 

do evaporated 
Peaches 

do evaporated 
Pears, sliced 

do qrtd 



9 @ 

5 <<* 
3 @ 
8 @ 

12 @ 

6 m 
If @ 

3 <a 
3 @ 



124 Cabbage, 100 lbs 

15 ,CarrotP, sk 

15 jGreen Corn, sk. 
25 do Sweet sk. 
l0 I Green Peas, sk.. 

6 Sweet Pear, sk.. 
4 Mushrooms, lb. . 

10 Rbuba b bx.... 
— 'Cucumbers, bx. 
9 I do pickling. . . 
17 Garlic, lb 

7 Tomatoes, rv., bx 
7 I do Vacaville, bx 



75 @ 1 00 

30 @ 50 

25 @ 50 

75 tf$ 1 25 

75 @ 1 00 
75 @ 1 25 

5 @ 25 

25 (ob 1 00 

50 @ 1 00 

i@ 1 

75 i" 1 111 

35 @ 50 



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_ I contains nothing harmful, and 
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from people who were cured 
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It is a Scientific Spe- 
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portant disease. Fight shy 
of any preparation which 
claims infallibility. 

The testimonials printed 
by H. H. Warner & Co. are, 
so far as they know, posi- 
tively genuine. For the 
past five years they have had 
a standing offer of $5,000 for 
proof to the contrary. If 
you are sick and want to 

get well, use 



Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A postal 
card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will not know- 
ingly send the paper to anyone who does not wish it, but 
if it is continued, through the failure of the subscriber to 
notify us to discontinue it, or some irresponsible party re- 
quested to stop it, we shall positively demand payment for 
the time it is sent. Look carefully at the label on 

YOUR PAPER. 

$500,000 

On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdorff St., 
Room 3. ** 



THE! EUREKIA 

Improved Wind Mill! 

For 1888! 

Is co ufidently offered to all who wish to make the winds pump their 

WATER FOR IRRIGATION OR OTHER USES. 




Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vineyai 
Field, Garden, Conservatory, etc., 

WITH 

Remedies for their Extermination. 

By MATTHEW COOKE. 
Late Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of California. 
Illustrated with over 750wood cuts and 25 pages of classif 
tied illustrations. This hook is designed for the use o- 
orchardibts, vineyardists, farmers and others interested 
in the subjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
cal information concerning some of the species of in- 
sects injurious to the industries of cultivators of th» 
soil, and those interested in earth produce generaii v. 
Price $4, postpaid. For sale by Dkwey & Co., pubhblt- 
ers, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 



Three years have 
fully tested its merits. 
It is simple, stroDg, di- 
rect action, will FACE 
the wind, sell-protect- 
ing. 

CAN BE CONTROLLED BY A BOY OR A WOMAN. 

NEEDS OILIt> G ONLY OCCASIONALLY. 

We also Manufacture the EUREKA, JR., which 
for Price and Power is the Cheapest and 
Best Wind Mill now made- 

£2T PAMPHLET ON APPLICATION. 

E. B. SAUNDERS, 

No. 06 Montgomery Street. SAN JOSE, CAL. 



J. W. FLEMING, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

Agricultural Implements, 

FARM WAGONS, 

Buggies, Mowers, EStc. 

509, 511, 513 & 515 Fifth St., OAKLAND, CAL. 



SANTA YNEZ, 

Santa Barbara County, Oaliiornla. 
THE SANTA YNEZ LAND AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

Is now offering for sale at low prices and upon very moderate terms the choicest of 



IMf J f j uuuriiig lur suit; »i* iuw pricey anu upon very moaeraie terms tne onotcest of 

Warner S «>afe Cure Agricultural and Horticultural Lands 



Easy Binder. 



Dewey's patent elastic binder, for periodicals, music 
and other printed sheets, is the handiest, best and cheap- 
est of all economical and practical file binders. News- 
papers are quickly placed in it and held neatly, as in a 
cloth-bound book. It is durable and so simple a child can 
use it. Price, size of Mining and Scientific Press, Rural 
Press, Watchman, Fraternal Record, Masonic Record, 
Harper's Weekly, and Scientific American, 76 cents; post- 
age, 10 cents. Postpaid to subscribers of this paper, 60 
cents. Send for illustrated circular. Agents wanted. 



The Oregon Railway and Navigation Com- 
pany has announced that it will put tugs on the 
Columbia bar and river, and that the schedule 
of rates from the sea to Portland and out to 
sea again will be materially reduced. 



Of the famous College Grant, in the aforementioned beautiful valley. The CLIMATE is perfect, SOIL rich and 
diversified, TOPOGRAPHY unusually varied and beautiful, a park -like growth of Oaks covering the entire valley 
WATER SUPPLY more than sufficient for irrigation of all irrigable lands, and no alkali either in water or soil 

TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES superior now, and two trunk lines certain to pass through the valley 
within a year. 

43,000 ACRES OF THESE CHOICE LANDS 

Are for sale at from $25 to $160 per acre; terms of payment being one-third cash, one-third in two, balance in three 
years; six per cent Interest on deferred payments. 

To reach the Santa Ynez valley take any transportation line to San Luis Obispo, thence by Pacifio Coast Rail- 
way to Santa Ynez or to Santa Barbara, thence by stage to Santa Ynez. Persons seeking lovely homes or lands for 
Ionic or quickly paying investments, cannot do better than purchase here. For further information refer to 

E. W. STEELE, Manager, Santa Ynez, Cal. 

E. de la CUESTA, Agent, Santa Ynez. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents, 325 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
SIDNEY LACE Y, Agent, Los Angeles. 

COOPER & DREYFUS, Agents, Santa Barbara. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents San Diego. 



THE ROSENTHAL COLONY I N TEH AMA COUNTY, CAL. 

9000 Acres of Level Fruit or Grain Land on the California & Oregon Railroad. 



Location.— This land is about seven miles south of Red Bluff, the county seat. The mountains are forty 
miles to the north, the Sierra Nevadas thirty to the cast, and the Coast Range the same distance on the west. 
Mount Shasta is in plain view, ninety miles north, and Lassen Peaks sixty miles east. 

Topography.— This section of the country is a hi^ r h table land, the general appearance being that of a vast 
amphitheater, rising gradually on the east, north and west to the crest of the mountains. The great valley, sixty 
miles in width, opens to the south, and extends 150 miles to the Bay of San Francisco. The colony tract is level, 
or gently sloping. The general descent is towards the river, but there are two creeks running through it from 
west to east, toward which from either side the land declines very graduUly. There are narrow bottom lands on 
the creeks. 

Soil and Production*.— The soil is a deep, sandy loam, red in places, suitable for general farming, grow- 
ing fruit or grain or for stock raising. 

Climate and Rainfall.— The climate n semi-tropical. The mean annual temperature is 63 degrees. There 
is no ice or snow in the valley. Flowers bloom the year round. No sunstrokes, cyclones, hail, or thunder stoims. 
The average rainfall is 28 inches. 



Markets. -A beautiful location has been chosen and laid out for a town site, anil named Proberta. A large 
warehouse, a hotel, store and several dnellinrs arc already built. Red Bluff, the county seat, seven miles north, 
is an important manufactur'ng and agricultural city, of 4000 inhabitants. The California and Oregon Railroad, 
which passes throu<h the land, has connection with Portland, San Francisco, the Northwestern Territories and the 
Northern States and Canada. In that northwestern country California fruits cannot be raised. 
It therefore affords a large and growing market, to which Tehama County Is two days 
nearer than sau Francisco. 

Other Points.— Wells of good water are obtained at a depth of six to thirty feet. There are two school- 
hou'es on the tract. The surrounding country is settled with a dc?irable class of people, many of whom have 
well cultivated farms. The land is divided into Lots of from 20 to 1GO acres each. Broad 
Avenues have been laid out across the tract, cast and west, north and south. Two County Roads run 
through the land from Red Bluff southward. 

Prices and Terms.— The prices range from $20 to $50 an acre. The terms are one-third cash, one- 
third in two years, and one-third in three years, with interest at S per cent per annum on deferred payments- 
Payment ij omitted the first yca». For full particulars, prices, etc., apply to 



C. H. STREET 

Successors to "Immigration Association of California," 



& CO., 

415 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 



38 



fAClFie RURAb fRESS. 



[Jdly 14, 1888 



H. P. GREGORY & CO, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

WEBBER'S CELEBRATED 




IRRIGATING 



Wk also carry is stocr tiii Larorrt Li hi or 

MACHINERY 

In the UNITED STATES, 

Consiitine of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 

description. 

ENGINES AND BOILERS 



A SPECIALTY. 




THE NEW HUBER 

Has Patent Return Flue Boiler; Wrought 
Iron and Steel Wheels, with Springs in the 
Hub; 14-inch Steel Tire; cushioned Gear, 
and all latest Improvements. 

lyriirenherH, all sizes. "Latest Improvements.' 
■ These Engines are adapted for all kind of work; draw 
Harvesters, Plows, etc. Call and see Kigine in opera- 
tion and get prices, etc., or send for prices and catalogue. 
D. J. LYNCH, California Agent, 

Kel8eyvllle, Lane Co.. Cal. 



BETTER I BETTER 

Is the motto of those that put together our 

NEW MUSIC BOOKS. 

I'LBABK Rntun 

Songs for Kindergarten and Prim- 

• PU Qrhnnlc (30 c's ) bv Gertrude Menard 
ml J OWIUUIO, and Belle Menard, who give us 
60 delightful little songs for the children. 
Cnnn Manual Bo " k "■ b > L.O.Emerson (40 
OUIiy mallUai, ct!i > A truly progressive course 
of exercises and songs. 341 in number, in all the 
key, and with explanations; 110 are regular school 
s -ngs. A valuable musical text book. 

College Songs for Banjo, $> t n J2R 

sonars, all famous ones, with banjo accompaniments, 
making a most attractive book. 

Classic Tenor Songs, <?> 3 4M 

by 29 distinguished couiposerB, giving a gre»t va- 
riety. Such names as: Pinsuti, Abt, He'mund, 
G egg, Jensen, Godard and Nicolai. amomg' the 
authors, iac icatc ^ood and attractive music. This 
book adds one tu our "classic" series which now 
includes 

SONG CLASSICS FOR Low Voicrs, Bass and Alto. 
PIANO CLASSICS, 

CLASSICAL PIANIST, 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S CLASSICS. 
(Price of each, 81.) 
W Maile'l for retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. IMT80N & CO., • • 867 Broadway, New York. 



W. H. TiLToa. Ja.vks Carroll 

CARROLL & TILTON, 

— DIALIRS IM — 

Gentlemen's and Boys' 

CLOTHING! 



FURNISHING tiOr>I>s, HATS, CAPS, TRUNKS, 
VALISES, ETC 
873 MARKET STREET, opp. Powell, S. F. 
Visitors welcome. Information by mail. 



B. F. GILMAN, 



420 and 422 Ninth St., 



San Francisco 



80LK MAX! KAI'TrKKK or 



Patent Tule Covers 

For Bottles and Other Fragile Ware. 
Patented Nov 17, 1S74, and April 25, 1S76 
THE BEST AND SAFEST PACKING 

Can be had of all Box Makers. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 



PATENT OWNERS OF 



JUDSON POWDER. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root olear 
ont of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE oar Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson, 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 

NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Exnlosi.es in the World. 



GATHER SAMPLES OF GRAIN! 

DURING HARVEST 

AND OTHERWISE 

PREPARE COUNTY EXHIBITS 

FOR THE 



SACRAMENTO, Sept. 3d to 15th. 

$2500 CASH PREMIUMS FOR COUNTY EXHIBITS, 

IN ADDITION TO WHICH IS 

$1500 FOR INDIVIDUAL PREMIUMS 

That may he coinpetrd for by the contributors to the County Collections. These exhibits are seen during the Fair 
bv moie than 61,000 different people, and are fully described by the press of the Stite, and written up in detail hy 
the Committee of Awards, which report is printed in the Annual Report of the State A.-r cultural Society and dis- 
tributed throughout the civilized world. In no other m inner c in the counties receive such a full, complete and 
comprehensive notice. The County Exhibits have proved the most effective means of advertising the resources, 
developments and advantages of the different localities of the State, and should be made hy authority and with 
the aid of the Board . f Supervisors of ea:h County. The State Agricultural Society will afford every facility for 
the exhibition of the products of the State, and would advise those Intending to exhibit to WRITE FOR SPACE 
AT ONCE. The tirst come will be the first served. Premium Lists now readv. Ad Iress the Secretory for informa- 
tion. EDWIN F. SMITH. Secretary. L. U. SHII'PKE, President. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

SHIPPING I COMMISSION HOUSE 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FEANCISC0, CAL. 

Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



INSURE YOUR GROWING GRAIN 



CROPS 



IN THE FIREMAN'S FUND OF CALIFORNIA. 



Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 




For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

tVEndorsed by the Orange and Farmers wherever used.^f 
The Cheapest and HeHt. 
Put up in 1-pound, 6-pound, and 5-gallon Tina. 
I v , ■ r v Can Warranted. 
This Poison has been on the market less than two years, yet in 
this short time it has gained a reputation of "Sure Death,' 
equaled by none. By its merits alone, with very little advertis- 
ing, it is now used extensively all over the Pacific Coast, as well 
a a in Australia and New Zealand. 

8END FOR TESTIMONIALS. 



MANUPACTITRRD BY 



Patented Jan. 23d. 1881. 

Oale hv all Wholesale and Retail Dealers 



BOOTH & LATIMER, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

Special Terms on Quantities in Bulk. 



GRANGERS' CO-OPERATIVE BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SACnAMENTO, CA.Ij, 

H x* d ~w x- o and Groceries 

AS CHEAP AS THE CHEAPEST. 

Agents for Studebaker Wagons, Carriages and Buggies, Oliver Plows, 
and Cassldy Sulky and Gang Plows. 

Country Orders Solicited. T. A. LAUDER, Manager. 




Commission fflerchapts. 



DALTON BROS.. 

Commission Merchants 



- AS [> DRALKKS IK 



DEWEY & CO., | s i«ev w^iVf™ lt T ' } PATENT AGENTS. 



CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisc 

[P. O. Box 1936.1 
AVConsignments Solicited. 

ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 

BUOCK880RI TO 

LITTLEF1ELD, ALLISON & CO., 

501, 503, 505. 50?" and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Prodnce and 
WooL 

MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 



General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St, S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

0f Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad 
vances made on Consignments at low rates ol interest. 

[ESTABLISH!!) 1864. J 

GEORGE MORROW 4 CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

39 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
Bar Frabciboo, Cal. 
OT SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY fa 



C. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail 1) alers in 

POULTRY, GAME AND EGGS, 

05, 66, 07, California Market, S. F. 



WITZEL & BAKER, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Wholesale Dealers in 
Provisions. Butter, Cheese, Kg<s. Honey, Eto. (Butter 
and Cheese a Specialty.) DO & 322 Battery St., S. F 

WETMORE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 



EVELETH & NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultrv, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 22S 
225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



P. STEIN HAGEN & OO. f 
Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

BRICK (TOBIS: 

408 & 410 Davis St., San Francisco 

WITTLAND & FREDRICKSON, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 
oonsiokmuts BOLicTTiD. 824 Davie St.. S. F 



A FRUIT DRIER 

Complete, which makes 20 pounds of Dried Fruit of 
superior quality in twehe hours, and at very little coat, 
for 

FIVE DOLLARS. 

Tli. perfection of simplicity. Rights to manufacture 
larger capacities soM at reasonable price 

LEONARD COATES. 
Proprietor Napa Valley Nurseries. 

NAPA CITY, CAL. 



WINCHESTER HOUSE, 



44 Third Street. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



This Fire-proof Brick Building Is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palaoe Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 

HOT AND COLD BATHS FREE. 

Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 
ROOMS WITH OR WITHOUT BOARD. 

FREE COACH TO THE HOU8E. 
J. POOLEY. 



July 14. 1888.] 



PACIFIC F^URAb PRESS. 



39 



?eeds, Wants, ttc. 




Cox§ 

^ NEW 

CATALOGUE 

o Of 



FOR 1888. 



Jt9*0ur New Catalogue for 1888, mailed free on appli- 
cation, contains description and price of Vegetable, 
Flower, Grass, Clover, Tree and Field Seeds; Australian 
Tree and Shrub Seeds; native California Tree and Flower 
Seeds, Fruit Trees, and many new novelties introduced 
in Europe and the United States. 

THOS. A. COX & CO., 

411, 413, 415 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Napa Valley Nurseries. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

RELIABLE. PROGRESSIVE. 
LEONARD COATES, Napa City, Cal. 

SAMUEL BRECK, 

Commission Merchant 

HEAL K K IN 

FARM SEEDS, BIRD SEED, 
FERTILIZERS, 

Cracked Bone Si Shells for the Poultry Yard 

FARM AND MILL PRODUCTS, 
212 Clay Street, San Francisco, «~al. 




LAM BORN ROAD MACHINE 

U °BBAFT 4k MADE OF IRON 
STRONG, SIMPLE, 
DURABLE. 




TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO. - CALIFORNIA. 





Manufacturers' f all kinds 
of Perforated Met'il, Lip 
and Lip Hook Screen-, 
round and alsKed. or any 
other kind dflslred for e'ean- 
ing and Reparation gtain. 

Farmers will please take _ 

notice that the metal screens do not clog or choke up'as do 
the old wire screens her*tofoie in u e. Also manufac urers 
of Quartz 8creens I formation by mail California 
Perforatlnc Srrfen Co., 145 & 117 Beale St.. S. F. 




OThe BUYERS' GUIDE ia 
issued March and Sept., 
each year. It is an ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pur- 
chase the luxuries or the 
necessities of life. We 
can clothe you and furnish you with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, walk, dance, sleep, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
styles and quantities. Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIDE, which will be sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 

MONTGOMERY WARD & CO. 

111-114 Miehio-nn A.w>nue, Chicago, TIL. 

LICHTNINC WELL-SINKINc 
MACHINERY. 

Our ENCYCLOPEDIA con'ains 7nfl 
Engraving*, detcrihing all Die tools anil 
machinery used in the art ol Wcll-Mnk- 
iing, Prospecting Machinery, Diamond 
Pointed Rock In...- and all 
of Artesian Pumping 
Appliances. Encyclopedia 
" it, 25 cts. for mailing. 

The American 
i Well Works, 

B33 AURORA, ILLS., 
V. S. A. 




H. M. NEWHALL & CO., 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents In all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific Purchase goods and sell California products in those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO., of London; BOYLSTON INSURANCE CO., of Boston, Mass. 

STOCKTON NURSERY, 

Established 1853. 

ADRIATIC and SAN PEDRO FIGS. 

French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Rooted Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the season of 1887-88 free to all sending for them. All Trees, VineB, 
etc., guaranteed free from scale and other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 

B. O. CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST), 

Stockton, Cal. 



25 to 50 per cent Saved by Using 
"THE FAVORITE" SULPHUR BELLOWS, 

The greatest invention of the age for 

SULPHURING VINES OR TREES 

Patented Jan. 26, 1886 PRICES No. 6, 
82.50; No. 8, $3.00; No. 10, $3 50. Sent on 
receipt of Postal Order or Check, or by 
Express C. O. D. All kinds of Bel- 
lows made to order. 

California Bellows Manufacturing Comp y 

123 BEALE ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




PARSONS' 

An Established Success. 
CAPACITY 

Greatly Increased. 

Prices from $85 to $1000. 



Send (or New I lust rated Circular 

and Testimonials. 



FRUIT EVAPORATOR. 

n Scientific Principles. 




Produces the Best Results 
at the Least Expense. 

L. W. PARSONS, 

1 At San Jose Agricultural Works, 
SAN JOSE, CAL. 



CALCUTTA GRAIN BAGS 

In Lots to Suit AT LOWEST MARKET RATES. 

Quotations furnished on application. 

GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 



No. 108 Davis Street, 



San Francisco, Cal. 



HAMMOND'S MUSIC STORE, 

2525 MISSION ST., SAN FRANCISCO 

Dealers in Pianos and Organs, Musical Merchandise, 

Roller Organs, 

The musical marvels. Prices, 37, 812, $15. They rer'orm a 
choice seltction of o er 200 tunes by rollers similar to that 
of a music box. No paper used to produce this music, new 
tunes being constantly added. 

They play the latest music in tones so full and sweet, 
For the rollers are all perfect and t^e parts are complete. 
For church or social meeting, for concert and for dances, 
Operettas, waltzes, jigs, hornpipes, gay life quadrille lancers. 

For dances and where musicians would have to be engaged, 
they will save their cost in one night. Circulars free on 
application. 





S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

■Frwe ooMh to and from th» Hon pp. J. W. BECKER. Proprietor. 



PI DRiriA Agricultural Weekly, 20 pages. Estab- 

r Luniun llBhci] 1869- gardening, farming, 

FRUIT-GROWING, HOME-MAKING. Full 
information about the State. S2.00 a iear, 3 months, 
50ccnts. SPECIMENS FREE. THE FLORIDA 
DISPATCH, Jacksonville, Fla. 



STORAGE 



We have some extra room 
suitable for storage pur- 
poses, which we will let on 
very reasonable terms. 
DEWEY & CO., 220 Marktt Bt.cct, S.ui Francisco, Cal. 




THE HURRICANE— Size A. 

A mounted, horizontal double-ender. Size of bale, 
when in the press, 17x22< 40 inches. Average weight of 
hale, 220 pounds. Capacity, from 16 to 25 tons per day. 
Uses 4 men and works with 2 horses. Requires no 
Tramping. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 
Price $1000. 

THE HURRICANE— Size B. 

Size of hale in press, 22x24v46 inches. Average 
weight of hale, 280 pounds. Capacity, from 20 to 3ft 
Ions per day. Uses 5 men and works With 1 or 2 horse9, 
at, option of haler Rkqihrfs no Tramping. U-es rope 
or wire. Puts from 7 to s t ns in box in a box car. 

Price $1000. 

MONARCH CAR PRESS 

T 10 TONS COX CAR $600 

MONARCH JR .ORDINARY 6 At IS SSOu 

SfrwtA ^ ISTHEBESrsMAlt. 
^ BALE CAR PRESS INTHQ 
3 RID. 




The SEl F-TRAMPING JUNIOR MONARCH 

Size of bale in press, 22x24x46 inches. Avtrage 
weight of I ales. 260 pounds. Capacity, from 15 to 25 
tons per day. Uses 3 or 4 men, at option of baler. 
Works with 1 or 2 horses. Uses rope or wire. Does its 
own Tkamping. Puts from 7 to 8 tons in a box car. 
Price $500. 

THE MONARCH. 

Same principle as Junior Monarch, onlv Rmaller and 
heavier. Size of bale, when in press, 17x20x40 inches. 
Average weight of bale, 220 pounds. Capacity, from 12 
to 20 tons per dav. Requires 3 men and 2 hr'ses. Uses 
wire only— rope will not hold. D ks us own Tramp- 
ing. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 
Price $600 




THE GENUINE PRICE PETALUMA. 

Size of bale in press, 24x24x50 inches. Averaire 
weight of bale, 250 pounds. Capacity, from 10 to 18 
tons per day. Requires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope 
or wire. Hay has to be tramped into the press. Puts 
from ft to 6} tons in a box car. 

Price $350. 




THE IMPROVED EAGLE. 

Size of hale in press, 26x26x60 inches. Average 
weight of bale, 235 pounds. Capacity, from 10 to 15 
tons per day. Requires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope 
or wire. Hay n.ust be tramped in the press. Puts from 
4-i to 5} tons in a box car. 

Price $250. 



Tho above is the finest line of Baling Presses in the 
Uni'ed States. They are nearly double the capacity of 
those of other makurs. 

£tTKor large, illustrated Catalogue of the same, ad- 
dress the 

PRICE HAY PRESS CO., 

San Leandro, Cal. 




HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS, TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $66. Horse 
Powers from $50. F. W. KROGH <S> CO 61 
Beale Street. 8an Francisco. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 600 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New Yorlc, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph B. Dorety. 629 Commercial St., S. F. 



40 



fACIFie ^JJRAb fRESS. 



[Jdly 14, 1888 



TIGER ROAD CART. DEAL ROAD CART. 





No. 1—7-8 inch Axle $32 50 

No. 2—1 inch Axle 35 00 

The Body of this cart is so constructed as to form a Truss, 
rigid within itself. This secures the equal act'on of BOTH 
springs, and if a heavy person sits on one end of the seat and a 
light one on another end, the seat remains level. 

By placing the load thus nearly over the axle (see cut) \vk 

AVOID BREAKAGE OF SHAFTS and Cl<OSS-BARS, and TAKE THE WEIGHT 

OK LOAD FROM HORSK's BAC K. 

IN THE CONSTRUCTION we use the best material that 
can be obtained. All shafts and bars are of the best second-growth 
hickory. W heels are the best second-growth hickory, Sarven pat- j 
ent or Brown shell band. Steel axle, double collar. Steel tire, ' 
oval edge and bolted in each space between the spokes. Braces, j 
bolts and clips are the best Norway iron. 

THE SEAT is nicely upholstered with a cushion, and the 
shafts are full trimmed. Our re gular carts are thoroughly painted 
and nicely striped. Our standard colors will he oil finish, wine, 
vermilion or green. 



No. 1— | inch Axle, 85 lbs., one passenger $27 50 

No. 2—7 8 inch Axle, 100 lbs., one passenger 30 00 

No. 3—1 inch Axle, 110 lbs., two passengers 32 50 

This new cart represents the results of much careful study and 
close examination of the various speeding and exercising vehicles 
now in use. It does away with many defects which are found in 
others, combined with new and important features, making it the 
Easiest, Strongest and Best Cart on the market. 

It is very simple in construction, strongly braced, double cross- 
bars, and the position of the springs in relation with the seat -bars 
and cross-bars, lessens the strain on both the parts, which allows 
the same to be made lighter than on ordinary road carts, and at the 
same time securing more safety. 

Each job is carefully constructed by skilled workmen, from 
select second-growth ash and hickory timber. 

The seat can be easily adjusted to suit the weight of the per- 
son, so that a perfect balance can be obtained if desired. The foot- 
rest can be removed by loosening two nuts and dropping hind end, 
unhooking same from cross-bar in front, making it a desirable sulky. 



FOIl SALE BY 



8AN FRANCISCO : 
Junction Market, Pine and 
Davis Streets. 



BAKER & HAMILTON. 

And Our Agciita ixa. the Interior. 



SACRAMENTO i 
No*. 9, 11, 13, and 15 
J Street. 



HEADQUARTERS 

FOR 

Wagons, Buggies, Carriages, 




201 and 203 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

E. E. AMES, Manager. Send for Catalogue. 




Vol. XXXVI.— No. 3. 



TWENTY-FOUR FAGKE ZEIDITIOIKr. 
SAN FRANOISOO, SATURDAY, JULY 21, 1888. 



I $3 a Year. In Advance. 

( Single Copies, 10 Ots. 



The Grape Harvest. 

Probably we cannot give our visiting teach- 
ers in a single sketch a better idea of the wealth 
of California fruitage than is indicated in the 
eDgraving on this page, which is made directly 
from a photograph taken in the vineyard of J. 
B. J. Portal, near San Jose, during grape-pick- 
ing last year. Many features of the view be- 
speak the weight of fruit. The single vine in 
the foreground, from which the leaves have 
been partly removed to expose the clusters, 
shows that the interior of the vine is almost a 
solid m a s s of . 
fruit. The large 
boxes used for 
gathering are an 
intimation that 
the fruit is abun- 
dant, and the 
weight of the 
box can be in- 
ferred from the 
wearisome coun- 
tenance of the 
young man who 
evidently tires of 
balancing it upon 
his shoulder, ev- 
en while the pho- 
tographer is at 
his work. Pos- 
sibly the idea of 
the wealth of 
fruitage may be 
aleo caught from 
the fact that 1\ 
tons per acre is 
often an average 
yield for a vine- 
yard, 10 tons per 
acre is not unus- 
ual, and 17 tons 
per acre is well 
authenticated. 

Were it not 
for the plain 
Bight of the clus- 
ters, it might 
trouble the Eastern observer that the picture 
represented a vineyard ac all. 

There are no trellises, no extended canes of old 
growth, nor other vineyard indications as they 
commonly appear at the East. The reason is 
that in California grapes are grown on the Eu- 
ropean plan, the vine is cut back each year to 
the stump, and a few spurs and the whole mass 
of fruit and foliage is forced each year anew 
from the small cluster of buds which are left 
upon these spurs. The California vineyard in 
winter is a sorry array of blackened stumps 
marshaled in regular lines across the field; the 
vineyard in summer is a mass of green which 
conceals the ground from view, and when situ- 
ated upon a hillside, is seen for miles as a con- 
spicuous patch of verdure, contrasting beauti- 
fully with the sere fields which often sur- 
round it. 

Another feature of the picture is the large 
force of pickers required during the grape har- 
vest. Men and women, youths and maidens, 
boys and girls, all go out to earn the liberal re- 
ward which the vigneron is ready to pay for 
faithful service. It is inspiring work when the 
crop is large, and the great size of the clusters 
is a constant surprise to the inexperienced 
picker. It is hard work, however, for those of 



soft muscles, for California grapes cannot be 
pinched from the vine with the thumb nail, as 
many of the delicate little clusters of Eastern 
vines can be. The stem of the California grape 
cluster is tough and woody, and sharp knife or 
pruning shears are necessary. We remember 
the discomfiture of an Eastern agent, who, some 
years ago, brought to California a large number 
of patent grape- pickers, arranged to sever the 
stem and hold the cluster. They were neat 
little toys, but they would neither cut nor hold 
a California grape bunch. We advised the 
agent to sell them for rose-pickers, but never 



ers the summer traveler with dust as he crosses 
the plains is the secret of the successful har- 
vesting of our immense grain crops. With an 
Eastern summer, harvesting, on the magnificent 
scale practiced here, would be attended with 
perils. The black thundercloud, loaded with 
wind and rain, perhaps a dash of hail, that 
causes a hurried " shocking up " in the harvest- 
field, have no terrors for our farmers. And if 
the earlier drought is thus salutary, its contin- 
uance is no less so, for it gives the fruit-grower 
his opportunity. Cloudless skies from August 
to November contain the secret of the purple 




SCENE DURING GRAPE PICKING IN THE VINEYARD OP J. 



B. J. PORTAL, NEAR SAN JOSE. CAL 



heard of the disposition made of them. The 
establishment of Mr. Portal is one of the 
best known in the State. He has a large vine- 
yard of choice varieties of wine grapes, and his 
cellar is capacious. He is regarded as one of 
our most enterprising and progressive viticult- 
urists. 



Our Visitors. 

This is not the best time of year to visit Cal- 
ifornia. We are passing through the dry sea- 
son, and there is a certain faded hue upon the 
landscape; but, taken as a whole, the State is 
in charming humor and will bear a close ac- 
quaintance. It is the peerless season when 
earth and air and sky play their sweetest parts 
until house-walls become prisons and roofs a 
burden. It is the season of the year when the 
average Californian loves to be out of doors, 
and thousands are away camping under pine 
trees, near cool mountain spring or beside 
the sea. 

Should any of our visitors feel inclined to be- 
wail the short-lived glory of our summer land- 
scapes, they should remember that it is from 
the death of our verdure and natural beauty 
come the life and prosperity of the greater 
portion of our people. The drought which cov- 



beauty and glory of the vineyard. Then the 
Eastern people who come into the State 
at this season of the year and are inclined 
to fret and worry at the dust and arid look of 
things, for there are people who, like the 
ancient Hebrews, would grumble in sight of the 
promised land if they couldn't have quail on 
toast every day for lunch, should not forget 
that our spring begins with the early rains, 
and while they are toasting their shins around 
redhot coal-stoves and their teeth are chatter- 
ing in the arctic wave, and the thermometer 
has retired from business, our hills and plains 
are covered with verdure and flowers and the 
farmers, with great gang-plows, are everywhere 
at work. 

Personal. — Last Monday we enjoyed a call 
from Mr. W. N. Gladden of Healdsburg — an 
intelligent and devoted fruit-grower with 10 
years of California experience. His 45 acres of 
orchard are set mostly to French prunes and 
Crawford and " Honest Abe " peaches. The 
peaches are hia chief reliance, and he grows 
superb ones by proper pruning, careful cultiva- 
tion and judicious thinning. It is a pleasure to 
converse with so sensible and genial a man, 
who puts heart and mind into the honorable 
business of the orchardist. 



Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruits. 

We have received an advance copy of an ex- 
ceedingly interesting and valuable special re- 
port by Prof. H. E. Van Deman, U. S. Pomol- 
ogist, entitled " The Condition of Tropical and 
Semi-Tropical Fruits in the United States." It 
constitutes Bulletin 1 of the Division of Pomol- 
ogy, and contains 150 pages. The perfect pub- 
lication as it will soon be ready for distribution, 
will contain faithful representations in colors 
of the Japan plums, Kelsey and Satsuma, also 
of three varieties of Japan persimmons, which 
Prof. Van De- 
I man correctly 
, | named, and they 

i will help grow- 
ers to identify 
some of the 
sorts they are 
growing under 
various names. 
The report con- 
tains the follow- 
ing notable es- 
says: "Tropical 
and Semi-Tropi. 
cal Fruits in 
Florida and the 
Gulf States," by 
P. W. Reasoner 
of Manatee, 
Florida, and 
"Tropical and 
Semi-Tropical 
Fruits of Califor- 
nia, Arizona and 
New Mexico," 
by W. G. Klee, 
our State In- 
spector of Fruit 
Pests. Like all 
of Mr. Klee's 
work, this is dis- 
charged in a very 
careful and con- 
scientious man- 
ner, and with the 
utmost effort 
against exaggeration of any kind. It will be 
of great advantage to our coast to have such 
a Bhowing widely distributed throughout the 
country and the world, as Prof. Van De- 
man's publications are destined to be. Un- 
fortunately there are a number of typographical 
errors, especially in proper names, which the 
printer should have corrected. 

In this connection we will mention Prof. 
Van Deman's part of the Annual Report of the 
Department of Agriculture for 1887, which 
treats of temperate zone and other fruits which 
have been submitted to the pomologist for ex- 
amination, and gives notes on many other 
pomological matters. The report is very cred- 
itable. 



Klamath Reservation.— The cattlemen of 
Chewaucan Valley and Sprague river were hard 
at work last week removing their stock from 
the Klamath Reservation, in Southern Oregon, 
in order to avoid trouble with the soldiers and 
Indians, although very little feed is used for 
Indian stock. 



Judge Deady of Oregon has decided that his 
court has power to compel Government land 
officers to issue patents to parties entitled to 
them. 



42 



pACIFie F^URAts p>RESb 



[Jdly 21, 1888 



23l UIT CDa^keting. 



Fruit Auctions in London. 

Editors Press: — Yesterday afternoon I vis 
ited " Covent Garden," the great vegetable, 
fruit and flower market of London. In the 
morning the greater part of the space is occu- 
pied in retailing, and in the afternoon the whole- 
saling of fruits and vegetables takes place. 

Coming in by the main central aisle, I saw 
crowds of people congregated at the farther 
end of the main building. Prompted by curi- 
osity as well as by a desire to learn whatever I 
could of the manners and customs in vogue in 
the method of disposition of fruit' here, I made 
my way toward the crowds. Upon arriving 
there I found a Bene very similar to that which 
I saw at Seoomb & Brown's, in New York, only 
here were a series or rather duplicates of the 
same scene. On a raised platform an auction- 
eer was busy at work in soiling cherries to the 
highest bidder. The sale had evidently but 
juet begun, and a printed notice in front of the 
auctioneer's stand indicated that 300 packages 
of cherries were to be sold. Underneath this 
was a sign on which were printed the terms, 
rules and conditions of sale, as follows: 
Conditions of Sale. 



1. The highest bidder (in due time) to be the pur- 
chaser, who is to pay down, if required, £2 per lot 
on lots amounting 10 £5, and £1 per lot or 
lots under that sum, to bind the bargain, or the lot 
to be immediately put up a^ain. 

2. The goods to be delivered to the purchaser 
with all faults and defects, without any allowance 
for inaccurate description of marks, quality or con- 
dition. 

3. If any of the purchasers neglect to pay the re- 
mainder of the purchase-money, either in cash or 
Hink of England notes, on or before t ie delivery of 
the goods, or to take their respective lots away, at 
their own expense, on the day of sale, the money 
paid as a deposit will be forfeited to the proprietors, 
who are not liable to be sued for the same either by 
law or in equity. Such lots as remain uncleared 
after the time limited will be resold, either by public 
sale or private contract, the auctioneer not binding 
himself to give prior notice of such resale, but the 
first purchaser will be liable for all deficiencies what- 
ever arising from such resale. 

4. If any dispute arise in bidding, or the lot be 
claimed by more than one bidder, it shall be put up 
again. 

5. Credit one week only, or cash on delivery, if 
required by the auctioneer; no discount allowed. 

6. The auctioneer reserves to himself (he right of 
accepting or refusing the bidding of any person or 
persons who may have been defaulter?, or m*y in 
any way be deemed objectionable. — J. W. Draper 
&$on, Auctioneers, Covent Garden, London. 

Simples of each lot were exhibited by several 
men (who were on a lower platform in front of 
the auctioneer), and in about 30 minuteB the 
sale was over. 

The prices realized averaged about 10 cents 
per pound, and, as each basket or package 
averaged about 10 pounds, the total amount 
was about §300. The cherries were from 
France, of poor quality, and would not bring 
half that price at home. At a neighboring 
stand another auotioneer was disposing of 
strawberries, but, as I was too far away from 
him, I could not take note of prices and 
qualities, 

I took the names of the auctioneering firms, 
which were on signs attached to the platform, 
and soon found my way into the office of one 
of them — Messrs. Woolf & Jacobs. I was re- 
ceived by Mr. Woolf and at once stated that I 
wished to learn something of the manner of the 
disposition of green fruits in London, with a 
view of transmitting my observations to the 
Pacific Rural Press of San Francisco. Ex- 
cusing himself for a short time, he bade me 
take a seat, and in a few moments returned and 
said he would try to accommodate me, pro- 
vided, however, that as little time as possible 
be taken up, as he had still some unfinished 
business to attend to. 

An Interview. 

Q, What method is employed for the sale 
of green fruits in England ? 

Ans. Sales by auction. 

(,>. Why are not the fruits sold at private 
Bale? 

Ans. Because the result to grower and 
commission man is far better than by private 
sale. 

Q. If the result is better to grower and com- 
mission man, then the pub'ic is perhaps the 
loser in the way of higher prices. In it not so? 

Ans. No, the public obtains better and 
fresher fruits and at a lower price now than 
they did when consignments and private sales 
were the rule. 

Q. Please explain how. 

Ans. Easy enough. You see there is one 
great obstacle that has h«-en overcome now, by 
the auction method. We have few or scarce 
any cases to report of fruit rotting on our 
handB, for even before the fruit has reached our 
house the notice of its sale is sent broadcast, 
and within half an hour of its delivery to us it 
is sold. Another item to be taken into consid- 
eration is this: By private sales there used to 
be many claims for reclamation on account of 
short weight, inferior quality or damaged con- 
dition, and if these came from important cus- 
tomers they could not be overlooked or disre- 
garded; hence the commission men were at the 
mercy, to some extent, of the buyers. 

Q. Were not the growers also at the mercy 
of the commission men ? 



Ans. Well, yes; if the commission man waB 
inclined to pocket a goodly share of the pro- 
ceeds, no one could hinder him. 
I •' Q. Were not the grower and commission man 
at the mercy of the clerk or salesman ? 

Ans. Well, if a clerk was inclined to be a 
thief, or inclined to give an inside price to a 
Jriend, he could, of course, do so when not 
watched. 

Q, Cannot a dishonest auctioneer under the 
present system report lower prices than he re- 
ceives ? Or can he not " knock doivn " choice 
lots at very low prices to special friends? 

Ans. No, an auction sale is a public affair; 
the grower may, if he chooses, have his sales re- 
ported by dozens of men attending the sale, and 
reports of underprices would soon ruin the rep. 
utation of a reputable concern. As for 
" knocking down " choice lots at low prices to 
special friends, this cannot be done at auction, 
for choice lots are well known and bring all 
they are worth. 

Q, If by experience you have found the auc- 
tion method for the disposition of green fruits 
to be the best plan, why would it not also be 
the best plan for us in California ? 

Ans. It would be impossible for me to 
answer that question, because I do not know 
the conditions surrounding you, but even if the 
conditions are favorable, you will find many 
obstacles to overcome in inaugurating this sys- 
tem, for it involves a radical change of proced- 
ure. Those, for instance, who handled the 
fruit on commission to advantage to themselves, 
and who are likely to be thrown out oi a source 
of income, are likely to intimidate and prejudice 
the growers against the plan before it has had 
a fair chance of becoming a permanent fixture; 
then, again, the growers, unless united, will con- 
sign part of their crop, which may be used to 
counteract the plan. The buyers, too, will be 
likely to fight shy of any radical change at the 
start, and, tike it altogether, it is uphill work; 
but if you persevere it may ultimately become 
the mode of distribution. 

i,>. Is there a market here for California 
Bartlett pears? 

Ans. I cannot tell. I have heard the pear 
well spoken of and believe it may find a market 
if there is anything to recommend it. We 
have, of course, all the pears we want, for we 
not alone have the pears of Eagland, but almost 
an unlimited supply from the continent. 

I explained to him that the B irtlett pear of 
California was a superior articl", and was, 
perhaps, the finest pear grown in America. 

" If your pear is in the line of a ' specialty,' 
and has special virtues of size and flavor, it 
may be introduced here and take rank with 
other 'specialties.' Take the ' Belle Ange- 
vine;' this is a huge-sized pear, which has noth- 
ing to recommend it but its size. It is seldom 
eaten, for it is as hard as a brick; it is mainly 
used by fruiterers who display one or two of 
them in a shop window and pay as high as four 
to six shillings apiece for them. 

At Another Establishment. 



The next place visited was the effije of 
Messrs. John Wm. Draper ft Son. Mr. Draper 
is an intelligent gentleman and appears to 
understand his business thoroughly. I had 
seen him but a short time before on the auc- 
tioneer's stand in Covent Garden, and, when 
there, his eagle eye detected rapidly every nod 
and sign that was given him with an almost 
intuitive skill — the result only of long experi- 
ence. Long experience is the proper term 
here, for the house of John Wm. Draper & 
Son has been in the business of selling green 
fruits since ISO" — that is, he and his father and 
grandfather before him. I told Mr. Draper 
where I had seen him before and had come to 
interview him in relation as to the best modes 
of disposition of our green frnits. 

" By auction," he said. " Sell your fruits by 
auction; it is the only way by which you can do 
the grower justice." 

" How many years has this plan of selling 
green fruits by auction been in operation in 
London ? " 

*' Twenty-five to Thirty Years." 

" How is it that so conservative a people as 
the English are could adapt themselves to 
so radioal a change in the method of busi- 
ness ? " 

" The change here was not altogether radical; 
it was rather a gradual transition and came 
about somewhat after this fashion: Say a price 
was fixed on fruits. If it was too high we 
found no buyers; if it was too low there were 
too many. At six shillings all ' stood off,' but 
at four shillings a drzen or two voices would 
cry out almost simultaneously, 'I'll take 'em.' 
Give them to whomever we would, there was 
trouble; and often we gave them to none, but 
told the crowd the price was 'off' and that a 
new price would be fixed." 

" Why did you not a9k them to offer you 
prices and accept the highest offer?" 

" Ah, there was ' the rub,' for that you see 
would be auctioneering, and to do that without 
a license would be to pay a fine of .il00, wfiTeas 
an auctioneer's license was only £10. Well, 
some fellow had sense enough to take the auc- 
tioneer's license, and that was the beginning of 
fhe auction plan of selling green fruits " 

Thin "some fellow" was none other than 
Mr. Draper himself. 

" In it not possible for the buyers to com- 
bine ? " 

" Yes, but it is not practicable, for every 
buyer wants the best brands at the lowest 
prices, and as we have buyers of every degree, 
some who buy to wholesale, some to retail, 
so. ne who cater for a hi^h-class trade and others 



who are street venders and hawkers, combina- 
tion among these is highly improbable " 

"Have you ever seen any California Bartlett 
pears in the market here ? " 

" Do you mean in cans or j ars ? " 

"No, I mean natural or green fresh fruit, 
not preterved." 

" No, I do not think I have, but we have re- 
ceived a small consignment of California K ister 
Beurre pears in their natural state." 

" Did you receive them in good condition ? " 

"Yea, in excellent condition." 

" What market do yon think there would be 
here for the California Bartlett?" 

"I should think they would find a good sale 
if properly pushed, for the! pear is known here, 
and if it possessea'the qualities attributed to it, 
it wruld find ready sale." 

"Do you think they would reach herein 
good condition ? " 

" I can't see why they would not reach here 
in good condition if the other pears come here 
all right." 

" la there a market here for canned fruits, 
especially apricots? " 

" You will have to obtain that information 
at some other house, because I know nothing of 
canned goods." 

" Please give me the name and address of 
the beBt house in that line." 

" With pleasure. Go to Crosse ft Blackwell, 
Soho square, and ask for Tom Blackwell." 

What I learned at this famous establishment 
must be reserved for my next letter. 

London, June 16th. David Lubik. 

The Auction Sales in Chicago. 

The west end of the Northwestern railroad 
freight depot, just north of the river and west 
of the State-Btreet bridge, is divided from the 
great freight-room by a very high, fierce-looking 
picket fence. In one corner of the inclosure a 
couple of hundred chairs are arranged after the 
style of a theater parquette. While the audience 
from South Water street and elsewhere is be- 
ing seated a company of roustabouts pile up 
boxes row on row and tier after tier, like 
ramparts all about. The little inclosure has a 
pleasant smell, and each gentleman before tak- 
ing his Beat goes in and out among the rows of 
boxes, makes a few notes on ap'inted program, 
and then the music begins. It is not an or 
chestra, but an auctioneer that fills the place 
with noise. In just '20 minutes three carloads 
of choice California fruit are disposed of under 
the hammer. It may be said right here that 
the unreserved auction sale of California fruit 
in Chicago is a success. The venture is less 
than a week old as ye* — Monday 7 cars, Tues- 
day 3 cars, to-day 3 cars, Tnursday 3 car*, 
Friday 4 cars — 20 carloads for five days. The 
fruit includes pears in 40 pound boxes, peaches, 
plums, apricots and prunes in 20-pound boxes, 
and cherries in 10 pound boxes. The scheme 
in brief is this : What is known as the Fruit- 
Growers' Union of California purchase exten- 
sively from the orchard men. By thuB uniting 
they ship in large quantities, and by sending 
10 carloads at a time from the Pacific Coast 
they get special shipping rates. There are 
other advantages. The auction sales are at- 
tended by the jobbers and small dealers in lots 
of 20 boxes or more. By buying at the auc- 
tion sale they come in direct contact with the 
Growers' Union, and no middlemen or commis- 
sion men have profits out of the deal. The 
fruit train reaches Chicago at 6:30 a. N ; the 
auction sale is at 9 A. M. The sale lasts perhaps 
30 minutes, and buyers must not only pay 
cash, but remove fruit before 12 o'clock the 
same day. Large printed programs are dis- 
tributed in advance, giving the full contents 
of cars on the way and the exact hour of Bale. 
Besides the local dealers and jobbers there are 
bidders present who buy and reship to Canadian 
points and country places. This scheme has 
been worked with partial success in Boston and 
New York. The plan is no longer an experi- 
ment here. It is call d a success by the ship- 
pers, and the buyers flock eater ly to the sales. 
— Chief o Evening Journal June 27th 



a protruding of the eyeballs. It possibly may 
be a disease called staphyloma, which is a pro- 
truding of the lining membrane of the aqueous 
chamber with its contents through an ulcera- 
tion of the cornea. The projection is opaque, 
and in the ulcerative form there is a tendency 
for the contents of the chamber to be evacuat- 
ed. We also have a rheumatic form of oph- 
thalmia, which results in lymphy deposits in 
the aqueous chamber. This disease is some- 
times mistaken for cataract. 

Cattle are also affected with periodic oph- 
thalmia, which undergoes metastatic passage 
from one eye to the other, and often both are 
attacked at once. In this disease the deep 
stiuctures are affected as well as the outer ooats. 

In the two latter diseases, constitutional 
remedies must be resorted to as well as local. 
Iodide of potassium and colchicum are recom- 
mended. In case it is not considered necessary 
to call in a competent veterinary surgeon, I 
would like the disease to be more fully ex- 
plained in everv particular. 

Dr A. E Bczari. M. R. C. Y. S. L. 
No. 11 Seventh St., S. F. 



JIJhe Veterinarian. 



Sore Eyes in Cattle. 

Editors Press: — In answer to Subscriber, it 
is very difficult for me to determine the disease 
which his cattle are suffering from without an 
examination of the eyes. There are many dis- 
eases of the eye, produced by different causes, 
which has that white marble appearance de- 
scribed in communication. It may be conjunc- 
tivitis, simple ophthalmia, which is a result of 
injuries, especially from the entry of foreign 
bodi'B, such as seeds from weeds, etc. The 
symptoms are at firsl|profuse lachrymation, red- 
ness of the external membrane of the eye, and 
if not relieved, the membrane becomes milky in 
appearance. This disease is also produced 
from exposure to cold or to acrid vapors. In 
this disease remove the cause and apply cooling 
solutions, and the eyes will rapidly recover. 
Opacity of the cornea also depends upon nutri- 
tive conditions, and sometimes upon pressure 
due to sw elling of the contentB of the globe of 
the eye. If it arises from these circumstauoes 
it is only temporary, and disappears with its 
can hp. 

Subjcrib-T in describing the diseaso mentions 



Tapeworm in Sheep. 

Over S5 per cent of the sheep examined in 
Colorado last summer, according to a report 
made by Dr. Cooper Curtice to . the Biological 
Society at a recent meeting, were affected by a 
tapeworm which is apparently indigenous to 
the Western country. Similar parasites had 
been described in 1856 by Dr. K. M. Diesing 
from specimens obtained from Brazilian deer; 
but since that time the species was apparently 
unnoticed. This species is interesting, first, on 
account of its peculiar anatomy and the life 
history of the individual parasite; second, be- 
cause of the history of its species, which indi- 
cates it to be the first acquisition of a native 
parasite by the sheep on this continent, and its 
subsequent distribution by the sheep in the 
United States; and, third, from an economic 
standpoint, the discussion including a consider- 
ation of the disease produced in sheep — the act- 
ual loss in death-rate, in wool and mutton, due 
to the parasite — and of the problem of cure and 
prevention of the disease. 

After describing the parasite, Dr. Curtice 
said that these tenia occur in the duodenum 
and gall-ducts of Western lambs and sheep. 
They sometimes fill each. So tightly do they 
pack the gall duct at times that they cannot be 
withdrawn without breaking them. The smallest 
henia, about half a centimeter long, are always 
found in the duodenum. They may be found 
from May to January; no observations were 
made in the winter months. From the duode- 
num they pass into the gall-duct, and occasion- 
ally into the pancreatic duct. The t.-eaia are 
usually found in assorted sizes, from the young 
to the adult, but all may be nearly equal in 
size. From observations made upon a great 
number of lambs, it seems that these parasites 
cannot mature in less than six or possibly ten 
months;, so that the t;oaia in limbs would not 
be capable of infecting other lambs until the 
former became yearlings. No stages inter- 
mediate between the embryo escaping from the 
parent segment and the t;enia five millimeters 
long were fonnd. 

As this species has not been described in Eu- 
rope, and has not been noticed in Eastern 
United States, it seems to have been acquired 
by the sheep since their importation into this 
country. Spanish sheep were first imported 
about 1820. From the early importation of 
sheep into Mexico and Lower California arose 
those immense herds of Mission sheep, and 
eventually the millions of sheep now found in 
the West. These sheep are rapidly being inter- 
bred with better grades of Eastern sheep, but 
the Mexican sheep furnished the material with 
which the sheepmen of the plains began. The 
history of the acquisition and distribution of 
this parasite is believed, then, to be coincident 
with the history of these sheep since their ar- 
rival in this country. This parasite, originally 
affecting deer on this continent, is b lieved by 
Dr. Curtice to have become ingrafted into the 
sheep, annuals with similar life habits, and, 
through the favorable conditions of ranching, 
to have spread rapidly with the increase of 
the flioks. Its distribution is now from Oregon 
and Wyoming southward, and Nebraska and 
Kansas westward. 

Tne disease they cause in sheep makes its 
appearance gradually and increases as the 
parasites grow. It is characterized by a hide- 
bound, tucked-up condition of the lambs, 
which is indicative of lean, ill conditioned 
animals. Sheep may be apparently strong and 
healthy and still harbor a number of thete 
parasites. The poorer lambs generally die 
from exposure to inclement weather or from 
smothering by piling on top of each other in 
storms in their endeavor to keep warm. The 
actual loss by death among the lambs is prob- 
ably the least portion of it; that occasioned by 
the diminished amount of fat, muscle and wool, 
which, though small for each animal, is con- 
stantly present from year to year, forms the 
larger, and aggregates a total loss to the sheep 
husbandry of the plainB, which is probably 
greater thau that due to the scab-insect. 

As yet no effective medioinal remedy for the 
destruction of these parasites has been discov- 
ered. B imething may be done in the way of 
prevention, but until the oomplete life-history 
of the licnia is known, an entirely satisfactory 
plan of prevention cannot bs proposed. At 
present, watering from troughs instead of from 



July 21, 1888.1 



f> ACIFI6 F^URAId press, 



43 



prairie pools, pasturing the lambs on prairie 
not recently pastured on by older sheep, and, 
after weaning, removing them to fresh pastures, 
are recommended. The practice of winter 
feeding on grain and hay undertaken by ranch- 
men is especially advisable in keeping up the 
health of infected sheep. 



Wheat-Growing in California. 

The last number of the Overland Monthly 
has an article by Alfred Bannister, vice-presi- 
dent of Starr & Co., and prominent in the 
wheat trade of San Francisco, on California 
wheat culture. We doubt whether our readers 
will agree with Mr. Bannister in his estimates 
of the cost of wheat, but his conclusions are in- 
teresting and we present them for discussion by 
our readers. Certainly more should be said of 
our great cereal industry, but wheat-growers 
are not disposed to compare notes as freely as 
those in other lines of production. Perhaps our 
quotation from Mr. Bannister's writings will 
lead to an interesting and profitable discussion. 
We quote as follows : 

We now propose to touch upon the vexed 
question of the cost of wheat production in Cal- 
ifornia, to show its cost at our own seaboard, 
and also in our principal foreign market, Liver- 
pool. Of course this cost varies with circum- 
stances, such as good and bad crops, the price 
of land on which it is raised, freights to Europe, 
and other things, particularly the size of ranch, 
as it is found that expenses do not nearly keep 
pace with the increase in the quantity of wheat 
raised. Wheat land of fair quality can be pur- 
chased at any pnee from .$10 to $40, and bast 
quality from $40 to $100 per acre, varying with 
richness of soil, location and rate of wheat 
freights to tidewater. A tract of 5000 acres 
of good wheat land was some time ago sold 
for $5 per acre, but it was sacrificed, and was 
well worth $15, or even $20— in fsct this last 
figure has since been paid for adjacent land. 
Some of our farmers say wheat cannot profit- 
ably be raited on land of the value of over $40 
per acre. Others assert that they can make 
more profit in raising wheat on the best land 
suitable, and worth $100 an acre, or even more. 
There are some sound reasons for this when it 
is remembered that the good land probably 
yields double the crop that the poor does, 
and that much farm labor is done by contract 
at so much per acre. Good land would also 
probably be cropped every year, or four out of 
five at least; while the poorer land, in order to 
avoid its impoverishment, would be most likely 
half cropped and half fallowed each year. We 
wish to avoid extremes either way, and after 
consultation with many of our leading Grangers 
and wheat-growers, will submit the following 
as the result of our most careful examination 
into the subject during the last ten years, and as 
affording, as nearly as can now be ascertained, 
the average cost of production of a large pro- 
portion of our wheat crop. It is usually con- 
sidered that the increase in the sale value of 
wisely selected and well bought land will be 
more than equivalent to interest on its cost; 
and the State has thousands of farmers to day 
whose lands have trebled and quadrupled in 
value, while those of many have multiplied by 
six, eight and even ten or more. But we will 
include interest at six per cent per year on the 
cost of land in our expense of wheat-raising, and 
see how a good Missouri farmer will fare on ar- 
rival here, if he invests $100,000 in a purchase 
of 4000 acres of fair wheat land (at $25 per 
acre), and raises wheat on 2000 acres of it, each 
year alternating wheat crop and fallowing on 
each half of his ranch. What he can raise in 
orchard, vineyard, garden and on summer- 
fallowed land (melons, squash, etc.), together 
with profit from increase of stock, poultry and 
other things, we will leave out of our count, 
to provide for contingencies or bad years; and 
to avoid the intricacies of the cost of doing bis 
own work, which should always be less than 
by contract, we will suppose his cultivation, 
seeding and harvesting to be all done by con- 
tract at present cost. Here are the figures in 
detail: 

Interest for one year, at 6 per cent of cost of 

4000 acres at $25, $100,000 $6,000 

Taxes, for one year, on 4000 acres, assessed at 

$10 per acre, $40,000. at 1.50 per cent.. 6co 
Plow.ng, seeding and harrowing 2000 acres, 

at $t 2,000 

$1.50 per cental for seed, 60 lbs. per acre, 

2000 acres r,8oo 

Harvesting by combined machine 2too acres, 

at $1.75 3.SOO 

Wheat sacks at 7c. each, 8 sacks per acre-. 2000 

acres 1,120 

Hauling and freight ol crop to t dewater, and 

sundries, $2 per ton on 1080 tons wheat. 2,160 



Total cost of 1080 tons wheat at tidewater. $17,160 



cent we have already allowed on it as the cost 
of his land, or above 19 per cent per year in all. 

This is, we believe, a very fair reeult, and as 
nearly correct as possible. In fact, many more 
of our farmer friends assert that our estimate 
of the cost is too high than think it too low, 
one of our very best authorities, who personal- 
ly knew, positively stating that the crop of one 
of the largest wheat ranches in the State did 
not cost over 50 cents per cental delivered at 
our seaboard. We therefore feel very sale in 
stating the cost of wheat production in Califor- 
nia as not exceeding, delivered at tidewater: 

Per 100 lbs. 

From ranches of i.coo acres $ .92^ 

" " 2,000 " 85 

" "4 coo " 80 

" 6,000 " 75 

" " 8,000 " 70 

*' " 10,000 " 65 

" " 15,000 " 60 

" " 20,000 " 55 

" " 30,000 " 50 

" " 40,000 " 45 

" " 50,000 " 40 

We are satisfied any good farmer, acting with 
reasonable judgment, can equal our figures, 
which are in all things reasonable, and espe- 
cially in our estimate of eight sacks per acre 
crop from summer-fallowed land. That many 
of them do not do so is owing to their specu- 
lating with their wheat crops by holding them 
often for one or two years in the hope of the 
advance in price that so rarely comes — not one 
year in 10 or 12— and paying out a large por- 
tion of their real profit in unnecessary and 
avoidable expenses. Thus had our farmer 
friend not sold when ready to deliver his crop 
of 1080 tons, but stored it for a year, it would 
have cost him over $3 50 per ton, thus : 
Interest at 6 p?r cent per year on $30,240 

(1080 tons sold at $1 40 per cental) . . .$1,814 40 

One year's storage on 1080 tons at$i 1,080 00 

Fire insurance, 1% per cent on $32,000 

value 400 00 

Brokerage, comrnis. ions, ttc, 50 cen s ter 

ton 540 00 



Or rather less than 80c. per 100 lbs., which 

would be $17,280 

Let us also suppose that our farmer is a wise 
man and sells his 1080 tons of wheat about as 
soon as it is ready for delivery to a San Fran- 
cisco merchant, miller, or exporter, at per cen- 
tal $1 40, a low average price, giving him 
$30,240. Deduct from this cost of wheat, as 
above, $17,160, and it leaves his net profit for 
the year, $13 080, or over 13 per cent on his 
$100,000 capital invested, besides the 6 per 



Total $3. 8 34 40 

In addition to any decline in price below $1.40. 
Of course any advance in price above $1.40 
would first go toward paying the above charges, 
and the surplus, if any, be an additional profit 
to the farmer. It is a common and a very great 
error that farmers nearly always fall into, to 
take into their account of the cost of holding 
and carrying their wheat crops only the inter- 
est on the sums they borrow on their grain. 
But as every farmer cau employ all his means, 
usually, to better advantage, on his land and 
ranch than six per cent per year interest, and 
can realize the full value of his crop by selling 
and getting the proceeds for his use, it is only 
right to figure interest on his crop's full value 
as an expense of holding and carrying it unsold, 
which annually costs our farmers a very large 
portion of their hard-earned, legitimate profit 
from wheat-raising. When a farmer decides to 
sell his wheat crop, which should be before it 
need be stored to avoid our first fall rains, say 
up to October, each year, it is wise for him 
always to sell locally to millers or exporters, 
whose necessities often compel them to 
pay a price in excess of values in foreign 
markets. He thus obtains the highest figure 
possible, and avoids much risk and expense. 
Should he load a ship with his crop and sell it 
to a buyer in Europe when loading is completed, 
the quality of his wheat may be unsuitable, 
and this with expenses and commissions will 
cause him loss. Or, worse than all, should he 
hold his wheat unsold until it arrives in 
Europe, and sell then or later, he will find ex- 
penses have mounted up to $2 50 or $3 50 per 
ton, and yet, besides this, on an unchang d 
market, that the sale value of his cargo is $1 
to $1 50 per ton below what it was when load- 
ing in California. This reduced value is owing 
to our farmer having retained the chances of 
profit through rise in prices during his cargo's 
\\ months' voyage to Europe, to obtain which 
a European speculative buyer would have paid 
a premium in the shape of a larger price for 
wheat-loading in California than for that ar- 
rived in Europe. It is the loss of this premium 
and the accumulation of the heavy expenses 
that lead to so much disappointment and loss to 
farmers|who ship their wheat to Europe and 
let it arrive there unsold; expenses there are 
much heavier than in California. This premium 
for distant over-near at hand wheat, paid by Eu- 
ropean buyers of California w heat cargoes, varies 
with t he general belief preva ling in Europe as to 
the future courae of prices. If an advance is 
deemed probable, the premium increases, while 
with the prospect of a decline it is reduced. 
Oiher causes affect it also, but, as a rule, there 
being usually in Europe, as well as in California, 
many more wheat "bulls "thin "bears," it 
always exists, and probably ever will. This 
suggests the question whether the completion 
of the Panama or Nicaragua canal will add to 
the value of California wheat by shortening the 
voyage to European markets. It will undoubt- 
edly tend to reduce the expense of the actual 
voyage to the owners of wheat while on the 
way — intertst, insurance, and probably freight 
being l<ss; but it will also, under ordi- 
nary circumstances, reduce the chances for 
speculative European buyers to make a profit 
during the voyage, and correspondingly 
the premium for the less distant wheat 
that he will then pay. In other words, 
wheat shipped hence "via Isthmus canals" 
may sell for less than that by the present all- 
sea route. 

If our figure of 80j per cental, cost in San 



Francisco of wheat raised on a 4000 acre ranch 
is correct, let us see at what price per quarter 
of 500 lbs. and per cental of 100 lbs. it can be 
laid down in Liverpool, to compete with other 
wheats there. 

Per qr. 
of 500 lbs. 

.80 per 100 lb", in California equals 16.6 

.24 to 228 freight per ton of 2240 lbs., equalj. 5. 
.01 40 per £100, value insurance, equals 6 

$1.05 per 100 lbs., or in all 22. 

Our standard No. 1 wheat is now selling in 
Liverpool daily at more than fifty per cent 
above this price, and yet competing with 
the largest export from Australia that that col- 
ony has ever contributed to the supply cf the 
European markets, although Australian is al- 
most the only foreign similar wheat there that 
equals in quality that of California. These are 
the facts, as near as they can be ascei tiired and 
stated, of the cost of our wheat here and its 
value abroad, and while they exist we cannot 
help believing that our wheat culture is yet in 
its infancy, and that the next 20 or 40 years 
will witness great development in the industry, 
and large increase in our wheat crops. We 
have millions of acres yet of good virgin 1 uid, 
and can welcome and support any willing 
workers who may choose our State for their 
homes. Our two great wheat valleys alone, 
Sacramento and Sin Joaquin, contain, accord- 
ing to Mr. Mills, land agent of the Southern 
Pacific Company, probably our best authority, 
fully 12,000 000 of acres of land, and other 
parts of the State 18,000,000, or in all 30,000,- 
000 acres of arable land, none of which is more 
than 4000 feet above sea level. The price of 
our land is still very low, considering its fertil- 
ity, the crop% it returns, and our marvelous cli- 
mate; and though foreign capital is buying 
largely every year, good purchases and judi- 
cious investments still abound. 



J^ORTICULTUIIE. 



Walnuts on Oak Lands. 

Editors Press : — In your issue of July 7th, 
under the head of " Oak Clearings for Wal- 
nuts," a quotation from Mr. Ellwood Cooper in 
regard to planting walnut trees on oak timber 
lands is given. The truth of his statements 
can be vouched for by many witnesses, not 
only in Goleta valley, but for 25 miles east 
along the coast through the Carpinteria val- 
ley. Wherever oak trees have been cleared and 
orchards planted, some trees are lost each year. 
It is not confined to the walnut alone, but to 
all other fruit trees except pears; of those I 
have seen none injured. The trees do not all 
die the same year; some will grow healthily and 
bear several crops and then die. My orchard 
at Goleta was planted on willow land and is 
over 20 years old, and I have never lost a tree. 
Adjoining this orchard I cleared off some oak 
timber and planted a few hundred assorted 
trees, and I lose some each year. My neigh- 
bors have the same experience where they have 
planted on timber land. One gentleman told 
me he knew it was the oak roots, for he traced 
the roots of his dead fruit trees to the oak roots. 
I think the oak-root theory very strong when 
the trees die only where there has been oak 
timber, and none die where orchards have been 
planted on clear land. We would expect the 
land to be sour after being covered with timber 
for a number of years, and that it would re- 
quire several years of sunshine to reclaim it, 
but the trees do not receive their injuries from 
the surface. If so, they would die the first 
year, which is not the case. They are more 
likely to die after the second year, or after the 
roots have extended some distance in the earth, 
and the walnut not so quick as the apricot and 
other trees. 

The walnut should be planted on deep, rich, 
sandy soil, and if the land is deep and rich 
they will do fioely, even though it be a great 
depth to water. I noticed some trees in 
Ventura county eight years ago which were 
growing thriftily and were heavily loaded with 
fruit, on land that was 150 feet to water. The 
large orchards in Ventura county are planted 
on land that never had any oak timber, and 
they are not troubled by losing trees as we are 
where oak trees have been cleared off. 

I don't think any other trees are poison to 
fruit except the oak. I have seen heavy 
growths of brush cleared and the land planted 
to orchard, and there was no trouble of their 
dying. I think Mr. Heath's land which he 
planted to orchard must have been a 'growth of 
brush or jungle instead of oak timber land. If 
so, that accounts for his not losing any trees, 
for his neighbors lose them by the hundred 
where they p'ant on cleared oak land. 

Goleta, July 10th. Josepu Sextok. 

Southern California Horticulturists. 

We alluded recently to the formation of the 
Horticultural Society of Southern California. 
Its objects are thus set forth: 

The development of the horticultural inter- 
ests of Southern California, embraced in the 
counties of Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los An- 
geles, San Bernardino and San Diego. To 
encourage the best methods of cultivation and 
irrigation, marketing, canning, drying and 
preserving fruits, planting the beBt varie- 



ties of trees, vines and all kinds of plants. To 
disseminate all such information as will help 
the horticulturist and to take such steps as 
will protect the orchards and vineyards from 
pests of all kinds. To hold meetings for the 
purpose of making exhibits and discussing such 
subjects as may be presented at said meetings; 
said meetings to be held at the times and places 
designated by the executive committee. 

The following were chosen ai the executive 
committee for the first year: George R : ce of 
Alhambra, L. C. "Waite of Riverside, N. W. 
Blancbard of Ventura, C. E. White of Pomona, 
H. K. Snow of Tustin. 

L. M. Holt of Riverside was chosen presi- 
dent, and the following vice-presi ( ents were 
elected: Ellwood Cooper of Santa Barbara, N. 
W. Blanchard of Ventura, Frank A. Kimball 
of San Diego, D. A. Shaw of San Bernardino, 
J. W. Jeffreys of Los Angeles. W. H. Hola- 
bird, general sfcretary. The following were 
chosen corresponding secretaries: Editor of 
the Santa Barbara Press, editor of Ventura 
Free Press, H. J. Rudisill of Riverside, C. D. 
Ambrose of P- mnna, and D. H. Home of Ocean- 
side. Colonel J. E. McComas of Pomona, 
treasurer. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That this society demand that the super- 
visors of the counties of Santa Barbara. Ventura, 
Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego take 
prompt and effective measures to stamp out the in- 
sect pests that threaten the destruction of the citrus 
fruit industries of Southern California. 

That a certified copy of this resolution sent to 
the supervisors of the counties named therein. 

Whereas, The cottony cushion scale has to an 
a'arming extent threatened the destruction of citrus 
culture in Southern California; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, the horticulturists of Southern 
California in convention assembled, request the 
Congressman of this district — General Vandever — 
to present a bill in Congress to appropriate a sum 
of at least $50,000 for the purpose of investigating 
the treatment of this scale in foreign countries, and 
the establishment of a commission to take the neces- 
sary steps to exterminate this terrible enemy of cit- 
rus culture. 

Whereas, Owing to the rapid encroachment of 
insect pests in many local ties and the danger of the 
utter ruin of citrus culture industry, and 

Whereas, The Board of Supervisors of Los Ange- 
les county refused to appropriate $500, to be supple- 
mented by $rooo, to be raised by private donations 
for the purpose of investigating parasitic and de- 
structive insects; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this society utterly repudiate all 
such want of foresight in this and other similar cases, 
and deem such action detrimental to the best inter- 
ests of fruit culture in Southern California. 



The Soft-Shelled Walnut. 

Editors Press : — In your issue of June 30th, 
Mr. Russell Heath, referring to my soft-shelled 
walnut, leaves the impression that the seed 
came from his place, which is a mistake. Mr. 
Heath does not produce a walnut anything like 
it. He states that he procured his seed in Los 
Angeles and that they were planted in 1858, 
and one tree came what he called a soft-shell. 

Ten years earlier than that (1848) there were 
some walnuts planted in Napa valley by ?. gen- 
tleman of this county, who procured his seed in 
San Francisco, and I think they came from 
Chili. They produced a nut very much like 
my soft-shell, and began to fruit at about six 
years, and I think the waluut I bought in San 
Francisco for seed in 1867 was also from Chili. 

The soft-shell that Mr. Heath speaks of at 
Mr. S. P. Stowe's place is not a soft-shell at all. 
The nut is small and has a harder shell than 
the hard-shell variety. All that is remarkable 
about this tree is its rapid growth, which is 
about three feet the first year and 10 feet the 
next, with long side-branches, which the other 
varieties seldom make at that age. 

Mr. Heath says he never had a walnut bear 
at a less age than eight years. That is evi- 
dence that his tree is not a soft-shell. The 
soft-shell commences to bear here as early as 
four years, and I have been told by parties in 
Los Angeles county who have bought seed from 
me that they have produced walnuts the third 
year, and wherever they have been tried they 
have produced fruit much earlier than the hard- 
shell and a superior nut. Good evidence that 
they are a superior walnut is to be found in the 
fact that nine-tenths of the trees planted in 
Southern California to-day are of the soft-shell 
variety. 

Mr. Heath says that no living being can tell 
the difference between his soft and hard-shell 
by the kernel. 1 have never tried them, but 
I don't believe they can, and I know they can- 
not from an outside view or a close inspection 
of the shell. The nut known as the soft-shell 
can be told as soon as you put your eye on it, 
and the tree grows differently and can be told 
wherever seen. Josei'u Sexton. 

Ooleta, July 9, 1888. 



Oil from Indian Corn. — A St. Louis party 
is engaged in the business of expressing oil 
from Indian corn, and the new industry prom- 
ises a successful rival to the best vegetable oils. 
From a bushel of corn, costing 35 cents, a gal- 
lon of clear amber oil is obtained, worth 75 
cents, and the solid substance remaining is said 
to be a better article of animal food than any 
of the oil cakes now on the market. If antici- 
pations in regard to the business are realized, 
the farmer will be enabled to obtain a good 
price for his corn and feed it to his stock after- 
ward — to eat his cake and have it, as it were. 



44 



pACIFie F^URAlo PRESS 



[Jdly 21, 1888 



J?ATROJMS OF jZ^USBANDF^Y. 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re 
ports of transactions of subordinate Grantees are respect- 
fully solicited for tbis department. 



The Worthy Master of the National 
Grange. 

We are born to die. Dust must return to 
dust, and the spirit to God who gave it. There 
is no service in our noble Order fraught with 
more solemn and salutary interest than the 
memorial service once a year. It reminds us of 
the uncertainty of human life, the certainty of 
death, the mutability of all earthly things, the 
vanity of all human pretensions; that there 
is only a span between the cradle and coffin. 
And, what is still better, it serves not only to 
recall the virtues and good qualities of our 
brothers and sisters who have passed on, but 
tends to bring us all more closely together in a 
tender sentiment and memory, and teach us 
more keenly to perceive and appreciate each 
other's worth and more kindly and charitably 
to bear with the infirmities of the living. 

These and kindred thoughts always flit 
through our mind when we hear that some dear 
brother or sister of the Grange has passed to rest, 
and we were especially reminded on reading the 
telegram announcing the death of the Worthy 
Master of the National Grange, the Hon. Put 
Darden of Mississippi. 

Captain Darden was born in Jefferson coun- 
ty, Mississippi, March 10, 1836. His father, 
.Too. D. Darden, also a native of that State, was 
a man of original views and much force of char- 
acter. He believed that boys, whatever their 
station in life, should be trained to manual 
labor, and, though a man of wealth, he com- 
pelled his sons to work on the plantation a por- 
tion of every year. The subject of this sketch 
was thus brought up to a vigorous outdoor life, 
and thought it no hardship after his morning's 
work was done to walk three miles to school. 

He graduated at the University of Missis- 
sippi at '20 years of age. He selected farming 
as a business, and was engaged at that when 
the war broke out. He joined a battery of 
artillery as a private, was elected lieutenant, 
and within a year was chosen captain, and 
commanded the company until the close of the 
war, when he again returned to the plantation. 
While thus engaged in agriculture, the advan- 
tages of the Grange did not fail to attract his 
attention. He joined Plm-nix Grange as a 
charter member and in the fall of 1S73 was 
elected Master. He was elected Overseer of 
the State Grange in 1S74, and Master of that 
body in 1S76, which office he has held with dis- 
tinguished credit to himself ever since, and his 
energy, ability and indefatigable efforts in be- 
half of the Order in Mississippi for years caused 
his elevation to the highest office within the 
gift of the Grange. 

While we from week to week contemplate 
with pride and pleasure the growth and pros- 
perity of our Order, it is with a sad heart we 
pause to pay this tribute of love and respect to 
the memory of our Worthy Master, Bro. Darden. 
We shall miss his presence, his counsel, ex- 
perience and wisdom in the National Grange, 
which he so punctually attended. His able pen 
and eloquent voice were ever employed in behalf 
of the rights and interests of the Patrons of 
Husbandry. In him the farmers had an able 
and faithful advocate, and in his annual ad 
dress as Master of the National Grange, and 
numerous speeches and wise counsel in subordi- 
nate relations, he will still live among us. 



Abatement of the Debris Nuisance. 

A dispatch from Marysville to the city 
dailies, early this week, gives interesting infor- 
mation as to the present condition of the water 
in the Sacramento river and its tributaries. 

It appears that on the 19th of May last the 
Appeal had samples of surface-water taken — at 
eight different points; also water from the pipe 
supply of Sacramento city, which is pumped 
from the Sacramento river below the mouth of 
the American. These samples were placed in 
the hands of Henry Flint, a Marysville chem- 
ist, and by him submitted to an exact evap- 
orating process. He reports the amount of 
solid slickens by weight in grains per gallon of 
water as follows: Yuba river, at the mouth, 
84; Feather, above the mouth of the Yuba, 14; 
Feather, below the month of the Yuba, 42; 
Bear river, at Wheatland, 84; American, near 
its mouth, 84; Sacramento river, at Meridian, 
Sutter county, 0; Sacramento river, just above 
the mouth of the American, 14; Sacramento 
city water from pipe, 42; Suisun bay. at 
Benicia, ebb tide, slickens, 28; salt, 168. 

He says: " All the water examined held or- 
ganio matter in suspension; that from the Sac 
ramento river at Meridian contained the great- 
est quantity. The only water carrying in so- 
lution any appreciable amount of mineral was 
that taken at Benicia, which was contaminated 
with sea salt. None of the waters presented 
to me for examination could be classed as 
potable, unless freed from the suspended 
matter. 

Effect or the Injunction. 
" I find a great diminution in the quantity of 
slickens carried in suspension by the Yuba 
river, since the injunction of hydraulic mining. 
Only a few years ago the Yuba river was car- 



rying 638 grains to each gallon of water as a 
daily average, and on one occasion was deliver- 
ing the enormous quantity of 1060 grains to 
each gallon." 

An examination of Flint's report shows some 
striking coincidences. The quantity of slick- 
ens carried in suspension at the time the sam- 
ples were taken was the same in the Yuba, 
Bear and American rivers, and the water from 
the Sacramento river above the mouth of the 
American held the same quantity of slickenB as 
that of the Feather above the mouth of the 
Yuba. The upper Sacramento river at Merid- 
ian was entirely free from mineral matter in 
suspension, and the samples taken from the 
tributary streams named show whence came 
the slickens found in the main stream at the 
capital and in the waters of Suisun bay at 
Benicia. 

A comparison of all the samples clearly dis- 
proves the theory that the agricultural wash is 
at all responsible for the mineral matter carried 
in suspension by the Sacramento river, since it 
is shown that the upper Sacramento is entirely 
free from such material until it receives the 
flow from the Feather river, which carries 
slickens from the Yuba and Bear rivers. The 
samples taken were almost entirely free from 
sand, the slickens being a yellowish clayey 
substance, which readily mingles with and 
floats along in the water as far as the current 
lasts. 

Within the past few days it has been reported 
that Bear river is running clear, indicating an 
entire suspension of hydraulic mining on that 
stream at present. 

Candid Thoughts for Voters. 

We now have a word to say to voters in 
every county and senatorial district in Califor- 
nia. You have an important duty to perform 
for yourselves and the coming thousands who 
will follow you in your rich field of labor in this 
rapidly-advancing portion of the Union. 

It is of the utmost importance as to whom 
your votes elect to the coming Legislature. The 
prosperity of this State, if not the nation, de- 
pends upon your actions. Important as the 
tariff may be to you, it is as nothing to the 
abuses which are surely and steadily extending 
their cold fingers and steel hands upon your in- 
dustry and the future welfare of your successors 
and our coming producers. 

Do not forget how repeatedly our Legislatures 
have cheated you out of your needs and rights, 
just for the want of a few more honest, unyield- 
ing men at the State Capitol. 

Remember the extra session and the defeat of 
needed legislation by strategy, and how the 
bosses have elected senators who could never 
have received one-quarter of the popular votes 
of the State, the shameful backing and filling, 
and all the vitally important measures that 
were strangled, and willfully too, by traitors to 
the best interests of the people, whom they 
should have gloried in honestly and faithfully 
representing. 

Be up and doing, and do not let the saloons 
and (so-called) respectable loafers and pot- 
house politicians nominate another lot of the 
same ilk to represent you for the next two 
years in the Assembly, or four years in the Sen- 
ate. 

Try to get good men nominated, and if you 
fail, do not feel bound to vote for a scoundrel 
nominated through misrepresentation or selfish- 
ness. 

It is time for honest voters to look out sharp- 
ly for themselves and vote independently for a 
deoent candidate rather than for a weak, truck- 
ling, doubl6-faced party nominee. Whenever 
and wherever necessary, why not call non-par- 
tisan mass-meetings to discuss and enlighten 
and unify the action of honest voters, that you 
may be able to vote effectively, and not worse 
than throw your votes away on unsuitable can- 
didates? 

San Jose Grange. 

At the regular meeting of San Jose Grange, 
on the 30th nit., the time was spent in discuss- 
ing Grange topics and Grange interests. 

Cyrus Jones read a sketch of the local 
Grange, dating from its organization in 1873. 
The Grange store was started by a stock com- 
pany in July, 1874. The company were all 
Grangers, the by-laws were such that none but 
(Grangers could be directors, and the capital 
stock was $100,000, though afterward increased 
to §200,000. 

The work of the Order in regulating the pay 
of the supervisors, having guide-boards erected 
at cross-roads, and furthering the horticultural 
interests of Santa Clara county were among the 
topics touched upon by the historian, and the 
value of its social influence was not overlooked. 

At the first meeting for the current month, 
we learn from the Mercury, there was but a 
small attendance, owing to ihe pre-s of work in 
the country. Those who were present merely 
went through the routine business and ad- 
journed without discussion. 




The "Rural" in Great Britain.— A friend 
in S ,nt.-i Clara county lately sent a copy of this 
jiurual to an elderly lady in England, who 
writes back to him: " I like the paper very 
much. As a rule I cannot read American 
papers, they are so boastful, sensational and 
evidently lying; but I can read and enjoy the 
Rural Press." 



A Trip to Tosemite. 

We shall endeavor to give a brief memoran- 
dum only of our recent journey to Yosemite. 
Leaving Oakland at 8:30 P. m., June 28th, with 
wife, son and daughter, in a comfortable 
Pullman palace car, we arrived at Berenda 
about 3 a. m. Resting until daylight, we 
branched tff from the S. P. line 2S miles to 
Raymond, in the foothills, arriving about 7 
o'clock. Partaking of breakfast here (the only 
poor meal remembered during our whole trip), 
we were off before S:30 in one of the elegant 
four- horse coaches of the Yosemite Stage and 
Transfer Co. 

Our driver, Bill Blackmore, who has handled 
the whip and reins on many of the important 
stage lines in different parts of California during 
the past 25 years, gave us a splendid ride to 
Wawona. Bill is brimfull of anecdotes, serious 
and humorous, illustrative of pioneer life and 
early happenings in California. When he lays 
himself out, passengers on his box are bound to 
have an interesting journey, with fun and in- 
formation worth falling in with. 

About half-way along on our day's drive, we 
dined well at Judge Grant's Sulphur Springs 
House. The Judge has a commodius home for 
summer visitors, nicely planned, and visitors 
are well cared for. It is beautifully environed 
by an improved farm which furnishes, in rare 
quality and freshness, nearly all that a good 
liver could ask for at his table. Judge Grant 
has lately set out thousands of choice fruit 
trees and raisin grapevines. We regretted 
not being able to tarry and note more fully the 
creditable and important improvements he is 
making in this elevated section, which no 
doubt will become noted for its superior mount- 
ain-produced fruits. The proprietor, as one of 
the many wealthy Easterners who fully ap- 
preciate the healthfulness and future pros- 
pects of California, is doing more than an 
average hundred of " old-timers " to unlock the 
latent resources of our glorious State. 

We passed over many miles of one of the best 
of turnpikes (connecting his place with the old 
Mariposa road) built entirely by his enterprise 
and money. 

The Wawona hotel at Big Tree station, at an 
elevation of 4000 feet above the sea, was reached 
at 5 P. M. It is located in a beautiful mountain 
meadow, bordering the south fork of the Mer- 
ced river. The water here is equally cool and 
transparent with that of the waters of the mid- 
dle fork which traverses Yosemite Yalley, 26 
miles distant. 

Mr. Thomas Hill, our most widely known of 
leading and favorite California painters, has a 
gem of a studio here, with some of his master- 
pieces of Yosemite and other American scenery 
and dozens of other rarely meritorious paint- 
ings on exhibition. It is a surprise and charm 
to all lovers of art and picturesque scenery to 
find such a gallery in so beautiful a nook of 
nature. 

It is a splendid afternoon's ride to the Mari- 
posa Big Tree grove, six miles distant. The 
road on the start overlooks a large meadow 
which is still luxuriously green and beautifully 
interspersed with clear running brooks and 
rills, and adorned with a bountiful array of va- 
rious colored flowers. Altogether, it looks as 
fine as any meadow to be found in New England 
or nestled amid any of our mountain ranges. 

Our journey among the numerous giant Se- 
quoias scattered throughout the heavy forest 
of large pine, spruce, fir, and other handsome 
trees, of rich growth and foliage, over a route 
six to eight miles in extent, was one of such 
constant surprise and delight as not to be ef- 
faced by subsequent views of the grandeur of 
Yosemite Valley iteielf . 

The traveler who omits the Mariposa Big Tree 
grove from his trip to Yosemite loses one of 
the best opportunities, and robs his vision of a 
vast amount of wonderful and everlastingly 
charming sight-seeing. 

A seven-mile morning ride, with a short 
climb afoot, brought us to the summit of Signal 
peak, one of the most prominent landmarks 
in the Sierras, which we had watched at 
different points of the route from Raymond up. 
Here we are rewarded with one of the most re- 



markable views of American landscape. There 
was plainly visible to the northward and east- 
ward, Mount Hoffman, Cathedral Peaks, 
Cloud's Rest, Minarets, Mts. I. yell. Florence, 
Ritter, Starr King, Gibbs, Clark, Red (Iron) 
and other notable mountains of the " High 
Sierras." Southward, with favorable atmos- 
pheric conditions, can be seen Mt. Whitney 
and other high peaks; and westward, the lesser 
mountains and intervening hills, and the great 
San Joaquin valley; and still beyond that, in 
plain sight, the Coast Range. For variety and 
vastness this view can seldom be surpassed, or 
even equaled elsewhere. 

It is the intention of Messrs. Washburn to 
extend their road, which so far is a very good 
one, until it fairly encircles and reaches the 
very summit of Signal peak, making its grand 
and sightly crown the " Mt. Hamilton of the 
Sierras. " Signal peak has so many advantages 
from its far inland location, clear atmosphere, 
inspiring associations and its 7000 feet of eleva- 
tion, so easily surmounted, that we shall hope to 
hear of its increased appreciation in the near 
future. 

Leaving our delightful stopping-place (Wa- 
wona) at 7:30 a. m., we were landed at the 
Stoneman house, in one of the most wonderful 
and delightful portions of Yosemite valley, 
just in time to partake of a splendidly refresh- 
ing noonday lunch. 

For eight days we enjoyed visiting the 
points of interest within and around the mighty 
walls of this grand heart and soul inspiring, 
heaven-domed temple of God's creation. No 
pen can do justice to the majestic length of its 
waterfalls; the purity of its running waters over 
their cleanly rock and pearl-pebbled bottom; 
the delicate and ever beautifully varying tints 
in its pure atmosphere; its clear and transparent 
skies by day; the seemingly multiplied number 
and magnified brilliancy of its stars — all 
hallowed by the vast and supreme quiet pre- 
vailing — are features simply indescribable to 
second or third persons. 

The pens of a thousand able writers com- 
bined who have attempted it, have failed to 
half describe its sublimity and soul-inspiring 
grandeur. Its grand scenes can only be realized 
by personal visitation and ocular demonstration . 
All should improve the first opportunity to 
visit the valley, and none will go away disap- 
pointed with its God-created panorama. Obser- 
vations confirm us in the belief that the photo- 
facsimile engravings published in these columns 
from time to time give the most perfect impres- 
sions of the grand scenery and works of nature 
in Yosemite valley of any views obtainable ex- 
cep' through photographs or personal visitation. 

We hope to give further mention of different 
points visited in some of onr future issues, if 
our many duties will permit. 

Returning, we left the valley at 8 A. M. Jnly 
9tb, rested at Wawona from 12 noon to 8:30 
the next morning and arrived at Raymond at 
5 ?. m ., after a glorious ride rendered delightful 
and grand by shifting scenes of mountains and 
valleys as we descended westward. We enjoyed 
a good meal at Raymond this time, a pleasant 
ride to Berenda by daylight and a sound sleep 
in a still palace sleeper from 9 p. m. till 3 a. 
m., when our car was picked np by the South- 
ern Overland train and landed in Oakland 
about 12 o'clock on the 11th. 

We believe the Raymond route to be the 
quickest, and, all in all, a very safe and most 
desirable route. 

Now that rates by this route have been re- 
duced to the members of the Teachers' National 
Association (just convening in San Francisco) 
from $50 to $31.50 for the round trip, including a 
visit to the Mariposa Big Tree Grove, we can do 
no less than urge all Eastern visitors to oonsider 
well and favorably the extra good opportunity 
for them to visit the Yosemite valley, and, if 
possible, by all means enjoy this rich and rare 
treat. Would it not be well also for the teach- 
ers of our own State to improve such an oppor- 
tunity for taking in the valley, as well as com- 
plimenting many of their fellow-members from 
abroad by accompanying them, thus making the 
journey mutually pleasant and agreeable while 
they visit the grandest show offered on all 
" Uncle Sam's farm." 



Joly 21, 1888. 



f ACIFI6 t^URAb f RESS. 



45 



^Cgf^icultui^al J^otes. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Alameda. 

Sample: Growths. — Livermore Herald, 
July 12: Henry Crane brought us in last week 
a stalk of oorn nearly nine feet high, and a 
ten-pound beet, both of this year's growing, 
from his ten-acre plot in the Rose Tract, near 

Pleasanton 0. H. Symmes brought in this 

morning a box of monster apricots, the largest 
of which measured 8i inches in circumference 
and 2| inches in its largest diameter. A dozen 
others were but a trifle smaller. They were 
from Prof. Locke's orchard on his place two 
miles south of Livermore. The soil is a red 
clay. 

Involved with Convolvulus. — John G. 
Young, the well-known farmer who tills the 
Altamont hills, is wrestling with a weed. It is 
a species of wild morning-glory, the seed of 
which came in a bundle of trees, a year or so 
ago. When first noticed, there was a patch 
four feet wide and six long. In another year, 
20 times as much ground was covered, and still 
it spread. Nothing else could grow, and Mr. 
Young saw plainly that unless he took vigor- 
ous action, his ranch, and the entire Altamont 
country, would soon be one great garden of 
morning-glories. He tried plowing and culti- 
vation — the weeds thrived all the better. Then 
he plowed deep, and stripped the entire patch 
of the Burface soil to a depth of 14 inches, pick- 
ing out all the roots by hand. This checked 
the growth a trifle, but the undaunted weeds 
kept coming, and the hard bottom was soon 
covered with a fine crop. Even the loose dirt 
which he had piled in heaps yielded a good 
growth. Next he tried salt, and the result of 
this experiment he is now awaiting. Only a 
small section was salted, and if this succeeds, 
Mr. Young will soak the entire patch with 
brine. The salt remedy will doubtless prove 
effectual, though it will unfit the land for other 
use for years to come. 

Contra Costa. 

Hay and Dairy Notes. — Martinez Hern, 
July 17: M. Bicente, who runs a dairy on the 
Pinole rancho, in February sowed 31,000 pounds 
of oats on 18 acres of land. He cut and put 
up over 50 tons of No. 1 hay, worth $12 per 
ton. Tame oats hay is the best for dairy pur- 
poses, as the oows give more milk when fed on 
it. On 500 acres he has 90 dairy cows and he 
is making over 200 lbs. of butter per week, be- 
sides raising 25 heifer calves. He says he finds 
the land around Pinole equal to any in the 

State for dairy purposes Hook Bros, have 

sold between 600 and 700 tons of wheat hay all 
baled, to be delivered to S. Blum & Co. In 
canvassing the county for the hay market it is 
found there will be from 10 to 20 per cent more 
this year than last. It being heavier and bet- 
ter than last, it can be said there is 33 per cent 
increase over last year. 

Humboldt. 
On Reclaimed Land. — Eureka Standard, 
July 5: During a recent visit to Port Kenyon 
we called to see W. P. Grinsell, the lucky 
owner of a tract of 80 acres of superior land in 
that section. Four years ago this month Mr. 
Grinsell purchased this 80 acre tract for $2400, 
and last year, before he built the fine residence 
now on the place, he refused $9000 for the 
farm. * * Five years ago tide-water ebbed and 
flowed over the tract at the spring tides, the 
land was overgrown with thick underbrush and 
trees. About this time Putnam and others 
formed a reclamation district below this land, 
on Salt river, and built levees to shut off the 
tide-water. In reclaiming land for themselves 
they shut off the tides from the lands of some 
of their neighbors, Mr. Grinsell among others, 
and he began at once to clear the brush and 
undergrowth from his 80 acres. He has now 
50 acres in clover and the balance under cr'.ti- 
vation. He dairies 31 cows, each cow yielding 
a pound of butter per day from May 1st to 
Sept. 1st, and from Sept. to May, half a pound 
per day. The grass land is so fenced as to al- 
low changing of cows from one piece to another, 
and thereby it is utilized to the best advantage. 
This year Mr. Grinsell plowed for the first 
time 10 acres and put it down to peas and bar- 
ley — will cut it green for cow feed. Clover 
was sowed with the grain and peas and will 
get a good stand. He also has some of the 
land in carrots and beets. He will get of car- 
rots between six and seven tons to the acre, 
and of beets, 18 tons to the acre. It is best, he 
thinks, to pull beets about the last of Novem- 
ber, but they can stay in the ground all winter 
without injury, Bt s des the above he has a few 
acres in vegetables, berries, and a small orchard 
for family use. Plums and prunes do well 
here, also other varieties of fruit. Mr. Grinsell 
is a great admirer of fine live-stock, and pro- 
poses to keep only the best. We noticed at his 
place a splendid Berkshire sow, weighing 400 
pounds, kept for breeding. The hogs are fat- 
tened on sour milk from the dairy. 

Kern. 

The Hay Crop.— Bakersfield Echo: N. E. 
Kelsey has furnished us with the following 
memorandum of the hay handled by him and 
F. D. Nelson from the beginning of hay-har- 
vest 1887 to the same date in 1888: At Poso, 
202,465 pounds; at Tehachapi, 760,325 pounds; 
at Glenburn and Sumner, 4 538,185 pounds; 
total, 5,500,975 pounds, or 2750^ tons. They 
also shipped 475 tons from Pixley, Tulare coun- 



ty. The principal part of their shipments 
went south, to Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
counties. The prices paid were, we believe, 
about $10 per ton for alfalfa and $12 for grain 
hay, delivered at the car. At an average of, 
say $11 per ton, their hay exports from this 
county amounted to $30,255 50. This, however, 
by no means represents the hay crop of the 
county. Thousands of tons are stacked every 
year and fed to cattle, sheep and horses during 
the winter months, when the natural grasses 
are short. This is especially the case with cat- 
tle and sheep that are to be fat for the early 
spring market. It is because of this ability 
to produce early beef and mutton that this part 
of the State is so highly prized by stockmen. 
From one station alone — Sumner — there were 
shipped during the year ending May 31, 1888, 
9224 head of cattle, 1728 calves, and 52,580 
sheep, by far the greater portion of which were 
grown in this alfalfa section. 

Lake. 

Choice Specimens. — Those contributing to 
the Avalanche Farmers' Exhibit this week 
(July 5th) are as follows: Isaac Alter, from 
Paradise valley, Zula beans, a very large va- 
riety; 16 of them weigh one pound, stringless 
and very choice; Spanish cucumbers, one of 
which ia 3 feet 8 inches in length and 8 inches 
in circumference. Egg plant squash, a new 
variety in Lake county and a very fine squash. 
Red Astrakan apples, the largest and finest 
yet brought to the exhibit, some of which meas- 
ure 11 inches in circumference. D. H. Colwell, 

a radish 18 inches in circumference (July 

12th.) C. A. Griner brought to the exhibit 
some fine samples of timothy and red-top hay 
and red olover. The timothy is six feet long, 
while the head of some measures one foot. The 
clover and red-top is about four feet long. 

Lassen. 

Utilizing Water. — Reno Oazetle: Work is 
soon to be resumed in the tunnel which is to 
tap Eagle lake, Lassen county. The tunnel is 
being run by Hon. P. N. Marker of Nevada 
and Captain C. A. Merrill of California. The 
lake will give a flow of 780,000,000 gallons each 
24 hours and will irrigate 150,000 acres of land 
now lying uncultivated for want of water. The 
lands to be irrigated are on the borders of 
Honey Lake valley, the central part being irri- 
gated by Susan river. Within the past year 
half a dozen reservoirs have been constructed 
in Lassen county. These cost from $500 to 
$6000 each and hold from 5,000,000 to 40,- 
000,000 gallons of water. These reservoirs 
have more than doubled the value of many 
ranches. 

Mendocino. 
Hop-Growers' Meeting. — Dispatch-Demo- 
crat: The Hop-Growers' Association of Men- 
docino county held its regular annual meeting 
Saturday, July 7th, L. F. Long presiding. Of- 
ficers for the ensuing year were elected as 
follows: Pres., L. F. Long; V. P., P. Cunning- 
ham; Treas., Robt. McGarvey; Sec, G. T. 
Rhoads. Directors — N. Bartlett, B. Pember- 
ton, R. Hay worth, T. S. Parsons, T. R. Lucas, 
W. D. White and T. J. Fine. L. F. Long, W. 
D. White and G. T. Rhoads were elected a 
committee to wait on the officers of the S. F. & 
N. P. R. R. Co. to ask for a reduction ot 
freight on hops. The association adjourned, 
subject to the call of the president. 

Nevada. 

Orchard Prospects. — Grass Valley Union, 
July 11: To all appearance the fruit crop of 
Nevada county this season will be the largest 
ever known. The apple crop is particularly 
large, the trees in many instances being much 
too heavily laden. The fruit has not escaped 
injury from the codlin moth, but the loss will 
be less from that cause than for a number of 
years, and, taken altogether, it may be said to 
be in excellent condition. The pear and peach 
crop is also large and of good quality, and early 
varieties are about ready for marketing. There 
should be a large shipment of fruit from the 
county this season for Eastern and other mar- 
kets, as our foothill apples and pears have 
earned a reputation that has made them eagerly 
sought for of late years. The orchards that 
will mainly furnish the fruit this season will be 
the old ones, but some of those planted three 
years ago will furnish a fair quantity, and an- 
other season will add materially to the general 
aggregate. Many one and two-year-old or- 
chards now in cultivation are making vigorous 
growth, and in the next two and three years 
will more than double the fruit product of the 
county. 

San Bernardino. 

Orange Planting at Ontario. — The Rec- 
ord gives what is believed to be a reasonably 
accurate list of the acreage newly set in Ontario 
this year, compiled by a somewhat careful can- 
vass of the colony, making a total of 210 acres, 
and remarks: Practically all the planting of 
importance has been of oranges, mostly Wash- 
ington Navels, though quite an area has been 
set to the Mediterranean Sweet. The young 
orchards are all in splendid condition, none but 
the best stock having been set. 

Santa Barbara. 

Honey. — Lompoc Record, July 7: The out- 
put of honey from about Lompoc will not fall 
much short of 100 tons the present season. The 
season is fairly up to the average. 

Good Keepers.— Lompoc Record: Mr. fl. N. 
Ryon brought to our office, July 7th, several 
apples of the Newtown pippin variety as perfect 
in condition as that apple is generally found in 



March. This climate is so universally cool 
that with little difficulty the hardier varieties 
of winter apples can be kept almost the year 
round. 

San Joaquin. 

Successful Surgery. — Stockton Independ- 
ent, July 17: H. S. Sargent recently purchased 
in the East a full-blooded Jersey bull yearling, 
the get of a $12,000 bull. The youngster ar- 
rived here and was doing well until Saturday 
last when he attempted to swallow a walnut 
and choked. The nut lodged in the throat and 
would have killed the yearling, but on Sunday 
last Dr. Sargent opened the calf's throat, re- 
moved the nut and sewed up the cut. Yester- 
day the animal was feeling finely, and ate his 
regular allowance of feed. The owner thinks 
the life of a valuable bull has been saved. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Eggs-traordinary. — Arroyo Grande Her- 
ald: One of our Los Berros farmers, who is 
too modest to allow us to give his name, has 
made a chicken record that is seldom beaten. 
On November 13, 18S7, he commenced with 75 
hens and has averaged about that number since. 
Up to the first of the present month he had 
sold 570 dozen eggs, which brought $114 90, 
showing an average of nearly $16 per month 
on an investment of $30 or $40. 

Santa Clara. 

Fruit Outlook.— San Jose Mercury, July 14: 
The prospect of this year's yield in the Saratoga 
district, embracing the foothill section from 
Mountain View to Los Gatos, is exceptionally 
good in all fruits except French prunes. As it 
is, what is lost in the French prunes is made up 
by the extraordinary efforts put forth by the 
grapes and peaches to outdo themselves. Near- 
ly three-fourths of the peaches were taken from 
the trees in the thinning process, yet the trees 
throughout the Bection are still heavily laden, 
and but for precautionary measures would 
break down beneath the weight. The oldest 
residents of the valley state that never before 
have they seen the grapevines so heavily yet 
evenly laden with choice fruit. The apricot 
crop is nearly a failure, though one or two va- 
rieties are bearing well. Apples are thickly 
set and comparatively free from the codlin 
moth. Silver prunes are bearing well, and 
though not any larger than an average year are 
far outstripping their brothers, the French 
prunes ... .The Mercury representative had 
several interviews with leading fruit men in re- 
gard to prices, and learned that all who have 
yet sold have done so at a good figure, the ma- 
jority getting two cents where prunes and 
peaches are sold together, making it equivalent 
to 2$ cents for prunes and a cent and a half for 
peaches. 

Sonoma. 

A Thriving Berry Farm. — Healdsburg 
Enter prise, July 11: A visit to the farm of J. 
H. Curtiss a few days since revealed to us the 
productive capabilities of bottom land if prop- 
erly planted and cultivated. Mr. Curtiss has 
made a specialty of raising blackberries and 
raspberries, and their superior quality has 
always insured him a home market and good 
prices. He has employed from 10 to 15 hands 
during the busy season, who gather from 75 to 
100 pounds each per day, keeping one wagon 
busy carrying to market. He finds the Kitta- 
tinny variety of blackberry better than the 
Lawton, as the seed can hardly be detected in 
them at all. The bushes are very prolific, 
growing on the best of soil, and loaded, as they 
are now, with their black and red berries, make 
a pretty sight indeed. 

AT the Canneries. — Last Saturday after- 
noon the employes of the Van Alen Packing 
Co. were busily engaged in preparing apricots 
and plums for the market. Neatness and order 
prevail in every department. Everything is 
Kept as clean as constant attention and labor 
can make it. In about ten days Mr. Van Alen 
will commence on the peach crop, and will em- 
ploy a large number of hands for some time. 
He has procured the ground immediately oppo- 
site for the especial benefit of those who wish 
to camp out and work in the cannery. It is 
convenient in every way for that purpose, 
there being plenty of shade and water right on 

the ground Mr. Merchant, proprietor of 

the Magnolia cannery, will soon have in place 
a new boiler of 50-horse power added to the 
one now in use of 32 horse power. He has just 
completed eight large vats for cooking, in place 
of the small ones formerly used. The smaller 
vats will be used for putting up pickles later in 
the season. Mr. Merchant will buy all the 
cucumbers tit for making pickles that the farm- 
ers can supply him with this fall. He now has 
14 men working in the tinshops, and on Friday 
last had employed 180 hands in the cannery. 
The pack for the season thus far amounts to 
6000 cases, and he is shipping at the rate of two 
carloads per day. 

Sutter. 

Mott's Harvester. — Suiter Farmer, July 
13". John Mott of Pleasant Grove is the invent- 
or of a combined harvester that is an improve- 
ment over all others now in use. He has spent 
several years in perfecting his invention, and 
had succeeded in removing about all the defects 
a year ago, but not in time to render his har- 
vester available. This season he is succeeding 
beyond his most sanguine expectations. * * * 
The separator and header are attached to a 
heavy four-wheeled truck; a straw-burning en- 
gine rests upon the truck and is of sufficient 
capacity to run the thrasher and header. The 
truck is drawn by 12 animals, and as will be 



seen, they have nothing to do with the draft of 
the separator or header. The team can stop or 
start without influencing the motion on the 
thrasher; hence, when glutted with down- 
fallen or heavy grain the cutting and thrashing 
proceeds, although the team may be standing 
still or much slackened in speed. Mr. Mott's 
machine cuts 16 feet wide, and on plain sailing, 
in large fields, is capable of harvesting from 35 
to 40 acres a day. Other advantages are the 
lessened number of animals required and the 
greater efficiency and adaptability of the ma- 
chine. Extra precautions are observed in the 
construction of the engine as against fire. 

The Sutter County Fruit Company filed 
articles of incorporation Saturday. The capi- 
tal stock is $5000, divided into 200 shares, all 
subscribed. The principal place of business is 
Marysville, and the incorporators are R. C. 
Kells, J. B. Wilkie, H. P. Stabler, C. E. Will- 
iams and J. J. Pratt. Mr. Kells is president, 
and Mr. Williams secretary and treasurer. 
The objects of the new organization, as we un- 
derstand them, are to buy, sell and ship to 
market all kinds of fruit. The incorporators 
are all Sutter county men, with headquarters 
in Marysville, and their names are a guarantee 
of good faith and a successful career. Such an 
organization is much needed here, as it will 
furnish a home market to the small grower for 
all his fruits, when he would be unable to ship 
to a distant market by reason of his limited 
product and experience. The new company 
will at once form connections with large dealers 
in this and the Eastern States. 

Tulare. 

A Superior Fence. — Alila Cor. Delta : The 
block that has been set apart for a nursery by 
O. C. Wheeler, general baggage agent of the S. 
P. Co., has been thoroughly plowed, cultivated 
and pulverized, and now has a first-class rabbit- 
proof fence all around it. The fence is made 
of four-foot Oregon pine laths, set on a one-foot 
base-board, and makes the most complete, 
thorough and substantial fence yet built in this 
community. 

Yolo. 

Improvement in Harvesters. — Davisville 
cor. Yolo Democrat: One of the chief defects 
of the combined harvester is the difficulty of 
regulating the motion, it being most rapid in 
light grain and slowest in heavy, or just where 
it is most required. This defect H. M. LaRue 
& Son (the idea originated with the son, J. E. 
LaRue) are in a fair way to remedy. The 
device consists of a governor and attachments, 
by which the supply of air admitted to the fan 
chamber will be automatically controlled by 
the machine itself. There seems no reason to 
doubt thesuccess of the contrivance, and should 
it meet their expectations, the last and greatest 
difficulty will be removed, and the combined 
harvester take its place among the established 
institutions of the California farm. 

NEVADA. 

Range Losses. — Elko Cor. Reno Gazette, 
July 6 : The first general rodeo on the south 
side of the railroad for this season was com- 
pleted about the first of this month, and the 
holders of stock, both large and small, are now 
able to realize, with some degree of certainty, 
their respective losses. I regret to report that 
the disastrous effects of the past winter are as 
bad as was anticipated by well-informed 
stockmen and foreshadowed in my March let- 
ter. The most disastrous locality for stock 
during the past winter and early spring seems 
to have been Butte valley, situated near and 
along the southern line of Elko county. Wright 
Bros, must have lost not less than 33 per cent 
of the range stock that wintered in this locality. 
. . . .Senator Hardesty of Wells wintered about 
2000 head of his immense band in Long valley, 
situated south of Ruby valley some 60 miles. 
He informed me that the round-up and brand- 
ing of calves this spring was most unsatisfac- 
tory in its results Thomas Short of the 

celebrated Cave Creek ranch was very fortu- 
nate, as his stock came out of the winter in fine 
condition, his loss being less than his neigh- 
bors and the output of calves reasonably good, 

considering the winter The stockmen of 

North Ruby having small bunches of cattle, ex- 
cept the band under the control of the San 
Francisco Cattle and Land Corporation, the 
death-rate in this locality has been considerably 
less than in South Ruby, and the return of 
calves has been fair, for the reason that many 
of them had good fall pasture and sufficient hay 

to tide them over to early spring The 

pasture of Newark valley and on the east side 
of the Diamond range, Huntington valley and 
around Bald Mountain has never been better 
during the last 10 years — in fact bunch grass 
and rye grass are in great abundance in many 
places that heretofore have been almost barren, 
and the holders of stock in this locality claim 
they are fully compensated for all loss of stock 
by having unusual good bummer and fall feed, 
and that the large amount of wild rye grass is a 
timely provision for the coming winter. All 
the stockmen along this line have fenced in 
large areas of land for late fall pasture and irri- 
gated great breadths of meadow, and will com- 
mence in a few days to out, cure and stack 
every spear of grass that can be found, so as 
to be better prepared to meet the coming winter 
than heretofore. 



The Senate has passed a bill to place John 
C. Fremont on the retired list of the army as a 
Msjor-General, 



40 



PACIFie RURAto press. 



r.TuLY 21, 1888 




The Old Wife. 

By the bed the old man, waiting, sat in vigil sad 
and tender, 

Where his aged wife lay dying, and the twilight 

shadows brown 
Slowly from the wall and window chased the sunset's 

golden splendor, 

Going down. 

" Is it night?'' she whispered, waking ( for her spirit 
seemed to hover 

Lost between the next world's sunrise and the bed- 
time cares of this). 

And the old man, weak and tearful, trembling as he 
bent above her, 

Answered, " Yes." 

" Are the children in ?" she asked him. Could he 

tell her? All the treasures 
Of their household lay in silence many years beneath 

the snow; 

But her heart was with them living back among her 
toils and pleasures, 

Long ago. 

And ag iin she called at dew-fall in the sunny summer 
weather, 

" Where is litt'e Charley, father? Frank and Rob- 
ert — have they come ? " 

"They are safe.'' the oH man faltered; "all the 
children are together, 

Sjfe at home." 

Then he murmured gentle soothings, but his grief 

grew strong and stronger, 
Till it choked and stilled him as he held her wrinkled 

hand, 

For her soul, far out of hearing, could his fondest 
words no longer 

Understand. 

Still the pale lips summered questions, lul'abies and 
broken verses, 

Nursery prattle, all the language of a mother's lov- 
ing heeds, 

While the midnight round the mourner, left to sor- 
row's bitter mercies, 

Wrapped its weeds. 

There was stillness on the pillow — and the old man 

listened, lonely — 
Till they led him from the chamber, with the burden 

on his breast, 
For the wife of sixty years, his manhood's early love 

and only, 

Lay at rest. 

" Fare you well ! " he sobbed, " my Sarah; you will 

meet the babes before me; 
'Tis a little while, for neither can the parting long 

abide, 

For you will come and call me soon, I know — and 
Htaven will restore me 

To your side." 

It was even so. The springtime, in steps of winter 
treading. 

Scarcely shed its orchard blossoms ere the old man 

closed his eyes. 
And they buried him by Satah, and they had their 
" diamond wedding " 

In the skies. 

— The Chunk Union. 



Mrs. Hardy's Vision. 

[Written for the Riral Prkhs by Clara Spalding Brown.] 

Mrs. Hardy was a very worthy Christian 
woman — more than ordinarily quick in planning 
and zealous in executing many a project for the 
benefit of humanity and the welfare of "the 
church." She was one of the pillars upon 
which rested the Ladies' Aid and Benevolent 
Society of Shumville. No one gave more 
bountifully of time, money and energies to the 
work of that association, or to any other phil- 
anthropic cause which came before the public. 
" A most exemplary life," said the minister one 
day, talking over his parishioners with a visit- 
ing delegate to the annual convention. " I 
wish there were more women in the world 
like Mrs. Hardy." 

One afternoon Mrs. Baxter, another active 
member of the Aid Siciety, called to see Mrs. 
Hardy. As the lived a couple of miles distant, 
it was seldom that Mrs. Hardy saw her except 
at church or the busy meetings of the society, 
so conversation flowed briskly for awhile. 

" How sad about Mrs. Tompkins !" said Mrs. 
Baxter, after a momentary lull in the questions 
and answers. 

" How do you mean ?" returned Mrs. Hardy, 
with some surprise. 

" Why, do you not know how ill she has 
been and about her baby dying last week, and 
the doctor saying it might have lived if it had 
received better care and nourishment? She, 
poor woman, is still unable to leave her bed, 
and is all broken down by the sudden loss of 
her husband just before the baby was born and 
the thought that the baby starved to death. I 
suppose it did die of inanition. She couldn't 
nurse it, and the neighbors didn't show much 
interest. There's an old woman staying with 
her, but she's losing her faculties and isn't much 
better than nobody around the house. Mrs. 
Tompkins is distressed, too, about the funeral 
expenses and doctor's bills and how she is to 
get along until she is able to do some kind of 



work. P„ or little woman 1 these are dark days 

for her." 

" I had no idea she was in such poor circum- 
stances," said Mrs. Hardy. " I supposed that 
she had recovered long ago. I recollect now 
seeing the white hearse standing there the other 
day, but I so often come across funeral proces- 
sions in going about town that I didn't give it 
a second thought." 

Mrs. Hardy's fa.-e flushed a little. Mrs. 
Tompkins lived in a little house on the next 
street, only a few rods away, and it was 
rather mortifying to have Mrs. Baxter come two 
miles to look after the unfortunate woman, 
when she, a neighbor, knew nothing of her con- 
dition. 

" I'm very sorry I didn't hear about it 
sooner," continued Mrs. Bixter. "But I told 
Dr. Means that no doubt you were looking after 
her, as you are always so active in charitable 
work. Don't you think, sister, that we all 
ought to think more of the poor and suffering 
right around us than we do ? It has occurred 
to me sometimes that our minds are so full of 
our general work for the heathen that there is 
no room left for things that ought to be done 
here at home which we overlook." 

"I don't think we can do too much for the 
heathen. Work as we may, it is scarcely more 
than a drop in the bucket, and life seems too 
short for what we have to do in clothing the 
naked and spreading the gospel among the be- 
nighted savages of other nations. Still, I want 
to do my duty to our own poor, and I supposed 
I did. I feel quite conscience-smitten to think 
I have not called on Mrs. Tompkins for so long." 

All the evening and after she had retired to 
sleep, Mrs. Hardy felt a decided uneasiness of 
spirit. Disturbing questions, quite unlike her 
usual calm complacency, obtruded themselves. 
The longer she deliberated, the more dissatis- 
fied she ft It with herself in many ways. At 
last she fell asleep. Awakening with a start, 
she saw a bright light within the room. She 
was about to jump up screaming fire, when 
into the light, which now she saw was of a 
clearer, paler radiance than the glow of flames, 
slowly glided a beautiful, snowy figure. An 
angel figure, with sad, sweet face bowed, and 
hands folded upon its soft-draped bosom. The 
figure paused, and slowly the head was raised. 
Awe-stricken, Mrs. Hardy gazed, scarcely dar- 
ing to breathe lest the wondrous shape melt 
away, yet fearful of what its presence might 
portend. "I must be going to die," she 
thought. "Well, I am ready." Was she 
ready ? Suddenly the self-probings of the 
evening before rushed into her mind, and at 
this moment the gentle face of the heavenly 
visitor assumed a Btern expression. Slow and 
solemn sounded the accusing tones upon the 
midnight air: " Augusta Adelaide Hardy, thou 
hast been tried and hast been found wanting." 

"Can it be? " exclaimed the woman, entreat- 
ingly. " Consider all I have done and tried to 
do. How my heart was in the good work, and 
how it has grieved me because I could not ac- 
complish more." 

" It has been considered," replied the angel. 
"Still thou art wanting." 

" I have not missed the missionary meetings, 
no matter what the weather. I have given 
freely of my means and made barrels of cloth- 
ing and canvassed for subscriptions and dis- 
tributed tracts. I always go to both morning 
and evening service and Friday prayer-meet- 
ing, and my contributions are not niggardly." 

" 'Tis well, but not sufficient," said the angel 
voice. 

" I don't believe there is another woman in 
Shumville who has so much put upon her as 1 
have. One and another have declined the most 
arduous positions, on pleas of ill health, large 
families or something, and I have had to serve 
as president of this, treasurer of that and secre- 
tary of the other, until I don't have half time 
for my duties in my own house," continued 
Mrs. Hardy. 

"True; nor for the missionary work at thine 
own door," quoth the angel. "Thou hast 
meant well, but thou hast not been able to see 
what was plainly to be seen nor to hear what 
clamored for the attention of some good 
Samaritau. There has been too much lip- 
service, too little heart-rendering; too much 
concern for the heatheu and poverty-stricken 
afar off and too little thought for the needy at 
home. Know'st thou not 

-some weary soul o'erladen 



With perplexed struggle in his brain, 
Or, it may be, fretted with life's turmoil, 
Or made sore with some perpetual pain ? ' 

Help thou that soul ! How shalt thou do it ? 
In some small way, mayhap — so small that it 
seems scarce worth the while, yet it may prove 
like heaven sent manna to that struggling be- 
ing. Thou canst commence to-day. Then will 
a new page be opened and in letters of gold 
shalt thy life-work be traced. Continue in thy 
Christian labor as of old, but undertake not so 
much that thy mission work at home be for- 
gotten. Begin now and here with thy neigh- 
bors. Art thou a true neighbor? " 

Yes and no trembled upon Mrs. Hardy's lips. 
She could not say that she had been neighborly 
with all around her — only with two or three 
families in her own position socially. 

"Despise not small things; they may be 
great in heaven. Set thyself to thinking with 
what ease thou mightst cheer and help some 
one less favored than thyself. There is the 
lingering consumptive just across the street, 
who never gets but a few yards away from her 
sick-room. Take her to ride on pleasant days 
in that easy phaeton that thou so often occu- 



piest alone. Why hast thou not thought of 
this? Thou hast neighbors who delight to 
read, whose minds thirst for knowledge, but 
whose purses are empty. Loan them thy 
papers and magazines, yea, thy books, and 
keep them not miserly to thyself. Thou 
hast a garden filled with plants from which 
thou mightst stock the bare grounds around 
those little cottages rented by honest working 
people. Walk over with thy seeds and cuttings 
some bright morning, 'twill not lower thy dig- 
nity. In small deeds such as these doth true 
Christianity evince itself, for so the Master 
teacheth. 

"Myriads of blossoms adorn thy rosebushes 
and wither upon them. Thy modest violets 
perish upon the ground, so great is their pro- 
fusion. Are there not sick-rooms where thou 
shouldst take these messengers from a brighter 
world — poor persons whose desolate homes 
would be brightened by them? 

" When thou art making those dainty dishes 
which form a part of thy daily fare, dost ever 
pause to think of the invalids whose fickle ap- 
petites crave such delicacies and often crave in 
vain ? Thy cast-off garments, too, would some- 
times better serve; sweet Charity if remodeled 
for some one close at hand, some one too proud 
to beg but not too proud to decline delicately- 
proffered aid, than if sent to a distant country. 
Above all, show interest in thy neighbor. Do 
what liest to thy hand, and not from some 
lofty hight, but on the great plane of kindred 
humanity. Move not as though thy world 
were different and thy neighbor were of other 
clay than thyself. So mortals err. For 

"Links more subtle and more fine 
Bind every other soul to thine 
In one great brotherhood divine." 

" A word of praise or hope, a pleasant smile, 
wculd cost thee little, but might send a ray of 
sunshine into some one's darkened life. Be not 
sparing of thy sympathy. 'Tis like precious 
balm upon a wounded heart. The way of the 
world is full of pitfalls and well-nigh insur- 
mountable crags, and there be many struggling 
travelers toward eternity whose feet are poorly 
shod and who stumble and faint on the toil- 
some road. Lift them np ! — these poor creat- 
ures whom God hath ordained to tread a harder 
path than thine. Thou needet not look far to 
find them. Nor will the remedy for one be the 
same thou shouldst apply |to another. Thy 
heart and thy clear sense will tell thee what 
thy tiek should be. And now, farewell. I 
must not tarry here, for much awaits our care 
and guidance. Remember ! " 

" Stay, I pray you ! Tell me who thou art ! 
Well will I remember — I pledge it." 

"I am a ministering angel. God be with 
thee. Thou wilt see a new world to-morrow." 

Slowly faded the dazzling light, and more 
and more misty grew the ethereal form. A 
moment later all was gone. Darkness en- 
shrouded the room, and the beating of Mrs. 
Hardy's heart was the only sound that could 
be heard. 

The next day the "president of this, treas- 
urer of that and secretary of the other" mide a 
number of calls upon the well-to-do citizens of 
Shumville and collected a sufficient sum of 
money 11 to relieve the need of a poor widow," 
without giving to the public the name of the 
person for whom the charity was intended. She 
then visited the doctor and undertaker and set- 
tled their bills in full, requesting them to for- 
ward the same receipted to Mrs. Tompkins. 
And just as the sun was setting she sat by the 
griev.ng invalid, and with kindly tact broached 
a proposition which she said must not be re- 
fused. 

She had room and to spire in her large house, 
and Mrs. Tompkins was very lonely with nothing 
to divert her mind from her recent losses. Why 
not send that incompetent old woman back to 
her daughter, give up the cottage and stay with 
Mrs. Hardy until renewed health should en- 
able her to make other plans ? 

Walking home in the gloaming, as the stars 
peeped out one by one, Mrs. Hardy reflected 
that she had indeed opened her eyes upon a 
different world to-day. Kven the people and 
her relations to them seemed changed. Her hori- 
zon was enlarged and a veil was lifted from before 
her eyes. Beginning at her own hearthstone 
and diverging outward, she resolved there should 
henceforth be the rays of true Christian charity, 
of love for fellow-beings, even the poorest of 
them all, of warm-hearted benevolence, and 
hnmble spirited endeavor to do whatsoever lay 
within her power to serve the Master and 
make brighter the existence of all around her. 
The public might not observe anything new in 
the life of one who was always noted for her 
active labor in good " causes," but many a hu- 
man being, and Mrs. Hardy herself, would de- 
tect a wider scope, a deeper, tenderer, readier 
response to the varied calls for help on the part 
of that good lady, dating from the night of 
Mrs. Hardy's vision. 



" A Place for Everything." — The Qua- 
kers have many habits and customs that 
" worldly " people would profit by imitating. 
They do nothing unnecessary, and save labor 
and wear and tear of mind whenever they can. 
When tools are hung up against a wall, there 
the shape of the tools is painted against the 
wall, bo that when a tool is removed and not 
returned the silent monitor remains. When a 
hammer, saw or monkey-wrench is hung up 
there its shadow is painted, so that if the real 
hammer is gone the painted hammer remains to 
remind the owner that the borrowed tool has 
not been returned. — Boston Fiber and Fabric. 



flow Clarindy Went to Boston. 

Timothy is dreadful curus 'bout some things. 

We've got fourchildun, three boys an' a girl, 
but if one of them childun do anything foolish 
or knotty, he calls it " showiu' out the Bow- 
ker." My name was Bowker. 

But Timothy has got real good common sense 
'bout most everything else. He told me to 
look out for Miss Pettingill — she's my third 
cousin on mother's side, an' she's married rich 
an' lives in Boston — he Baid there was two sides 
to everything, an' they want a mite alike, an' 
he says, " Miss Pettingill has got more sides 
than you can shake a stick at." But I didn't 
believe him. 

You see Miss Pettingill come up and staid 
two summers witti us on the farm, an' I waited 
on her by inches, an' we never charged her a 
cent, so to speak. I got her a second breakfast 
an' gin her the parlor bedroom with all my 
best things to use. She broke the looking glass 
an' spilt the carpet, an' took the paint off the 
beaureau an' so forths. There aint no use in 
goin' into extry particklars. We got 'em 
fixed, or I did, an' went withont a single new 
thing a whole year. But she was so good I was 
mor'n willin' to w ait on her. She'd set right 
down in the kitchen an' eat strawberries while 
I was a hullin' 'em, an' sometimes shell peas an' 
string the beans, and once an' awhile make her 
bed, an' that was a good deal, for when she was 
to home she didn't lift her finger. She told me 
so. Her sister come with her. Miss Bean, her 
name was, an' she wrote funny stuff for the 
papers, but you never'd thought it she was so 
slim an' genteel. I didn't like her half so well, 
but Timothy did. She was out doors a sight, 
roamin' around, an' Timothy liked that, but 
Land! she never talked a mite to me. She al- 
wuz seemed to be thinkin' of somethin' else, an' 
if there'i anything I hata it is to know my 
words is oein' throwd away, goin' in one ear an' 
out t'other, as 'twas with Miss Bean. 

MiBs Pettingill used to say real often how 
she'd love to have me come to Boston. 

"'Taint fur," Bays she, "but then! 1 know 
you wont, for you're sich a home buddy." 

But that very fall I made up my mind I'd go. 
I hadn't ben to Boston fur years, not since we 
went on our tower, Timothy and me. I cac- 
kerlated, as I told Timothy, to save enough in 
buyin' up cheap barginB to make up for my fair. 

"What be you goin' to do with me?" says 
Timothy. 

"Nothio," says I, calmly. 

I knew he'd miss me awful, but if the chil- 
dun could git along without me, he could, so 
I didn't make no talk. 

I'd just bought a new dress, an' I had it 
made up with an overskirt, and I got a bunch 
of red roses for my best bunnit. My gloves was 
bran new, and my shoes want hurt a mite, an' 
if 1 do say it, when I was ready, I looked as 
neat and trim as a new pin. I didn't care so 
much for myself— I hope I aint proud and vain, 
but Miss Pettingill lives in high life, an' I 
couldn't bear to mortify her. 

" How tickled she'll bi to see me," I said to 
myself lots of times in the cars, "an' how 
surprised!" 

She was surprised. I see it the minute I got 
into the house, but Bhe wan't tickled, not a 
mite. A alabaster imige couldn't a ben colder 
than Miss Pettingill was to me. 

At first 1 didn't think it was because she was 
Borry I'd come, I thought she had some trouble 
on her mind; " perhaps," thinks I, " Mr. Pettin- 
gill has refused to buy her a new pianner or a 
gold bracelet, or Bomethin." I'm large minted, 
and I was jest as ready to pity her as I am Miss 
Hazlett, my next door neighbor to Punkinville 
Holler, when she can't have a new calico print; 
so I says cheerful as could be, " Cheer up, Miss 
Pettingill, I'm dreadful glad I come jest aa I 
did, for I can help you mebbe to feel better. 
Kvery cloud has a silver linin' an' if things 
haint gone right why jest think over your mer- 
cies. You've got lots of 'em. Look at this 
elegant room fur instance," 1 says, and I smiled 
encouragin and comfortin' as I could. 

But Lor! she was as techy as a settin' hen an' 
she draw'd herself up as if she was miles an' 
miles above me, Clarindy Brown; 1 began to 
see Timothy was right. 

" Miss Pettingill," says I, for she asked me 
to take off my things after awhile, " I can't 
stop, I'm dreadful sorry I can't, but I'm goin' 
to the tavern to put up, it'll be so much hand- 
ier seein' I'm come to trade." 

I didn't let on I was hurt. I'm proud and I'm a 
master hand to keep things to myself. " I jest 
Uoked in," says I, "to see if you and your 
folks was well. How's Miss Bsan?" 

"Nicely, thank you," says Miss Pettingill 
quite chipper-like now she see I want going to 
stop. " Won't you jest stop to lunch?" 

" 1 fetched a luncheon, and I aint a mite 
hungry," says I. " Thank you jest the same," 
says I real perlite. 

" I'm real sorry not to see more of you," 
says Miss Pettingill. " I may run up to Pud- 
kinville next summer, its so delightful there." 

" You needn't," says I. " Mebbe we shan't 
be there. Timothy's talkin' of movin' out 
West," an' I looked at her so she qualed under 
my scorchin' glance. 

Miss Bean came jest at that minute, an' she 
walked right up to me as cordiil as could be, 
an' held out her hand. 

" It is Miss Brown. I thought I heard your 
voice. Come into my house." (Miss Pettingill 
an' Miss Bean lived in a double house. ) "I want 



July 21, 1888. 



fACIFie I^URAlo pRESS. 



47 



to ask yoa so many questions. How is Mr. 
Brown and the children?" 

" Smart," says I, " real smart. Is Mr. Bean 
well?" 

" Yes, but he wants to see you and thank 
you for takin' such good care of me last sum- 
mer," says she. " You must come," says she 
when I told her I could not stop. 

Wall, it ended by my stayin' with the 
Beanses for a week, and Miss Bean went out 
an' traded with me every day, an' she showed 
herself a lady in every sense of the word. 

She didn't dress no great. My bonnet look- 
ed better than hers, and my dress had twice as 
much trimmin' on it, but she looked neat as 
wax, and she didn't look down on me as Miss 
Pettingill seemed to. I couldn't see no reason 
why she should. I come of a good family, I 
act well, an' when Miss Bean was up to Pun- 
kinville Holler I never made no fun of her. 
though I wbb jest a little riled when she called 
our cattle all cows; most of 'em was oxen an' 
steers. It was to the table when I had company 
from Maine, too, but I passed it off as well as I 
could an' changed the subjict. 

So when I asked Miss Bean if the Governor 
lived in the State House and she explained it 
all out to me, I didn't see why I need feel so 
dreadful bad, though I did. I ought to know 
batter. But Miss Bean never smiled. She 
looked cross as could be at some girls in a big 
store where we went to trade. I don't see now 
what it was they was laughin' at. I'd jest 
asked them if I couldn't see the storekeeper. 

"Perhaps," 1 told 'em, " he'd let me have 
things cheaper, seein' I come so far to trade, 
and if he'd take maple sugar or butter to pay, 
I'd send it down as soon as I got home." 

Miss Bean said it was a cash store, and then 
she looked cross at the girl) that tended behind 
the counter. They was laughin' fit to split 
their sideB at somethin', but 1 didn't 'pear to 
notice 'em. I pitied 'em for not knowin' any 
better. 

Wall, I had a grand time, and when I got 
home and cleaned up and washed the childun's 
faces all 'round, I told it all over to Timothy 
and owned up he was right about Miss Pettin- 
gill.— Mary R. P. Hatch in Portland (Me.) 
Transcript. 

" No Gifts."— Guests invited to one of the 
prettiest weddings of the week were surprised 
to read in one corner of the dainty wedding 
cards, "No Gifts," engraved in a quaint 
arabesque scroll, which perforce attracted at- 
tention. It required some independence of 
character and some self denial to go counter to 
established custom in such a manner, but the 
dimpled little bride announced to her friends 
when they questioned her decision: " I won't 
make my marriage to Archie a donation party, 
where all the parish bring in this, that, and 
the other, to patch up the salary. We have a 
circle of three or four hundred friends, and 
everybody knows that a great many of them 
would buy presents for us, not at all because 
they loved us, but because it is the proper 
thing, and even if they can't afford the outlay, 
they mustn't be outdone by rich Mrs. A. or 
Mrs. B." Society people have, indeed, pushed 
the gift business hard within a few seasons, 
until there are dozens and scores of young 
married couples who pinch themselves during 
Lent, and dread the comiDg of June bscause of 
the draft the Eisterand early summer weddings 
make on their incomes. If matters go on as 
they are doing now, there may some time be a 
spring exodus from New York into the country 
and to Europe comparable to the flight of the 
May tax-dodgers from Boston to escape paying 
the debts of honor accumulated, in the shape 
of 200 or 300 weddings, to be returned at the 
marriage of the givers. — N. Y. Mail and Ex- 
press. 



The Age of the Stars. — A very interest- 
ing address delivered at the annual public ses- 
sion of the five academies of France, October 
25, 1887, by M. Jannsen, the director of the 
observatory at Meudon, France, is published in 
the December number of Ciel et Tirre and the 
January and February numbers of L'Astron- 
omie. The principal thoug t is that the idea of 
evolution may be applied to the stars as well as 
to terrestrial things. The stars are not fixed 
and eternal, but are subject to change and 
time. They have a beginning, a period of activ- 
ity, a decline, and an end. By recent advances 
in the study of celestial physics, especially with 
the spectroscope, we are enabled to know some- 
thing, of the actual condition and relative age of 
some of the stars. We may assume that the 
age of stars, other things being equal, will de- 
pend upon their temperature, and that their 
temperatures are higher in proportion as their 
spectra are richer in violet rays. The majority 
of the stars which are visible to the naked eye 
are white or bluish, and therefore at a high 
temperature; but many are yellow or orange, 
like our sun, showing that they have passed 
their youth; while others are from dark orange 
to dark red, showing that their sidereal evolu- 
tion is far advanced. 



A Phosphorescent Glow is observed upon 
cutting into brown sugar which has been caked 
in its receptacle, which has been supposed by 
some to depend upon the phosphorus contained 
in the boneblack used in refining it. The actual 
cause of the phosphorescence is, however, un- 
known, but is an inherent quality of the sugar. 
Upon breaking the large sugar lozenges sold by 
druggists the same phenomenon is observed. 



"Y'O'JNG jEfoLKS' C[oi 3 UrVIJM. 



In His Name. 

[Written for the Rural Pkess by Maude S. Peaslee.] 

" Oh I mamma," cried Ethel, tearfully, 
" the boys won't tell me a thing about their 
society. I think it's just mean for my own 
brothers to have secrets from me." 

She threw herself on the lounge in the pleas- 
ant sitting-room where her mother sat at the 
machine, and baby Nell played on the floor. 

"Just wait till you get big enough, my 
pet," she said as she swung her hat by its 
ribbons for baby to laugh at. " You and 
sister Mamie will have a society, too, won't 
we ? And we won't tell those hateful boys 
a word," and Mamie looked very cross. 

"You don't understand it, little daughter," 
said her mother, as she left the sewing machine 
and sat down by the lounge where Mamie lay. 
"If you had ever belonged to a society your- 
self, you would not wonder that the boys will 
not tell their secrets; you would be rather 
ashamed of tbem if they did, for you know they 
promise not to, when they join." 

" Well, I think I'd like to belong to 
a society if we could have initials and a motto 
or badge like the boys do. I don't see what 
' L. P. D.' means. I thought it was a society 
for base ball, but when I asked the boys they 
just roared ! " 

" You may have guessed right just the 
same," said her mother, smiling at the 
woe-begone face of her little daughter. " You 
see it is a great deal of tun to them to 
keep you in the dark, and, of course, they 
would try to mislead you." 

"Do you know what it is, mamma ?" cried 
Mamie, eagerly. 

"Not exactly," said her mother, smiling as 
she remembered the sudden demand for red 
stockings and shirts that had come from her 
boys that very week. 

" 'N you mustn't even try to guess what they 
are for, mummer," said the youngest, Fred, as 
he gave her a bear-like hug, when she said they 
could have them. 

" All right, my boys," said this wise mother, 
" but I shall want to know that you are not go- 
ing to do auything wrong." 

" Not a bit of it, mother," said her eldest boy, 
on whose good judgment she knew she could 
rely. 

" Why, no !" said Fred, " you like to have us 
do it; you said it was good exercise for us to 
pi ly— " 

He was not allowed to finish, for the two 
other boys hustled him out with their hands 
over his mouth. 

A sound of good-natured scu filing followed, 
and grew less as they dragged the luckless Fred 
off to the lower end of the lot, where they 
threatened to duck him in the mill-pond for so 
nearly betraying their Becret. 

The mother had laughed, but she had thought 
of Mamie, who had always been their play- 
mate, and who, she knew, would greatly re- 
sent being left out. 

Like the wise woman she was, she was 
ready for the emergency, and Mamie's despond- 
ent face brightened as the little mother said 
in a mysterious way: 

"I've a nice little secret for you, my dear. 
How would you like to form a little society with 
two or three of the girls ' " 

"We can't have anything but a sewing so- 
ciety, and the boys would guess that right away. 
Besides, I'm tired of sewing," and her express- 
ive face fell again. 

' ' Oh, yes, but there are lots of different kinds, 
dozens of them; still I think the one I'm going 
to tell you of is newer than any of the rest." 
Mamie began to look curious. 
"I wish I had a little book here for you to 
read and you would understand it better. 
However, I will get it for you soon. It will 
seem queer to you, Mamie, who live in a place 
and time when people are not allowed to inter- 
fere with their neighbors' religion, to know that 
people once did not dare to own they were 
Christians for fear of persecution." 

"Why, mammal" said Mamie, opening her 
eyes very wide. "Were they slaves?" 

" No, Mamie, not in the way you understand 
the word. But they were afraid to displease 
those who were stronger than they, and so they 
hid away in the forests and mountains, because 
they had displeased the men who were in 
power by what they did for the poor people." 

" Were not these great men Christians, too, 
mamma ? " 

"Yes, some of them were, but even they did 
not understand Christ's teachings as we do now. 
So these ' Poor Men of Lyons,' as they were 
called, drew nearer together, and some of them 
even went away from the city and lived among 
the hi 1 1m . They had a signal by which they 
could tell each other, and a watchword." 

" What was it, mamma?" asked Mamie, all 
eagerness now. 

" It was ' In His Name,' and they were 
pledged to do anything for another when asked 
' For Christ's Bake,' and they were always to 
answer ' In His Name.' " 

" Why, that was a kind of a society, too, 
mamma; did you mean that I could belong to 
one like that ? " 

" Yes, I think you may. I believe it will 
make you grow sweeter and truer and more un- 
selfish with your playmates. You may ask 



Susie to join you, and by and by some of the 
others will want to become members. When 
they do, you may send them to me and I will 
talk to them and see if they are willing to try 
earnestly to do good to others 'In His Name.' 
You would like a badge, I suppose." 

"Oh, yes indeed! May we have one? 
What kind will it be?" 

"We will have to send back East for them 
to the lady who, with a few others, started 
this idea. There are over ten thousand 
members now, and they wear a little silver 
Maltese cross with a purple ribbon through it." 

" I suppose they have purple because it is the 
King's color; don't they, mamma ? " 

"Yes, and they call themselves 'King's 
Daughters.' Ou the little badge are the initial 
letters of your motto, 'I. H. N.' Whenever 
you look at the cross, you must remember what 
you have promised to do ' In His Name.' " 

"I should like to join it ever so much," said 
Mamie. "The boys will never guess what 'I. 
H. N.' means," and she danced away to tell 
Susie of the new play. 

" She is old enough to begin to think seri- 
ously of her duty in the world, and perhaps 
this will help her," said her mother. 

That afternoon she bought for Mamie the 
sweet little story of " Felicie," called " In His 
Name," and written by Edward Everett Hale. 
It is a tale of the Waldenses of seven hundred 
years ago. 

The two little girls were soon wearing their 
pretty bright badges with a great deal of pride. 
They had read the story and had had several 
quiet talks with Mrs. Roe, so were begin- 
ning to realize the importance of the mission 
they had undertaken. 

School was nearly over for the summer, and 
Mrs. Roe had agreed to make arrangements for 
a larger society when the holidays had come. 

Mamie and Susie had always been a little 
jealous of each other in school. They were 
such bright, sweet girls that the teacher loved 
and petted them both more than was good for 
them. 

E ich was jealous of the percentages the other 
one got on examination days, and each hoped to 
get the prize offered at the close of school. 

It was offered for the best looking copy-book, 
because they had been making a special effort to 
improve in their writing that winter. 

Ever since the superintendent had com- 
plained, when he visited the school, that the 
writing was uniformly poor throughout the 
school, they had been doing their best to im- 
prove. 

The last day dawned fair and sunny, and the 
copy-books had been finished the day before. 

All but Susie's. She had gone home sick at 
recess, but there was only one more line to 
write, and she could do that before school 
began. 

This she said to Mamie as they walked to 
school together. 

Mamie said nothing. She felt very cross 
that morning, and found herself wishing the 
teacher wouldn't let Susie do the rest of the 
writing. 

"Then mine would surely be the best," she 
said to herself, "for Miss Harper said it lay be- 
tween us two." 

By that time they had reached the school- 
house, and Mamie saw the teacher take out the 
copy-book for Susie when she asked for it. 

"Of course you can have it, my dear," she 
said with a kiss. 

Mamie had a hateful little envious look on 
her face when she saw the kiss. 

"She hasn't kissed me this morning," she 
grumbled to herself. 

She walked over to Susie's desk, and stood 
looking at her. 

Just then Susie took a penful of ink, and 
holding it over the line she was finishing, said: 

" I wonder which of us will get the prize?" 

"Hateful thing!" thought Mamie, "she 
knows hers is the best," and she gave the back 
of the seat a shake, and then started in dismay. 

There on the fair white page was a great un- 
sightly blot. 

It was all over in an instant, but how glad 
she would have baen if it had not happened. 

Susie sat looking at it, with the tears run- 
ning down her chubby face. 

Suddenly she took up her blotter and made 
it look as well as she could. Then she laid it 
quietly away, and after closing the lid of her 
desk over copy-book and all, went out into the 
yard with the other scholars. 

It was a great victory over self, for the little 
girl had a very violent temper. 

Mamie did not know what to say or do, but 
school was bo soon called that she could not 
decide. 

She hardly knew how the day passed till it 
was time to decide for the prize. 

There were a number of visitors in the 
schoolroom, and every eye turned on poor 
Susie when she rose as her copy-book was. asked 
for, and said: 

" It is not nice enough to show now. 1 — I 
had an accident with it this morning." 

She held up the last page so all could see the 
miserable blot. 

She was very white, and there was a pitiful 
look in her eyes as she Bat down. It seems to 
me there is nothing braver or more pathetic 
than a child's repressed tears. 

" Why, I am surprised at you, Susie," said 
Miss Harper, rather severely. " I never knew 
you to be careless before. Just for want of a 
little care, you have lost the prize you worked 
bo hard for. Mamie's is the next best, and 1 
think she has well earned the prize I had of- 
fered." 



Susie's throat fail ly ached, she wanted to cry 
so badly. 

Mamie rose in her seat with a crimson face 
as Miss Harper came toward her with the hand- 
some writing-desk she had bo longed to possess. 

She gave one glance at Susie. That decided 
her, for she could see one hand clutching the 
silver Maltese cross with the letters " I. H. N." 

They had agreed to always hold fast to their 
badge when tempted, and Bhe saw Susie did. 

" Miss Harper," she said in an unsteady voice, 
" I shook Susie's desk so she couldn't help blot 
her book. I knew when I did it," she went 
on, " but Susie thinks I did it on purpose to 
spoil her book; I didn't think about what it 
would do; I only felt cross and mean, and I — I," 
and she burst into tears. 

In an instant Susie was at her side without a 
thought for the discipline of the school-room. 

" O Mamie ! I'm so glad you didn't mean to. 
I couldn't bear to tell on you." 

" Well, children, what am I to do with the 
desk ?" said Miss Harper, when she had suc- 
ceeded in reetoring order. 

It was at last decided that they should vote 
on it, and Mamie was very happy when Susie 
got one more vote than she did. 

The two girls were firmer friends than ever 
after that, and the society grew and flourished 
in the little town where they lived. 



Doj^ESTie QeofJojviY. 



How to Cook Rice. 

Editors Press : — Pardon a man for intrud- 
ing in this department, but having eaten a more 
than satisfactory amount of rice poorly cooked 
by women, I want to give my recipe for mak- 
ing of boiled rice a delicious dish. Wash the 
rice thoroughly, and to a given quantity of rice 
out three times that quantity of cold water. 
Let it come to a boil and then boil gently for 
20 or 25 minutes, or until the water is all 
boiled away. Do not keep it in a hot place, 
and, what is most important, do not stir it. 
Most people spoil the rice they cook from their 
useless and injurious habit of constantly stir- 
ring it, " to keep it from burning;" let it alone 
and it will not be half bo likely to burn. When 
the water is all boiled away, put in as much in 
bulk of milk as you did of rice and at the same 
time salt it to suit. Again let it gently boil, 
but not more than ten minutes, and it is ready 
to serve. 

Never cook rice till it is mushy and the ker- 
nels are indistinguishable, and as you want to 
save time and have a palatable dish, never stir 
it, except, perhaps, when you put in the milk, 
but do it then only till the milk and rice are 
well mixed. Cooked by this recipe, rice is di- 
gestible and good. C. P. Nettleton. 

Haywards. 

Orange Jelly. — Procure five oranges and 
one lemon, take the rind off two of the oranges 
and half of the lemon and remove the pith; 
put them into a basin and squeeze the juice of 
the fruit into it; then put a quarter of a pound 
of sugar into a stewpan with half a pint of 
water, and set it to boil until it becomes a thick 
syrup, when take it off and add the juice and 
rind of the fruits; cover the stewpan and place 
it again on the fire; as soon as boiling com- 
mences, skim well, and add one glass of water 
by degrees, when add half an ounce of good 
gelatine dissolved, pass through a jelly bag, 
add a few drops of prepared cochineal to give 
an orange tint, and then fill a mold and place 
it on ice until ready for use. 

Strawberry Shortcake. — One cup of pow- 
dered sugar, one tablespoon of butter rubbed 
into the sugar, three eggs, one cup of prepared 
flour, a heaping cup, two tablespoonfnls of 
cream. Bake in three jelly-cake tins. When 
quite cold, lay between the cakes nearly a quart 
of fresh ripe strawberries, sprinkle each layer 
lightly with powdered sugar, and strew the 
same thickly over the uppermost cake. Eat 
while fresh. 

Lemon Pudding. — Take the yolks of six eggs 
and beat them wt 11 with a quarter of a pound 
of sugar. Melt a quarter of a pound of butter 
in as little water as possible, stirring till cold, 
and mix all together with the juice of two lem- 
ons and the grated peel. Cover the dish with 
a thin puff paste, pour in the mixture and hake 
for half an hour. 

Plain Corn Bread. — Sift the meal, stir in 
salt to taste. Pour into it water enough to 
make a dough moderately soft. Bake in a hot 
oven. Use cold water. If the oven is not hot 
the bread will be a failure. One quart of meal 
and about the same of water will make two 
good pones of bread. 

A Handy Fdrnitdre Polish. — Make a mix- 
ture of olive oil one part and vinegar two parts. 
Apply it to the furniture with a Canton flan- 
nel cloth. Rub dry with another cloth of the 
same material. A housekeeper who uses this 
polish on the finest varnished furniture says it 
has no equal. 

Cookies. — Four eggs, 1J cupfuls sugar, one 
tablespoonful good vinegar, one teaspoonful 
soda. Flour to taste. Beat butter and sugar 
together, add the beaten eggs, vinegar and the 
dissolved soda. 

Evolution. — The cotton seed become cotton, 
the cotton becomes thread, the thread becomes 
a fabric, the fabric becomes a print, the print 
becomes a wrapper, and the wrapper becomes a 
beautiful woman. — N. Y. Sun. 



48 



pACiFie i^uraId press. 



f Jdly 21, 1888 




A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 



Office, 220 Market St., _V. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
43T Take the Jilevator, No. It Front SL"B» 



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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 21, 1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.- Scene in Vineyard of J. B.J. 
Portal, near San Jose, 41. Aaron Gove, President 
National Educational Association, 49. J. H CanHeld, 
Secretary N. E. A., 51. C. H. Allen, Principal State 
Normal School, San Jose; J H. Pryor, Secretary Local 
Executive Committee, h. E. A , 52 .lames K. WII- 
Bon; F. M. Campbell, Superintendent Oakland Public 
Schools, 53. Cogswell Polytechnic College, San 
Francisco, 54- 

BDl'f OK1ALS.— The Grape Harvest; Tropical and 
Semitrop'cal Fruits, 41. The Week; Our Visitors; 
Artificial Comb Honey; Honor to the Profession; The 
Railways and the Labor Supply, 48- Major Aaron 
Gove; Rational Educational Associ>tion, 49. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— Fru't Auctions in London; 
The Auction Sides in Chicago, 42. 

THE VETERINARIAN.— Sore Eyes in Cattle; 
Tapeworm in Sheep, 42. 

THE FIELD.— Wheat Growing in California, 43. 

HORTICULTURE. — Walnuts onOakLanils; South- 
ern California Horticulturists; The Soft Shelled Wal- 
nut, 43- 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY - The Worthy 
Master of the National Grange; Candid Thoughts for 
Voters; A Great Grange Meeting; Abatement of the 
Debris Nuisance; San Jose Grange, 44. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 
counties of California, 44-5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. — The Old Wife; Mrs. 
Hardv's Vision; How Clarindy Went to Boston, 46. 
No Gifts; The Age of the Stars, 47. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. — In His Name, 47. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— How to Cook Rice; Va- 
rious Recipes, 47. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Imported Parasite of the 
Fluted Scale, 57. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Our Educational Institu- 
'ions, 50. J. H. Canfield; San Francisco Teachers' 
Mutual Aid Society; C. H. Allen; J. H. Pryor, 52 
F. M. Campbell; .1. K. Wilson, 53. Where to Visit; 
The Cogswell Polytechnic College, 54, 



Business Announcements. 

[NBW THIS ISSUE.) 

Agricultural Implements— Truman, Hooker & Co. 
Real Estate - Briggs, Fergusjon & Co. 
Fruit Evaporators —James Linforth. 
Climax Sprav Pumps— J. S. Naismith. 
Mills College— Rev. C. C. Stratton, D. D. 

O" See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

The city is quite given over this week to the 
entertainment of the visiting educators. They 
are a very interesting body of people, and in- 
terested, too, for everything about our young 
and thriving metropolis seems to attract their 
attention. Many a little lecture on " What I 
Saw in California" will be the reward of good 
behavior in Eastern schoolrooms during the 
coming year. 

The presence of the teachers is an adornment 
to our city. Their costumes are chaste, their 
faces bright and often beautiful, and the many- 
colored ribbon badges, fluttering on the after- 
noon breezes, give the dash of color to the scene 
which both artists and common people de- 
light in. 

The grand reception and concert at the Me- 
chanics' Pavilion on Tuesday evening is de- 
scribed as one of the most notable meetings 
ever held in that edifice of great events and oc- 
casions. Before this issue reaches the reader, 
the formal program of the convention will be 
over and the era of excursions in progress. 
The teachers seem disposed to see as much of 
California as possible, and we trust they may 
accomplish it. 

To symbolize the darkness which will be 



cast upon California by the close of so bright a 
visitation, there will be a total eclipse of the 
moon on Sunday evening, July 22d, the moon 
entering the shadow at about eight o'clock. 

The week has brought the hottest weather of 
the season, of which our meteorological table 
gives the measure. Light showers have fallen 
at several interior points. 

The Railways and the Labor Supply. 

The dailies of the city manifest much inter- 
est in the proposition which A. N. Towne, Gen- 
eral Manager of the Southern Pacific Co., 
makes to the State Board of Trade, which is to 
this effect: 

Requisition is to be made on the local Board 
of Trade of San Francisco, Stockton, Sacra- 
mento or Los Angeles by any one desiring to 
employ the services of eit'her boys or girls, and 
such requisition to be forwarded by the local 
board to the California State Board of Trade, 
or the affiliated boards in the cities named, with 
the assurance that the employment can be had, 
giving the name of the employer who makes 
the requisition. The boys or girls accepting 
such employment will be forwarded for half 
the regular fare to the place of destination, and 
be returned to their homes free of all charge 
upon the certificate of the employer of the em- 
ployment in which they have been engaged. 

The idea in this proposition is, as one of the 
hopeful dailies puts it: "Agriculturists and 
horticulturists of the State will be supplied 
with the labor they so much need, while the 
boys and girls of suitable age will have their 
idle time profitably occupied, will be adding to 
the general wealth of the State by the product 
of their labor, and will be acquiring habits of 
industry and thrift. In addition to this it is 
believed that the introduction of the growing 
boys of the State to a knowledge of its horti- 
cultural industries will inspire in their minds a 
desire to become themselves horticulturists." 

We hope it will turn out that way, and that 
the railways will turn every hoodlum into an 
honest Granger. It would be the grandest 
thing possible for the State. But our farmers 
have had quite a good deal of experience with 
city boys and girls, and have about concluded 
that they can on no account use children unless 
they are accompanied by their parents or some 
one whom they are accustomed to obey. The 
idea of turning the ranch into a boarding-school 
for one or both sexes, with the youthful mind 
full to its natural capacity of frolic and mis- 
chief, even where viciousness is absent, is about 
as hard a proposition as can be made to the 
busy fruit grower who finds that handling the 
fruit properly gives all the anxiety he can 
carry about, without standing guard at night 
over a squad of untamed youth. 

Such is about the experience of our agricult- 
urists who have attempted to run their enter- 
prises by city boy and girl power. We hope 
the future may show better results. We would 
like to see all who wish employment secure it, 
and our fruit-growers, canners and driers well 
supplied. Possibly it may result that way, 
and we would not discourage it, but we desire 
to state existing facts so that those who are 
anticipating great results from the proposition 
to assist such labor into the country may not 
be disappointed if the farmers do not readily 
accede to the proposition. The enterprise may 
eventuate well, but do not get discouraged if it 
wins its way slowly at first. 

Home Seekers in Transit. — The Stockton 
Independent says that one afternoon last week 
five "prairie schooners," containing four fami- 
lies, with more than the usual quota of chil- 
dren, halted for half an hour on Hunter-street 
square. The canvas-topped wagons were 
thickly covered with dust, and the horses 
showed signs of having been a long journey. 
The captain of the " outfit " said they were 
from Texas and on their way to Washington 
Territory in search of Government land. The 
party, after laying in a stock of barley for the 
horses, tobacco for the men, and fruit for the 
women and children, resumed its journey 
northward. 

Mr. John L. Doyle, who has done a good 
deal of work as our agent in one place and 
another, is just starting on a tour through 
Oregon, Idaho and Montana; and we bespeak 
for him the kind consideration and helping 
hands of every friend of the Rural Press 
whom he falls in with. 

Sfreckels is credited with buying up the 
entire West Indian crop of sugar. 



Honor to the Profession. 

An eminent California teacher, upon being ad- 
vised to take advantage of an opportunity for 
making money in California, lifted up his voice 
and face to the speaker with the words of the 
late Louis Agassiz: "Make money? I have 
no time to make money." 

This brings to mind the fact that faithful at- 
tention to the duties of teacher withdraws per- 
sons from the common avenues of making 
money as well as distinction for themselves. 
These things should be taken into considera- 
tion in estimating their value in the ranks of 
the benefactors of our race. Men of much less 
native ability and culture become lawyers, doc- 
tors and politicians, and in fact, follow most 
other vocations and attain much greater import- 
ance and distinction in life than the dutiful and 
faithful teacher, who is constantly shaping the 
little minds of to-day, which become the great 
minds of to-morrow. 

The sacrifice which teachers make in throw- 
ing themselves out of the line of promotion 
both in wealth and distinction, should entitle 
them to greater consideration and admiration 
than is generally meted out to them in the com- 
munity. We feel that our teachers deserve 
more kindly regard, and should receive more 
kind words and further encouragement than 
they are wont to get. 

This being our sentiment in the matter, we 
are exceedingly glad of the existence and work 
of the great National Educational Association, 
which is holding its sessions in this city as we 
write, and to the interests of which we give 
considerable space in this issue of the Rural. 
The influence of such an association of teachers 
and of such meetings as are now being held is 
twofold. It will cheer and encourage the teach- 
er with new conceptions of the importance of 
his work as well as give him many hints as to 
the best way to accomplish it. It will give him 
a truer idea of the importance of his work, and 
of his place in the community. It will also 
exert a good influence upon the community in 
drawing attention to the teacher's work, its 
exalted character, and its important ends. The 
public needs a grand event to attract its atten- 
tion, and afterward by revolving thought the 
underlying significance of the event is recog- 
nized and appreciated. 

This will be, we believe, the result of the 
present convention of educators in this city. 
It seems now, at least, half parade, excursion, 
glitter and glare, but these will be forgotten, 
and the enduring benefits of the coming to- 
gether will assert themselves. If the public 
interest just now awakened in the teachers shall 
be replaced after a time by a deeper interest in 
the teacher's work, and more wise and generous 
provision for its promotion, the influence will 
exist for generations. 

Fields on Fire. 

Since our brief caution, a month ago, about 
allowing tires to start in field or woodland, 
grass, brush and stubble have been getting 
drier, and the newspapers in different portions 
of the State have noted a score of blazes more 
or less destructive. Not to speak of pasturage 
and stubble, hundreds of acres of wheat and 
standing timber, miles of fencing, tons of hay 
and thrashed grain have been turned to smoke 
and ashes — and usually the cause has been as- 
signed. 

Paper wads fired from a shotgun have been 
mentioned in more than one instance as the be- 
ginning of trouble. Sparks from a passing 
locomotive or a thrashing engine — every one of 
which should be fitted with a spark-arrester- 
are often charged with the mischief, while 
matches left lyiug around in the hot sun, and 
the inevitable cigarette and cigar-stump, come 
in for their Bhare of the censure. Nor is the 
rash and reckless brush-burner, who " let the 
fire get away from him," without a place on 
the register. 

Now, not to multiply words, there are those 
who already care, and those who don't care, 
but must be made to care. And for the latter 
the following extracts from the codes may prove 
salutary reading: 

Political Code, Section S3U-" Every person 
negligently setting tire to his own woods, or 
negligently suffering any fire to extend beyond 
his own land, is liable in treble damages to the 
party injured." 

Penal Code Section 55^— "Every person 
who willfully or negligently sets on fire, or 
causes or procures to be set on fire, any woods, 



prairies, grasses or grain on any lands in this 
State, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and is pun- 
ishable by fine not exceeding §1000, or im- 
prisonment not exceeding one year, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment." 

It is well, as the summer advances, to cut 
away the dry grass around barns and dwellings, 
and see that no light refuse piles up into a dan- 
gerous heap of tinder. And as to the heedless 
oneB — the Petiluma Courier well remarked 
awhile ago: " A few criminal proseoutions 
and judgments in civil suits for damages will 
make all men more cautious about starting fires, 
even on their own premises." 

Artificial Comb Honey. 

Prof. H. W. Wiley, chemist of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, is naturally excited, be- 
cause he is charged with being "a willful 
and malicious liar." Such a charge would ex- 
cite any one who had any respect for his own 
good name, and Prof. Wiley desires to be re- 
lieved from the charge. It seems that he did, 
according to his own statement, in 1S81 write 
an article for the Popular Science Monthly, on 
the uBes of glucose, in which he used the follow- 
ing words: "In commercial honey, which ia 
entirely free from bee mediation, the comb is 
made of paraffine and filled with pure glucose 
by appropriate machinery." 

Prof. Wiley did not give his authority for the 
statement, nor has he paid any attention to 
those who have attacked him until the present 
time. He now gives his authority for the 
statement in these words: 

The statement in question was made on the 
authority of Dr. E. J. Hallock, an eminent 
chemist, whom, unfortunately, science lost by 
death several years ago. Dr. Hallock was at 
that time a resident of Boston, and editor of the 
Boston Journal of Cheminry. Neither Dr. 
Hallock nor myself believed at that time that 
such artificial comb could be made commer- 
cially successful, although honey made in that 
way could be sold at an enormous profit if the 
comb could be made to sufficiently counterfeit 
the genuine article. It is possible that Dr. 
Hallock may have been misinformed in respect 
to this matter, but I cannot say that he was. 
Moreover, the statement is of such a nature 
that I did not anticipate that any one would 
seriously suppose that comb honey is in danger 
of being replaced by the spurious article. 

It is rather unfortunate that Prof. Wiley did 
not years ago correct or explain his statement 
of 1881. It seems to us clear that both he and 
Dr. Hallock were misinformed, and to charge 
either of them with " willful and malicious " 
lying is altogether a gratuitous slander. These 
gentlemen should have known, however, that 
the scheme of making comb honey of which 
they were told is altogether impracticable. To 
make a paraffine comb, fill it with glucose and 
seal it in so as to deceive even an ordinary ob- 
server, is a work of high art in counterfeiting 
which has never yet been attained, nor will it 
ever be. It is of a piece with the ridiculous 
newspaper yarn about a factory of artificial 
eggs which was circulated a few years ago, and 
which English journals swallowed as a bona fide 
illustration of Yankee ingenuity. 

A very little change in the statement about 
glucose and comb honey would, however, have 
made it correct. About the time Dr. Wiley's 
article appeared in the Popular Science Month- 
ly, we were paying some little attention to the 
adulteration of honey, and remember that one 
of the most deceiving tricks of the glucose bot- 
tlers was to put a small piece of comb honey 
into each jar of glucose. Consumers were im- 
posed upon for a little time by this fraud, but 
it was soon twigged. Honey-comb was put 
into glucose, but glucose was never in the 
world successfully sealed into honey-comb, 
natural or artificial. Of course there were 
other devices for palming off glucose for honey, 
but the one we have mentioned was probably 
the one Dr. Hallock heard of and which has 
done Prof. Wiley such injury at the hands of 
those who like to cry liar at every fancied op- 
portunity. 

The Commissioner of the General Land Office 
has received a telegram from the special timber 
agent on duty at Eureka, Nevada, to the effect 
that he had mailed a report of depredations on 
public lands by two corporations amounting 
to §10,000,000. The efforts to prevent appro- 
priations to carry on these investigations, he 
says, should be checkmated. 

Landlord Scully, who, under the laws of 
Illinois, has been forced either to sell his prop- 
erty or become a naturalized citizen, ia about 
to sell hia holdings. 



July 21, 1888.] 



f> ACiFie f^URAb pRESS 



4 



Major Aaron Gove. 

We have fittingly prepared for this issue 
of our paper a photo-facsimile portrait of 
this distinguished guest of California. 

Aaron Gove, President of the National 
Educational Association, arrived in this city 
Sunday, July 8th, from Denver, accompanied 
by his wife and son, Aaron M. Gove, and 
Dr. and Mrs. A. Stedman, old friends of 
the family. The party were met by J. K. 
Wilson, chairman of the Reception Com- 
mittee, at Auburn, Placer county. Superin- 
tendent of State Instruction, Ira G. Hoitt, 
boarded the train at Sacramento, and Fred- 
erick M. Campbell, Superintendent of the 
Oakland public schools, joined the party at 
the Sixteenth-street station. Upon their 
arrival the distinguished visitor and his 
party were driven to the Occidental hotel. 

The headquarters of the officers of the 
Association during the convention, located 
on the second floor front of the hotel, were 
beautifully decorated for the occasion. As 
soon as Mr. Gove and party made their 
appearance at the hotel, a receiving com- 
mittee, consisting of Mrs. N. R. Craven, 
Miss Birdie Craven, Miss Emma Stinson, 
Mrs. F. J. Burge, Miss Nellie F. Sullivan 
and Mrs. Fred M. Campbell, escorted them 
to the parlors above. 

Suspended over the entrance to the par- 
lors was a large banner of garnet silk with 
gold fringe and tassels, bearing the com- 
plimentary inscription: "Aaron Gove, 
President of the National Educational As- 
sociation, 1888." The mantels, mirrors, 
chandeliers and furniture of the spacious 
double apartment were hidden with flowers, 
among which were marigolds, La France 
roses, nasturtiums, German corn flowers, 
golden-backed ferns, maidens' hair, magno- 
lias, marguerites, gladiolas, dahlias and 
chrysanthemums. On a table in the center 
stood a magnificent floral basket, with fruits, 
the thoughtful and appreciated gift of Major 
Hooper. The walls were tastefully festoon- 
ed, the whole presenting an attractive sight, 
particularly to the dust-stained and tired 
travelers. 

Professor Gove is a tall, wiry man, of 
middle age, with a handsome face and a 
clear, piercing eye. He is evidently a 
practical man with excellent executive 
ability, and of a nervous temperament. He 
was born in Rockingham county, New 
Hampshire, September 26, 1839. He was 
educated in the schools of Boston, and in 
the Illinois Normal University. He received 
the honorary degree of Master of Arts 
from Dartmouth College in 1879. He was 
in the Civil War and emerged with the 
brevet rank of Major for gallant services. 
His military experience and tastes have 
caused his elevation to various positions of 
honor outside of strict educaticnal circles, 
and he is now Grand Commander of the 
Knights Templar of the State of Colorado, 
and Commander of the Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion of the same State. 

He is an educator by nature; he has been 
in the school-ioom either as pupil or 
teacher since he was three years oid, or for 
45 years, barring the term of service in the 
army. Since 1874 he has been superintend- 
ent of the public schools of Denver, and their 
work and reputation speak to his praise. 



Cornell University of Ithaca, New 
York, has decided to make quite an addition 
to its present curriculum. Hereafter there 
will be a department devoted to journalism. 
Lectures will be given on reportorial work 
and the ins and outs of newspapers. A 
class will be organized very much like the 
staff of a large newspaper, each one assigned 
to some particular field of news-gathering, 
and the style of the reports be criticised in 
the class-room, the faults pointed out and 
the excellencies commended. Prof. Smith, 
who will have charge of this department, 
is a competent journalist, having for a long 
time been connected with the New York 
dailies. 



National Educational Association. 

Pursuant to an invitation expressed in a 
joint resolution unanimously passed by our 
Legislature at its last session, by the unani- 
mous invitation of the State Teachers' As- 
sociation extended at the session of 1887; 
upon the unanimous invitation of the Boards 
of Education of San Francisco, Oakland 
and other cities; and the earnest, special 
efforts of delegates from Califo-nia to the 
meeting at Topeka, Kansas, in 1886, and 
to that held at Chicago in 18S7, the National 
Educational Association agreed to hold its 
thirty-first annual session at San Francisco, 
July 17 to 20, 1888. 

It is now over 30 years ago since a few 



Schools. 5. Of Kindergarten Instruction. 
6. Of Normal Schools. 7. Of Industrial 
Education. 8. Of Art Education. 9. Of 
Music Education. 

Any person in any way connected with 
the work of education shall be eligible to 
membership. Such person may become a 
member by paying $2 and signing the con- 
stitution. At the meeting at Chicago last 
July, there were enrolled over 12,500 annual 
members, as shown by the secretary's receipt 
stubs for membership fees. 

The $2 membership fee secures to each 
member, in addition to the rights and priv- 
ilges of membership at the meeting, a bound 
copy of the proceedings, and all the papers 
read in general and department meetings, 




Taber Photo. 

AAEON GOVE, PRESIDENT NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



earnest, thoughtful men in New England 
banded themselves together for the purpose, 
as is expressed in the preamble to the con- 
stitution of the Association, as follows: 

" To elevate the character and advance 
the interests of the profession of teaching, 
and to promote the cause of popular educa- 
tion in the Linked States." 

Because its aim was noble, its purpose 
high, its administration in the hands of dis- 
interested and devoted men, and its influence 
always for good, it prospered and grew in 
numbers, power and influence, until now 
great cities and States compete for the honor 
of its annual meetings. 

It is incorporated under the laws of the 
District of Columbia. 

It consists of a National Council of Edu- 
cation and nine departments, as follows: 
1. A Department of School Superintend- 
ence. 2. Of Higher Education. 3. Of 
Secondary Schools, 4. Of Elementary 



expressage prepaid. That of the Chicago 
meeting is a bound volume of over 850 
pages — quite an educational library in it- 
self. It contains the best expression of the 
best thoughts of some of the brightest and 
best men in the country. 

The officers of the General Association 
are: A president, secretary and treasurer; 
12 vice-presidents, one director from each 
State, District and Territory represented in 
the Association, and a board of trustees. 

In addition, each department has its own 
officers, consisting of a president, vice-presi- 
dent and secretary. 

Owing to the fact that it was not to the 
interest of the great and powerful railroad 
combinations east of Chicago that the As- 
sociation should come to California, it was 
not until the end of October that, through 
the presence in the East of Messrs. Good- 
man and Stubbs of the Southern Pacific 
railroad, and their persistent personal efforts, 



the last remaining obstacle in the transpor- 
tation matter was removed. On the nth 
of November the National Committee met 
at Lawrence, Kansas, and officially desig- 
nated and announced the time and place of 
meeting to be July 17th to 20th, at San 
Francisco. 

Local Preparations. 

At the same time and place there was 
appointed a Local Executive Committee 
for California, consisting of eight persons 
empowered to make all necessary local ar- 
rangements for the meeting, appoint sub- 
committees, etc. This committee met as 
early as practicable, organized, and has for 
several months held meetings every Satur- 
day evening. 

Sub-comm tiees were appointed as fol- 
lows: A Finance Committee; an Auditing 
Committee; a Reception Committee; a Com- 
mittee on Hotels and Accommodations; a 
Committee on Public Halls and Places of 
Meeting; a Committee on Official Bulletin; 
a Transportation Committee; an Excursion 
Committee; a Press Committee; a Com- 
mittee on Exhibits; a Badge Committee; a 
Committee on Head-quarters. And to co- 
operate with the National Department Offi- 
cers: A Committee on Superintendence; a 
Committee on Higher Education; a Com- 
mittee on Secondary Schools; a Committee 
on Elementary Schools; a Committee on 
Normal Schools; a Committee on Kinder- 
garten Instruction; a Committee on In- 
dustrial Education; a Committee on Art 
Education; a Committee on Music Educa- 
tion. These committees have all for sev- 
eral months been actively at work. Com- 
modious quarters were secured till the first 
of August in the new Flood building, corner 
of Fourth and Market. A secretary has 
been busily employed. Some idea of the 
work done may be formed from the fact 
that he has all the time needed an assistant, 
and for a number of weeks past three sec. 
retanes, two type writers and two boys have 
been kept busy in answering corre- 
spondence, sending out circulars, etc. 
Besides this, a vast amount of clerical work 
has been performed by members of the 
various committees. For the educational 
exhibits, the pavilion has been leased 
and a cash prize of $500 and a parch- 
ment diploma has been offered for the best 
State exhibit outside of California; and, in 
addition to the educational exhibit, the 
various counties of this State through their 
Supervisors and Boards of Trade are ex- 
pected to take an extensive part. Space 
free of charge has been awarded in the Ex- 
position building for this purpose. 

For the general meetings of the Associa- 
tion, mornings and evenings, the Grand 
Opera House has been leased, and for the 
Department meetings there have been 
leased Metropolitan Temple, Odd Fellows' 
hall, Pioneer hall, B'nai B'rith hall, Young 
Men's Christian Association hall, Union 
Square hall and Saratoga hall. 

For the exclusive use of the Reception 
Committee, the Committee on Hotels and 
Accommodations, and the Registration 
Committee, the gentlemen's large reception 
room on the ground floor of the Palace ho- 
tel has been leased from the 9th to the 20th 
of July. 

Estimated Attendance. 

The California delegation at Chicago 
pledged to the Association, if it would come 
to California, a local membership from this 
coast of not less than 2000. 

What the actual attendance from the east 
of the Rockies will be, is still a matter of 
conjecture. All the conditions, influences 
and indications are very favorable and give 
assurance of a large attendance. The most 
careful and conservative estimate places the 
number at from 5000 to 6000, but within a 
few days past conjecture has run as high as 
15,000. Among the favorable conditions 
is the fact that the meeting is held during 
vacation season all over the country; then 
there are over 312,000 public-school teachers 
in this country, besides those engaged in 



50 



pACIFie RURAlo PRESS. 



[Jolt 21, 1888 



private schools, colleges and universities; 
the low fares, the general desire to see Cali- 
fornia, our reputation for liberal hospitality, [ 
growing largely out of the visits here of the i 
Knights Templar and the Grand Army of ! 
the Republic, and the sharp competition of 
the railroad lines East, and the widespread 
advertisements they have given of the meet- 
ing. Then the steady stream of inquiries 
for accommodations that have for the past 
two months been pouring in upon the Com- 
mittee on Hotels and Accommodations, 
taken in connection with thekindly notices of 
educational journals all over the country, all 
indicate a most enthusiastic gathering. 

The Reception Committee, composed of 
125 members, of which J. K. Wilson is 
chairman, is now exceedingly busy receiving 
visitors. Small squads commenced arriv- 
ing two weeks ago, and now every train 
comes in with large delegations The rooms 
of the Local Committees in Flood's build- 
ing present a very animated appearance. 

Some idea of the number of visitors 
may be formed from the fact that the Ex- 
cursion Committee has awarded to Lud- 
wig & Abraham the contract to prepare 
lunch (or 5000 people on the bay excursion. 

Chairman O'Connor of the Exhibit Com- 
mittee reports that applications have al- 
ready been made for 1800 feet of table 
space at the pavilion. About 1600 feet of 
tables have already been constructed and 
put in place. It is expected that the ex- 
hibit will completely fill the upper galleries, 
including the art gallery. 

Headquarters. 

According to present arrangements, par- 
ties will be distributed to the various hotels, 
etc., as follows: Kansas, Baldwin; Indiana, 
Pleasanton; Colorado, Russ; New England, 
Palace; Philadelphia, Grand; Nevada, 
Baldwin; Oregon, Occidental; Arizona, 
Nucleus; Brooklyn, Palace; San Francisco 
Art Rooms; Kindergarten, Odd Fellows' 
hall; Teachers' Mutual Aid, Bancroft His- 
torical building; California State Teachers' 
Association, Pioneer building; Alameda 
and Santa Clara county, Palace; Shasta, 
Tehama, Solano, San Joaquin, Lick; Santa 
Cruz, Pleasanton, Colusa, Irving hall; San 
Mateo, Flood building; Contra Costa, Lick 
House. 

The headquarters of the National Educa- 
tional Association are located at the Occi- 
dental hotel, in rooms 18 and 19. The 
rooms will be presided over by Secretary 
James K. Canfield, and they have been 
handsomely fitted up for the occasion. All 
business relative to Association affairs will 
be transacted there, but local matters will 
be under the supervision of the Executive 
Committee in the Flood building. 

The Reception Committee and Committee 
on Hotels and Accommodations have their 
headquarters on the ground floor of the 
Palace hotel. The spacious parlor, where 
visiting delegates will be received on their 
arrival in this city, has been tastefully dec- 
orated with ferns and flowers. 

Miscellaneous. 

Membership certificates on Eastern rail- 
road tickets will be given at the Palace office 
only, but the ordinary certificates of mem- 
bership can still be obtained from the Sec- 
retary of the Executive Committee in the 
Flood building. 

Inquiries are made daily at the office of 
the Executive Committee by parties from 
the interior, who wish to know if they will 
receive any rebate on their tickets to and 
from this city, and whether the lower rates 
will be made at the local offices. The Sec- 
retary wishes to make known that full rates 
will be paid by all members of the National 
Educational Association on this coast to 
this city, and on returning to their homes 
one-third fare will be paid only, making one 
and one-third fares for both ways. 

The various Parlors of Native Sons and 
Daughters of the Golden West, in this city, 
have arranged to give the delegates to the 
National Teachers' Association appropriate 
entertainment in the Pioneer building. 
Rooms will be opened there and committees 
will always be on hand to extend the cour- 
tesies of the occasion to all who visit them 

Secretary of Excursion Committee, Will- 
iam E. White, announces to the members 
of the National Educational Association 
that the citizens of Santa Cruz will provide 
a fine lunch at the Big Trees for all mem- 
bers of the Association who come on the 
excursion. A reception will be given the 
excursionists in the pavilion at Santa Cruz 
in the evening, and, on the next day, car- 
riages will be secured for drives around the 
Cliff road and to other places of interest. 

The Stockton Board of Trade is arrang- 
ing for a free excursion of the delegates to 
Stockton on the 25th or 26 h inst., where 
they will be given a fitting reception, driven 
about the town and given a banquet and en- 
tertainment at night. 

It has been decided by the Press Com- 



mittee unanimously to petition the managers 
of the various cry theaters for the usual 
press courtesies in the matter of compli- 
mentary tickets for the especial use of visit 
ing journalists. Two tickets daily from each 
theater will be asked for. 

One of the features of the exhibit will be 
a working steam engine manufactured by 
the students of the Manual Training school 
of St. Louis. 

Blank circulars have been sent to 1700 
school departments throughout the United 
States. These blanks are to be filled out 
with statistical information and returned. 
Many have already come in. One from 
Portland, Oregon, showed 7000 school chil- 
dren in a population of 40,000. 

The general convention will assemble 
daily for four days in the Grand Opera 
House, and a number of other halls have 
been engaged in which meetings will be 
held for the discussion of educational sub- 
jects. 

Over 10,000 circulars containing general 
information as to reduced excursion rates 
have been sent to various points East. 

The following special excursions have 
been arranged by the Excursion Committee: 

Saturday, July 21st, grand bay excursion, 
free; Monday, July 23d, to Monterey (three 
days), $3; Tuesday, July 24th, to Santa Cruz 
('hree days). $3; Wednesday, July 2 51 h, to 
Cloyerdale, $1; Wednesday, July 2 5 th, to 
San Jose (two days), $1.50; Friday, July 27th, 
Sonoma and Glen E len, $1; date not fixed, 
Mount Shasta (with sleeper included), $14. 

In connection with the Santa Cruz excur- 
sion it should be stated that the citizens of 
Santa Cruz will meet the visitors at the Big 
Tree Grove, near Felton, where a picnic 
lunch will be served, after which they will 
be escorted to Santa Cruz. A reception in 
the pavilion in the evening, and drives the 
next morning, are included in the entertain- 
ments. 

The following general excursions are also 
available at the following rates: July 13th, 
to Alaska and return (about)$i3o; July 27th, 
to Alaska and return (about)$i3o; July 19th, 
Honolulu and return, $100; July 28th, Hon- 
olulu and return, $100; at any time, Yosem- 
ite and return, via Mariposa, $31.50; at any 
time, Yosemite and return, via Milton, $25; 
at any time, Los Angeles and return, by rail- 
road, $20; at any time, Los Angeles arid 
return, by steamer, $18.75; at an y time, 
Santa Barbara and return, by railroad, $20; 
at any time, Santa Barbara and return, by 
steamer, $15; at any time, Portland and re- 
turn, by steamer, $24; at any time, San 
Diego and return, by steamer, $22 50; at 
any time, Mount Hamilton (Lick Observa- 
tory) and return, including two nights' stay, 
two dinners and two breakfasts, $8.50: at 
any time, Leland Stanford University, Irom 
Menlo Park, 50 cents. 

The Santa Barbara trip may be combined 
with that to Los Angeles, the Santa Barbara 
line branching from the Los Angeles line at 
Saugus. 

Miss A. C. Robertson, Miss Alice Stin- 
cen, Mrs. A. W. Starbird, and Messrs. 
Wadham and F. Morton, the committee 
who decorated the reception-room al the 
Palace hotel, are the recipients of warm 
congratulations on the results of their 
labors. The parlor presents a most 
attractive appearance. In the corners are 
palms and shrubs in artistically arranged 
masses. On either side of the mirrors are 
bunches of stalk ribbon-grass. The grate 
is fi'led with calla lilies. Along the mantel- 
piece are ferns and mosses. The windows 
are curtained with national flags, whose 
bright colors relieve the darker greens of 
the foliage. Long sprays of foliage are 
twined round the chandeliers. Beside the 
door which leads into the court is a mass 
of magnolias and giant fern leaves, sur- 
mounted by quantities of brightly colored 
flowers. In a vacant space over the mirror 
are the words in floral lettering, 11 Glad to 
see you." Over the door appears the sign 
'" Come Aeain." 

The officials in attendance at the Ex- 
ecutive headquarters in the Occidental ho- 
tel are President Gove, Secretary J. H. 
Canfield and Treasurer Hewett. Mr. Can 
field attends simply to the preparation of 
programs for the convention. 

Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, who has had 
charge of the arrangements for the re- 
ception of the kindergarten teachers, has 
completed all her preparations. 

The special badges worn by members of 
the Department will be bows of white 
watered ribbon bearing the words "Cal- 
ifornia Kindergarten " on the ends and " N. 
E. A." on the cross-pieces. The souvenir 
to be given by the kindergartens will be a 
most novel conceit, containing original mu- 
sic, poems, etc., all exquisitely printed. 



Colonki. Dawson, United States Com- 
missioner of Education, is making his head- 
quarters al the Baldwin. 



Oar Educational Institutions. 

As a text for this article we take the follow- 
ing extract from the able, comprehensive and 
eloquent address of Hon. Frederick M. Camp- 
bell, superintendent of the Oakland schools, be- 
fore the National Educational Association at 
Washington City, March 15, 1887 : 

It is very difficult to correct an impression 
when once it has become a part of the fixed be- 
lief of a people. On the contrary, having once 
taken root, it is likely to grow to exaggerated 
size and bear fruit cf wonderful quality. So it 
is that after these many years of constant and 
increasing intercourse, I believe our Eastern 
friends have no just conception of the intel- 
lectual and educational position of California 
to-day. Crowded excursion trains bear thou- 
sands of tourists to nur shores, but they see 
only one side of our life. They tell you of the 
rich vineyards in our valleys and on sunny hill 
sides, of the groves of orange and almond, and 
olive, of gardens of roses and heliotrope that 
furnish ns bouquets all the year round and 
lilies to dress our churches at Cnristmas-time. 
They see our towering mountains and mighty 
waterfalls, and the city by the Golden Gate, 
and of these they bring back the glowing 
record. But it is not in any of these that the 
real California is found. The Alpine hights are 
as grand, the vintage of Spain as rich, the olive 
and orange bloomed long ago on other shores. 
It is to our homes and social institutions you 
must look for that which constitutes our State. 
Of these a transient visitor can form no just 
idea. The armies of tourists throng our gigantic 
hotels and form a community by themselves. 
They bring you back no report of the true life 
of our people. It is a life that has been 
molded by exceptional circumstances. While 
the growth of some other sections has been 
equally rapid, onrs has differed in some 
essential points, which I touch upon in this con- 
nection as having an important bearing upon 
our education- 1 system. 

The men who settled the rich lands of Kan- 
sas, Nebraska and Dakota came to stay. They 
brought their families and household gods 
with them, built homes on the prairies, and 
with great sod-plows began to cultivate the 
soil. The early pioneers to this State were 
restless adventurers. Their wives and sweet- 
hearts they left behind them. They came to 
dig for gold, and return. Yet out of this 
chaotic, nomadic multitude has not only devel- 
oped one of the greatest and most prosperous 
States of the Union, but some of the 
grandest educational institutions and founda- 
tions in the land. We propose to briefly notice 
a few of the most prominent and worthy of the 
attention of our enlightened educational visit- 
ore. 

First in rank, having its birth in an early 
day, stands the State University, the crown 
and glory of our system of free public instruc- 
tion. It really began in a boys' school in Oik- 
land, kept by Dr. Henry Durant, whose capa- 
cious Wain was that early teeming with a plan 
for a State University, and who lived to pee it 
realized on the hills of Berkeley, himself the 
first honored president. 

The Constitutional Convention which met in 
Monterey in 1S49 had provided for the protec- 
tion, preservation and improvement of land 
which might he granted for university uses, 
either by the United Spates Government or by 
individual gifts, and had made it the duty of the 
S ate Legislature, as soon as possible, to provide 
effectual means for the improvement and perma- 
nent S' eurity of the funds of the university. The 
perm of this fund was a grant by Congress in 
1852 of 72 sections of land "for the use of a 
seminary of learning." The lame Aot also set 
aside ten sections to create a Public Building 
Fund. In 1862 the Act was passed, offering to 
each State a certain amount of land for a col- 
lege of agriculture and mechanic arts. This 
was formally accepted by California in 1864, 
and her portion was 150 000 acres. Sime inef- 
fective and fruitless legislation was had in the 
interim, and in 1S67 the situation was substan- 
tially this: A State university existed on 
paper, backed by sufficient funds, but having 
nothing etae. The College of California had a 
site, buildings, a faculty and students, but no 
funds. Evidently consolidation was desirable 
to both parties, and this was satisfactorily ac 
complished in 1868, and the organic Act of in- 
corporation was pissedby the Legislature. The 
buildings of the College of California in Oak- 
land were occupied by the university until 
lS7:i. In July of that year commencement ex- 
ercises were held at the new site, and the north 
and south halls formally dedicated. Fuliug 
health had compelled the resignation of Presi- 
dent Durant, and in 1872 President D. C. Gil- 
man, now the honored president of Johns Hop- 
kins University, had been installed as hiB suc- 
cessor. 

I will not tax your patience with details of 
early struggles, which have been many and des- 
perate, but as the university is the crowning 
achievement of our system of free public educa- 
tion, it seems to demand the especial notioe 
which I have given it. Tuition is absolutely 
free. AM courses of study are open to both 
sexes. Daring the last year 122 different 
coursis of study were offered, of which 94 
were actually given. I have not been able to 
verify the correctness of my impression, but it- 
is my belief that when the University cf 
California, in 1S70, opened her doors to her 
daughters as well as to her sons, she was the 
first of the higher institutions of learning, to 



recognize their equal rights and privileges, all 
absolutely free. The site of the university, 
comprising 200 aores, is unsurpassed in beauty. 
Five miles from the City Hall of Oakland, its 
buildings rise on the lower elopes of the Coast 
Hinge, here not more than 1200 or 1500 feet in 
hight, facing the beautiful bay and harbor of 
San Francisco, and looking directly out through 
the Golden Gate toward the regions of the set- 
ting sun, and covering all the miles that lie 
between, are blossoming orchards and fertile 
farms; and where the mainland meets the bay, 
the City of Oakland, covering an area of many 
miles, lifts her graceful spires amid the trees 
and gardens that surround the homes of 50,000 
inhabitants. 

The University of California is an integral 
part of the public-school system in this State, 
and aims to complete the work begun in the 
public schools. Through aid from the State 
and the United States, and by private munifi 
cence, it furnishes ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in science, literature and the professions of 
law, medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. In 
the colleges of letters, agriculture, mining, me- 
chanics, civil engineering and chemi-try, in the 
literary course and in the course in letters and 
political science, these privileges are offered 
without charge for tuition to all persons who 
are qualified for admission. The professional 
colleges, being self-sustaining, require moderate 
tuition fees. All courses are open to all persons 
without distinction of Bex, and the Constitution 
of the State provides for the perpetuation of 
the university, with its existing departments of 
instruction, which comprise the following: 
1. In Rerkei.ev. 

1. The College of letters: 
(a) Classical course. 

(6) Literary course. 

(<• ) Course in letters and political science. 

2. The College of Agriculture. 

3. The College of Mechanics. 

4. The College of Mining. 

5. The College of Civil Engineering. 

6. The College of Chemistry. 

2. In San Fkancisco. 

1. The Hastings College of Law. 

2. The 1 oland College of Medicine. 
3- The College of Dentistry. 

4. The California College of Pharmacy. 

The University is intrusted to the care of a 
Board of Regents, which includes the Governor, 
the Lieutenant Governor, the Speaker of the 
Assembly, the State Superintendent, the presi- 
dent of the Mechanics' Institute of San Fran- 
cisco, the president of the university, and 16 
other regents appointed by the Governor and 
approved by the Senate. 

The instruction and government of the stu- 
dents are intrusted to the Academic Senate and 
the faculties of the various colleges. The Senate 
consists of all persons engaged in giving in- 
struction in any of the departments of the uni- 
versity by authority of the Board of Regents. 
It holds its meetings twice a year. 

Leland Stanford Junior University. 

The grand idea of Leland Stanford to found 
and liberally endow a great university in Cali- 
fornia, has attracted the attention and admira- 
tion of the oivilized world. Never before, in 
any country, has the mind of man conceived a 
grander or nobler scheme of public benefaction, 
and few individuals have had the power, even 
if they bad the will, to devote such immense 
wealth to the benefit of humanity. When the 
intention of Senator Stanford to found a uni- 
versity in memory of his lamented son was first 
announced, it was expected from the broad and 
comprehensive views which he was known to 
entertain upon the subject, that his plans, 
when formed, would result in no ordinary col- 
lege endowment or educational Bcheme; but 
when these plans were laid before the people, 
the magnitude was bo far beyond the most ex- 
travagant of pub'io anticipations that all were 
astonished at the magnificence of their aggre- 
gate, the wide scope of their details, and the 
absolute grandeur of their munificence. The 
brief history of California as an American State 
comprises much that is noble and great, but 
nothing in that history will compare in grand- 
eur with this act of one of her leading citizens. 
The records of history may be searched in vain 
for a parallel to this gift of Senator Stanford to 
the State of hia adoption. 

The utter absence of ostentation, and the sin- 
gleness of purpose which has characterized this 
bestowal of many millions, render the act 
unique in the records of public benefactions. 
Many wealthy persons have, in the evening of 
their days, " when the grasshopper became a 
burden," or by will after death, bestowed large 
portions of their wealth for the public benefit; 
but in this case the donor is a man scarcely 
past the prime of life, in robust health and the 
full strength of unimpaired faculties, surround- 
ed by everything that can make life pleasure- 
able, and with the prospect of many years of 
eupyment yet before him; a man who, by 
almost superhuman energy, enterprise and 
sagacity, has amassed a vast fortune, yet freely 
and voluntarily donates a large portion of his 
more than princely wealth to advance the cause 
of education and afford the sons and daughters 
cf California ample opportunity for obtaining 
the highest and broadest culture. By this act 
Senator Stanford will not only immortalize the 
memory of his son, but will erect for himself a 
monument more enduring than brass or marble, 
for it will he enshrined in the hearts of succeed- 
ing generations for all time to come. The Sen- 
ator's idea is to make this a training-school for 
the hand as well as the oenter of intellectual 
culture, and from the manual labor departments 



July 21, 1888.] 



f ACIFI6 ^URAb pRESS. 



51 



we anticipate the earliest and mott practical 
benefit i of this great enterprise. 

There will be no branch of the arts, sciences 
or mechanics that will not be taught in Palo 
Alto, and to these educational advantages, male 
and female will be equally entitled. The in- 
stitution, by the munificent salaries it will be 
able to pay, will draw to its force of educators 
the most famous and talented professors on the 
globe; and the splendid climate of the section 
of country in which Palo Alto is situated will, 
in no small degree, tend to induce the great 
professors of the East and Europe to accept 
chairs in its departments. The youth of Cali- 
fornia, and America as well, can now look for- 
ward to the time in the near future when the 
doors of a free institution will be thrown open 
to them, wherein the highest standard of ex- 
cellence in technical learning known to our civ- 
ilization may be attained. The departments 
will include a college of medicine, which it will 
be the aim of Senator Stanford to make the 
greatest in this country, and to the conduct of 
which, if possible, will be called such men as 
Jenner of London and Brown Sequard of Paris, 
the lectures of whom the best physicians 
of America may attend with profit. There 
will be a college of law, presided over 
by the ablest masters of the law to 
be obtained; a department wherein will 
be taught all the sciences and higher 
mathematics; a school of arts, in which, under 
the ablest professors, such as now draw students 
from all parts of the civilized world to Munich, 
thorough instruction will be given, in painting, 
sculpture, drawing, design, etc. 

The Musical College. 

A grand conservatory of music, under the 
direction of the most famous masters of Italy 
and Europe, which will afford the best musical 
education to be had in the world, will be one of 
the particular features of this institute of 
technics. There will also be a School of Me- 
chanics, which will turn out all grades in this 
class, from the common artisan to the scientific 
civil engineer and master machinist, and include 
instruction in all grades of scientific draughting 
and architecture. One of the important branches 
of the institution will be a School of Agri- 
culture, to which will be attached a farm, the 
soil and climate of which will produce any of 
the agricultural or horticultural products of the 
temperate or semi-tropic zones. Among the 
valuable adjuncts of the institution are to be a 
splendid museum and libraries, containing the 
beBt works pertaining to the various depart- 
ments of learning. And this is not all. When 
the time comes, as it eventually will, that Palo 
Alto becomes an educational center, around 
which will be built a town, the intention of 
Senator Stanford is to erect buildings for pre- 
paratory schools, in order that people residing 
there may have facilities for educating their 
younger children up to the standard at which 
pupils will be admitted to the higher courses. 

The deed of trust carefully provides against 
expenditure of money on buildings that may be 
useless as universities, the projector believing 
that the faculty is the element to be most con- 
sidered. Senator Stanford's idea is to have the 
buildings erected in the form of a parallelogram, 
and it is intended that two colleges shall be 
built at first — one for males and the other for 
lemales. These buildings are now far advanced 
toward completion. 

During their lives the university will be un- 
der the control of Senator and Mrs. Stanford, 
as they are named as trustees, but the grant 
provides that they cannot sell or encumber the 
vast amount of property in any way, and that 
the devise is forever. 

Trustees. 

Lorenzo Sawyer, one of the presiding Judges of 
the United Slates Circuit Couri, San Francisco. 

James McM. Shafter, San Francisco, lawyer; for- 
merly State Senator, and ex-president of the State 
Agricultural Society. 

Charles Goodall, San Francisco, of the Pacific 
Coast Steamship Co. , formerly a representative of 
San Francisco in the Legis'ature. 

Alfred I.. Tubbs, merchan:, St. Helena, Napa 
county, formerly a Senator Irom San Francisco. 

Fiancis E. Spencer, Judge of the Superior Court, 
San Jose, and formerly a representative from Santa 
Clara county in the Assembly. 

Henry Vrooman, lawyer and State Senator from 
Alameda county. 

Charles F. Crocker, San Francisco, vice-president 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. 

Timothy Hopkins, San Francisco, treasurer of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad Company. 

Henry L. Dodge, San Francisco, merchant, for- 
merly a Stfat3 Senator from San Francisco and ex- 
superintendent of the mint. 

Irving M. Scott. San Francisco, of the Union Iron 
Works. 

William Ashburner, San Francisco, regent of the 
State University (since deceased). 

Dr. H. W. Harkness. Sin Francisco, of the San 
Francisco Academy of Sciences. 

Josiah Stanford, viticulturist, Warm Springs, 
Alameda county. 

Horace Davis, merchant. San Francisco, ex- 
member of Congress from San Francisco. 

John F. Miller, Napa, United States Senator 
from California (since deceased). 

John Boggs, larmer, Colusa, formerly State Sen- 
ator from Colusa, a director of the State Agricultural 
Society and of the Board of Prison Directors of the 
State. 

Hon. T. B. McFarland. Sacramento, formerly in 
the Legislature of the State from Nevada county, 
and at present a Judge of the Superior Court of 
Sacramento. 

Isaac S. Belcher. Marvsville, formerly of the 
Supreme B-nch of California. 

John Q. Brown, Sacramento, Mayor of Sacra- 
mento. 

N. W. Spaulding, Oakland, manufacturer and ex- 



United States Sub-Treasurer, and Grand Treasurer 
of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons 
of Calilornia. 

George E. Gray, San Francisco, ex-chief engineer 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. 

Matthew P. Deady, Portland, Oregon, presiding 
Judge of the United States Circuit Court of Oregon. 

William M. Stewart, Virginia City, Nevadi, 
United States Senator from Nevada. 

Stephen J. Field, Washington, D C., Justice of 
the Supreme Couit of the Un.ted Slates. 

Normal Schools. 
One of these is located at San Jose, about 50 
miles from San Francisco, in the midst of the 
fertile valley of Santa Clara; the second at Los 
Angeles, the center of the great eouthern cit- 
rus belt, and the third at Chico (now in process 
of erection), the center of the northern citrus 
belt. 

The State early recognized the necessity of 
having trained and competent teachers, and to 



rounding country. The school has gent out 
225 graduates. The corps of instructors num- 
bers 7, and the annual pay-roll is Si 1,600. 
High Schools. 

About the time the Constitutional Convention 
met to frame a new Constitution for California, 
namely, in 187S, there was an unusual agita- 
tion of those vexed questions of social and 
political economy from which no State can be 
always free. One result of this strife was a 
clause providing that no State funds shall go 
to support any public school of a grade higher 
than a grammar Bchool, and that all schools 
supported by State aid should be taught in the 
Eaglish language only. While this was re- 
garded as a direct blow at the high schools, it 
was really so in its moral effect only, because 
the amount received from the State fund had 
never been sufficient to support more than the 
lower grade of schools. The action of the con- 




rP fit 

JAMES HULME CANFIELD, SECRETARY N. E. A. (See next page.) 



this end a school was organized in July, 1862. 
It was first located in Sin Francisco, but was 
soon removed to Sin Jose, that city giving for 
its site a square containing 28 acres in the cen- 
ter of the town. Upon this, the State erected 
a magnificent building costing upward of $300,- 
000. This building was, a few years ago, de- 
stroyed by fire, but upon the same site was 
erected the present building of equal capacity 
and convenience with the former. 

The statistics of this school chow a greater 
number of normal students than any in the 
country except those of New York City and 
Philadelphia. This does not include private 
normal schools, but only those eupported by 
the State. To the 19 teachers employed in the 
institution is paid an aggregate in saliry of 
$31,000 annually, ranging from S4000, the sal- 
ary of the principal, to $850, the lowest paid to 
any of the regular corps. In the 24 years of 
its work this school has graduated 1126 teach- 
ers. That the school is doing good work, and 
that its graduates are in demand, is shown by 
the fact that, at the present time, no graduate 
of the school, who desires to teach, is without 
a position. 

In September, 1882, a branch school was 
opened by authority of an Act of the Legisla- 
ture, at Los Angeles, the city giving a beauti- 
ful site of eight acres directly in the town, com- 
manding an extensive view of the city and sur- 



vention, however, was only another illustration 
of that delightful inconsistency which prtju 
diced or unreasoning men will use. These law- 
makers were ready to provide for a free univer- 
sity, while at the same time they would weaken 
or destroy the free bridge which would carry 
their children from the grammar school to the 
entrance of this higher education Fortunate 
ly, this action did not represent the sentiment 
or wish of our people, and a system of high 
schools has been maintained by city taxation in 
our principal cities. 

A special feature of our school system is the 
growing importance attached to the study of 
our own linguage. Mr. Matthew Arnold once 
said he hoped to see in the schools and colleges 
of England the same attention given to the 
study of English that was bestowed upon for- 
eign tongues. Hid he lived to visit California 
he would have seen his idea realized. 

Kindergarten Work:. 

We should fail to do justice to our educa- 
tional work if we neglect in this summary the 
kindergarten. From the nature of the work it 
must be done largely by private beneficence. 
The peculiar fitness required in a teacher, the 
necessarily small number of pupils that consti- 
tute a class, and the elastic and discretionary 
character of much of the instruction, make it 
difficult to engraft it upon our public school 



system except in a limited degree. The city oi 
San Francisco has two clatses connected with 
its school department, and, so far as I am in- 
formed, these are the only ones receiving public 
aid. 

But California has cordially accepted Froe- 
bel's gift, and in all our larger cities and towns 
the kindergarten is a recognized institution. 
Thirty free kindergartens exist in San Francieco 
and Oakland alone, and San Francisco stands 
the third city in the United States in the num- 
ber of children thus instructed. Under able 
direction are conducted two training schools for 
teachers, which supply the teaching force. As 
nearly as I can learn, about 20 private kinder- 
gartens, moreover, exist on the coast, all taught 
by graduates of good training-schools. 

To the generous gifts of benevolent individ- 
uals, especially of Mrs. Leland Stanford and Miss 
Harriet Crocker, are we indebted for the means 
of supporting these nurseries of infant thought, 
Mrs. Stanford bearing the entire expense of 
eight schools, with an enrollment of over 600 
children. Not less essential and valuable has 
been the aid of those large-hearted women who 
have given that without which money would 
have been useless — the unwearying exercise of 
fertile brain, cultured minds and great execu- 
tive ability to secure a wise utilization of the 
material aid furnished. 

God bless the noble women — there and here, 
and wherever they may be — who thus go down 
into the byways and the alleys of our great 
cities and If ft up these poor little ones from the 
darkness and filth of their surroundings into 
the bright sunshine of the Garden of Childhood. 
And great and glorious too shall be their re- 
ward, for to them the King will say : " Inas- 
much as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of these, ye have done it unto me; come, thou 
blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom 
prepared for you from the foundation of the 
world." 

Other Educational Enterprises. 

Private schools and seminaries we have in 
various parts of the State, and many of them 
are of a high order of excellence. Mills Col- 
lege, near Oakland, is the largest institution for 
girls. It is incorporated and its extensive, 
highly improved and valuable grounds, with its 
spacious and costly buildings, were deeded by 
the founders and owners, Mr. and Mrs. C. T. 
Mills, to a board of trustees, to be forever an 
institution for the higher education of women. 
Denominational schools and colleges are numer- 
ously established, and are aiding in the work of 
education. Some of these schools are large and 
powerful, and in many instruction is free. 

The State has also a Mining Bureau located 
in Sin Francisco, under charge of the State 
Mineralogist. Here is another immense collec- 
tion of ores and minerals from all over the 
oast. They are all grouped and identified, 
a ad are open to the public for examination and 
comparison. It is the duty of the State official 
in charge to publish reports, and to give all 
possible information to inquiries concerning the 
mining interests. 

The California Academy of Sciences is an old- 
established institution, and has a large and rare 
collection of natural history specimens. The 
academy has been endowed with over half a 
million dollars by James Lick, in addition to 
its other property, and is one of the richest in- 
stitutions of its kind in the United States. It 
possesses a very large collection of ores and 
minerals. To the student of batany it is es- 
pecially useful. The herbarium contains a 
very large and complete collection of plants 
from the whole coast. These are all identified, 
grouped and labeled, so that any one can use 
them for purposes of comparison and investiga- 
tion. There ia also a very extensive collection 
of birds, and a complete one of California fishes. 
The ethnological collection is full, and relates 
specially to the Pacific Coast natives, those of 
Alaska, and those of the islands of the South 
seas. 

Gifts. 

We should fail to give a just and comprehen- 
sive view of our educational facilities in Cali- 
fornia, if I omitted to mention some of the gifts 
of private individuals to the State. Nor can I 
neglect to call attention hete to the fact so often 
stated, that if a man would have his wishes in 
this regard carried out, it is the part of wisdom 
to place his projected enterprise on a safe and 
abiding basis during his lifetime, rather than to 
subject his estate to litigation, or at least to 
delay, by leaving it to be distributed after his 
death. It is a noticeable fact that those philan- 
thropists of California who have given away the 
largest sums of money have turned it in the di- 
rection of education. 

James Lick was one of the first of 
our very rich men who made large dona- 
tions to the cause of education. His gifts, 
aggregating originally $1,200,000, have nearly 
doubled in value. Seven hundred thousand of 
this mighty sum was set apart to build an ob- 
servatory on Mount Hamilton. This observa- 
tory is the propei ty of the State University. 
It has the largest telescope in the world. The 
buildings are all complete, and fully equipped 
for service. 

In this connection we may call the attention 
of our visitors to the Chabot Observttory in 
Oikland. The building, erected and equipped 
at an expense of $15,000, was the gift of one of 
Oakland's mott public-spirited men, now no 
longer among the living. It stands on a square 
in the heart of the city, is furnished with an 
equatorial telescope, a duplicate of the one at 
the Lick, though, of course, much smaller. It 
is all that is necessary for original research and 



62 



PACIFIC l^URAl* PRESS. 



[July 21, 1888 



is a valuable accessory of the Oakland High 

schools. 

Mr. Sutro has as yet made no formal offer, 
but has informally announced his intention of 
presenting to the public hiB library, the two 
large aquariums to which he is constantly add 
ing and the botinical and other gardens con- 
nected with his large estate. President Holden 
thus speaks in his recent report of the offer of 
Mr. Sutro: 

" This site is an ideal one for a seaside biolog 
ical laboratory, where scientific research shall 
be carried on, and Mr. Sutro will provide and 
will support the best aquariums in the world. 
These are now partly built. The site adjoins 
splendid gardens in which facilities are oflered 
for experiments in botany and agriculture. The 
library of Mr. Sutro will be, in itself, half of a 
university, and access to it is equally impor 
tant to all the colleges of the university. The 
site proposed is at the terminus of twocabls 
roads, and will be less than one hour distant 
from the City Hall." 

James flulme Canfield. 

Secretary of the National Educational 
Association. 

The subject of this sketch was born at 
Delaware, Ohio, on the 18th of March, 1847. 
He was prepared for college at the Col- 
legiate and Polytechnic Institute of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., where he secured a good 
groundwork for his tho oughly practical and 
solid education. He attended Williams Col- 
lege (Mass.) and was graduated from that 
institution with honor in the year 1868, at the 
age of 21 years, delivering the philosophic 
oration. After leaving college he at once 
engaged in business, and (or lour >ears fol- 
lowed the work of constructive railroading in 
Iowa and Minnesota, at the same time carry- 
ing on the study of law. In the year 1872 he 
was admitted to the bar at Jackson, Mich., 
and practiced law at St. Joseph, Mich., until 
1877, carrying gratuitously, meanwhile, for 
two years the superintendency of schools. 
In this latter position his tastes and apti- 
tude for the cause of education became ap- 
parent, and from that time to the present he 
has been found in the ranks of our educa - 
ors. He was elected professor of history 
and English language and literature in the 
Kansas State University in the year 1877, 
with which institution he has been connected 
ever since. In the year 1881, the chair to 
which he was called was changed to that 
of History and Political Science, which pro- 
fessorship he is now occupying. He is now 
completing his second term as Secretary of 
the National Educational Association. He 
is a gentleman of rare executive ability, of 
pleasing address, and possesses in a marked 
degree those qualities which fit him for a 
prominent position in a great institution like 
the association. He is a member of the 
American Historical Association, of the 
American Economic Association, and of the 
National Political-Economy Club, in all of 
which societies he feels a great interest, and 
is active in carrying forward their work. 
He has contributed much to the success of 
the present session of the Educational As- 
sociation, coming on to engage in the pre- 
paratory work at an early day, being unre- 
mitting in his labors since his arrival. His 
special work of arranging a daily program 
has been completed under many disadvan- 
tages, but has been marked by persistence 
and good judgment. The association has 
had in Mr. Canfield a worthy and an ex- 
cellent officer. His portrait on page 51 is 
a lifelike reproduction. 

San Francisco Teachers' Mutual Aid 
Society. 

The objects of this society are to properly 
care for and give pecuniary aid to members 
when sick and unable to attend to their duties. 

Mrs. Lizzie K. Burke informs us that this so- 
ciety was started 10 years ago by herself and a 
few other teachers in San Francisco, to which 
place the membership is limited. 

The number of members is 210, and on the 
payment of 50 cents monthly each member is 
entitled ti $10 per week in case of sickness, and 
$75 should death occur. 

The entrance fee was originally S'2 50, but 
has been gradually raised to §10 as a protection 
to older members. 

We are surprised to find that only one-third 
of the Sin Francisco teachers are members of 
this well-conceived and well-conducted organ- 
ization. It is the oldest one of its kind in the 
United Stites, and would serve as an excellent 
model for similar societies in sister States. 



Charles H. Allen. 

Among the many educators of this State 



received his early education in the common 
schools of his native district, and then en- 
tered the Coudersport Academy in McKean 



A Pomolooical Fair is to be held at Los 
Angeles during the OJd Fellows' Grand Ku- 
oampment in September. The arrangements 
have been intrusted to a joint committee, em- 
bracing Thomas A. Garey, H. Fuller, W. A. 
Spaulding, D. Edson Smith and R, H. Hewitt 
of the Los Angeles Pomological Society, and K. 
Germain, L. Stern and M. L. Wicks on the part 
of the I. O. O. F. 




CHARLES H ALT.EV PT'CTPAL STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. SAN JO c E. 




Smug P A «<" 

J. H. PRYOR, SECY LOOAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, N. E. A. 



Thence he went to the Westfield Academy, 
where he took charge of a normal class ; 
and after several subsequent appointments 
to various schools, was elected principal of 
the academy at Smethport, in Pennsylvania, 
which position he held for three years, re- 
signing then on account of failing health. 
Mr. Allen now commenced the business of 
surveying in McKean county, Pennsylvania, 
continuing for three years, when he was 
elected associate principal of the Normal 
School at Westchester, Chester county, in 
the same State, and served one year. 
Thence he went to Wisconsin to hold a 
series of teachers' institutes for the State, 
and after several months of that work was 
appointed " agent " to the regents of the 
State Normal Schools ; in which capacity 
he labored about two years, holding insti- 
tutes and supervising normal classes. He 
then opened a private normal school in 
Madison, Wisconsin, leaving this work to 
take the position of principal of the normal 
department in the State University, and 
serving therein three years. When the Civil 
War broke out, Prof. Allen raised a com- 
pany of volunteers, was elected to its cap- 
taincy, and marched to the war. At the 
expiration of the term for which he enlisted, 
he returned to the university. His health 
failing again, he removed to Cincinnati and 
engaged in the insurance business ; but his 
abilities as an educator were too valuable to 
be smothered in mere money matters, and 
he was, ere long, induced to accept the 
principalship of the first Normal School of 
Wisconsin, where he taught during the en- 
suing five years; when, finding his health 
still in an unsatisfactory state, he deter- 
mined on making a radical change, and went 
to Oregon and opened the " Bishop Scott " 
Grammar School in Portland. Recovering 
his health, he returned to Wisconsin, and 
was there engaged for a year as institute 
agent. The Trustees of the Normal School 
of California sent for him and gave him the 
position of teacher of natural science in the 
State Normal School at San Jose. In 
March, 1873, he was elected vice-principal, 
and in August of the same year, principal of 
this school. 

Prof. Allen has been eminently successful 
as principal of the State Normal School at 
San Jose. He is an indefatigable worker 
and very practical in his methods. He is 
not only scholarly but a good organizer. 
His administrative abilities are of the high- 
est order. What he does is done very 
quietly; he makes no show, blows no trum- 
pets. It is gratifying that on this ever- 
broadening field on the Pacific Slope we have 
so faithful and efficient a worker and over- 
seer as Prof. Allen, and may his days long 
be spared to go in and out before us. 

Jo H. Pryor. 

Jo H. Ptyor, Secretary of the Local Execu- 
tive Committee of the National Educational 
Association, is a native son of California, 
and one of the prominent members of the 
Order of that name. He has a pride in his 
birthplace, and has been an active worker 
in furthering the interests of the Native 
Sons. He was born in Tuolumne county, 
Cal., September 28, 1851. His family 
moved to Shasta in 1854, where his father 
engaged in farming, the son attending the 
public schools of the county until the year 
1867, when he entered the Shasta Courier 
office as an apprentice to the printer's trade. 
While serving his apprenticeship he had 
opportunity to attend school a portion of the 
time, which he did. In 1874 Mr. Pryor 
purchased a one-half interest in the Weekly 
People's Cause, and one year later he and 
his partner — L. D. Clark, now publisher of 
the Scott Valley News — began the publica- 
tion of the Daily People's Cause. He sold 
his interest in this journal in June, 1868, and 
moved to San Francisco, where he purchas- 
ed an interest in the Pacific Educational 
Journal, with which publication he is now 
connected, being associated with J. B. Mc- 
Chesney of Oakland. The Journal is the 
official organ of the Department of Public 
Instruction, and is a valued medium of in- 
formation upon educational topics to the 
teachers of the Slate. Mr. Pryor was mar- 
ried Dec. 18, 1880, to Miss Flora Church of 
Red Bluff, daughter of the late J. E. Church, 
a prominent merchant of Northern Califor- 
nia. Mr. Pryor has been unremitting in 
his labors to assist in the completion of 
proper arrangements for the meeting of the 
Teachers' Association, and has performed 
his work with such promptness and in such 
an agreeable manner as to make many 
friends among the teachers. The Executive 
Committee has found him a valuable as- 
sistant. 



no one deserves a higher encomium than the 
subject of this sketch. Born in Mansfield, 
Tioga county, Pennsylvania, Feb. 11, 1828, he 



county, and followed its full course of work. 
He then went to Jamestown, in New York, 
and began teaching in the public school. 



Mr. Geo. W. Thompson, proprietor of Oak 
Grove Trout Ponds at Noyac, L. L, formerly of 
Brooklyn Township, Alameda county, baa late- 
ly patented a metallic railway tie. 



July 21, 1888.] 



fACIFie RjJRAla p>RESS. 



53 



Frederick MoLean Campbell. 

Mr. Campbell is of the sturdy old Scotch 
stock, transplanted to the soil of New Eng- 
land. Six generations of ancestors on both 
sides were born and bred in Connecticut. 
His parents moved to New York City, where 
Frederick was born in 1837, the seventh son 
of a family of eight boys. His father, who 
died at 80, looked like a Scotchman. The 
dark hair and black eyes of the race, the 
stalwart frame, well-rounded limbs, and fine 
presence of Mr. Campbell, are a heritage 
from a long line of virtuous ancestry, of 
which he may well be proud. His mother 
was a Bidwell, a pious and lovely woman, 
who did not live to train her child after his 
fourth year. His early instruction was all 
obtained in' the public schools of his native 
city. So eager and diligent had he been, 
that at 15 he was made a teacher; and while 
in charge of a class he attended an evening 
normal school. At 18 he graduated and at 
20 married, and still continued to teach in 
the public schools. In 1858 he came to 
California. On the 3d of September he 
took charge of the public school in Vallejo. 

His fame as a successful teacher had gone 
abroad, and when the Rev. J. H. Brayton 
applied to John Swett for, a teacher in the 
College school in Oakland, he recommended 
Mr. Campbell, and in 1861 he took charge 
of that school, which, under his admirable 
management, became the leading one of 
the State. 

The writer well remembers his appear 
ance at that time. A slight-built, smooih- 
faced youth of 23, with an eagle eye, that 
nothing in the field of vision could escape; 
a face radiant with the light of intelligence; 
a body firmly knit, with strong muscles and 
electric nerves; a gait and carriage and ac- 
tivity indicating power and endurance, and 
all the elements of command. 

Nine years in that institution brought out 
all the latent powers of F. M. Campbell as 
teacher and manager of an academy of a 
high character. Scattered over this coast, 
in every State and Territory and adjoining 
countries, are scores and hundreds of men 
in the active pursuits of life, many in lead- 
ing positions, who were pupils in that school, 
and their unanimous testimony is, that they 
never knew a better teacher. He was al- 
ways a popular teacher, though an excellent 
disciplinarian. It is not too much to say of 
him that he is a born teacher. He has 
given his life to the work, and few have 
equaled and fewer still excelled him. So 
great was his success that Mr. Brayton 
found his services invaluable, and volun- 
tarily increased his salary to $275 a month 
for the last years of his stay. 

In 1870 he was chosen superintendent of 
the public schools of Oakland. Into this 
new field of labor he threw his whole soul; 
and by his untiring energy, activity, in- 
genuity and skill, he brought the schools, 
step by step, to the highest state of effi- 
ciency. In the ten years of his incumbency, 
his power over teachers, members of the 
Board of Education, City Council, and the 
people was continually exerted and ever 
increasing. He made everybody feel that 
the schools were the first great care of 
Government and people; that they should 
be the pride and boast of the ci'.y. He 
gathered the best men around him to second 
all his efforts; but he was always at the front, 
clearly the leader. If a new school-house 
was needed, it was built. The high school 
was cherished and enlarged, the best of 
teachers secured for the primaries, every 
detail of the work in every department was 
closely scrutinized, and every possible im- 
provement introduced. Drawing and music 
were taught, and no spirit of beggarly econ- 
omy was allowed to cripp'e the schools in any 
way. So high was the enthusiasm kept up 
that parsimony was shamed into liberality. 
Once in two years there was an election, 
and every time Mr. Campbell was nomi- 
nated and elected. No matter what party 
was defeated, there were enough of all par- 
ties to ' keep Mr. Campbell in his place. 
When his name was presented for State 
Superintendent, testimonials of the highest 
character were signed by the clergy of all 
denominations, by the Board of Education, 
and the best citizens of all classes, and 
scores of his former pupils. 

He was elected Slate Superintendent of 
Public Instruction in 1879. The adoption 
of the new Constitution almost revolution- 
ized the school system. When the Legis- 
lature met, it was necessary to revise the 
school laws, and Mr. Campbell took hold of 
the task with his accustomed energy and 
industry. Consulting former superintendents 
and the best teachers, the highest educa- 
tional wisdom was embodied in the new 
laws, and the committees of both branches 
of the Legislature adopted and recommend- 
ed them. Then it required a prodigious 



amount of watching, care and urging to get 
them passed. The files were crowded with 
important bills, and many were never 
reached; but the school laws were passed. 
Here is a word from Mr. Wason, the chair- 
man of the Committee of the Assembly, as 



position of State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, in the year 1883, he resumed 
his residence in Oakland. He was again 
chosen City Superintendent of Schools in 
that city in 1884, and has held the position 
since that time, being re-elected in 1886. 




JAMES K WILSON. 

to Mr. Campbell's share in that work: | In all the varied duties of his office, in 
" But however anxious we legislators were [ county institutes, among teachers and school 
to perform the work aright, we should not officers, everywhere he is a living power, 
have succeeded without the aid of Mr. ; stirring all to enthusiasm in the work of 
Campbell's intelligent judgment, wise ad- education. Jn ex-officio places, on the 
vice and untiring watchfulness at every step Board of Regents 01 the State University, 




F. M. CAMPBELL, SDPT. OAKLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



Tab'-r PI, (do. 



of its progress through the two houses." 

After the passage of the laws came the 
work of their execution. In this, as in all 
the work committed to his hands, Mr. Camp- 
bell has acquitted himself with great credit. 
There is testimony from nearly every county 
superintendent in the State to his great effi- 
ciency. 

After Mr Campbell's retirement from the 



or that of the Normal school, he has done 
his whole duty. 

This sketch of the life, character and 
deeds of Mr. Campbell should not be closed 
without an allusion to his general useful- 
ness. In the earlier days of Oakland, when 
every good institution was struggling to gain 
an assured place, and was making appeals 
to the public for help, the first man to be 



called upon was Mr. Campbell. He was 
always ready with heart, hand and voice. 
At every fair or entertainment of any sort to 
aid any good cause, all felt that success was 
only certain when Mr. Campbell led. He 
never tired of helping others, and abounded 
in deeds of charity and beneficence for all 
the needy. We have prepared his portrait 
as one of the bright and leading educational 
men of our day. 

James K. Wilson. 

James K. Wilson, whose portrait is pre- 
sented on this page, is a native of Gorham, 
Maine, where he was born April 24, 1845. 
He is, therefore, 43 years of age, and in the 
very prime of life. 

Mr. Wilson received his early education 
in the public schools of his native State, 
and later entered the Maine Wesleyan 
Seminary as a student. He had nearly 
fitted himself there for admission to college 
when he entered the army during the clos- 
ing year of the war, enlisting in Company I, 
Twelfth Maine Regiment, Infantry Volun- 
teers. Six weeks after his enlistment he 
was promoted to the position of Sergeant, 
and as such served until honorably dis- 
charged, August 25, 1865. 

Afterward Mr. Wil son taught in New 
England schools for nearly two years. In 
April, 1867, he came to California, since 
which period, until very recently, he has 
been actively engaged in the profession of 
teaching. His first experience as a teacher 
in this State was with the McClure Military 
Academy, Oakland. Subsequently, he was 
associated for two years with the faculty of 
the City College, an educational institution 
that has since been merged into the Univer- 
sity of the Pacific. Severing his relations 
with that institution, he opened a private 
school which was patronized by many of the 
best citizens of San Francisco, whose sons 
were numbered among his pupils. So 
great was his success that he had 115 pu- 
pils enrolled before the close of the first 
year. A vacancy occurring at this juncture 
in the principalship of Lincoln grammar 
school, Mr. Wilson was tendered the posi- 
tion, and, consenting to accept it, he was 
elected November 13, 1872. He retained 
this position until July, 1886, an uninter- 
rupted period of nearly 14 years, when he 
resigned and was elected principal of the 
Boys' High school, which position he re- 
tained until a few weeks ago, when he re- 
signed it to accept the management of the 
People's Home Savings Bank, an institution 
which has, under his skillful direction, al : 
ready taken a place in the front rank of the 
banking institutions of San Francisco. 

It is a great compliment to the ability and 
integrity of a citizen to be chosen manager 
of the funds of such an institution, and es- 
pecially so when the selected party is outside 
of strict banking circles. Mr. Wilson is 
taking up the duties of his new position with 
the same energy and spirit that has always 
character^z-d his other work, and he is more 
than justifying the confidence of those who 
called him to his present place. He will 
doubtless control millions of dollars in the 
coming administraiion of this bank, but he 
will do it with a clear head and honest 
hands, and to the profit of all depositors. 

Uuringthe period of his service in the pub- 
lic schools of San Francisco, Mr. Wilson's 
success as an educator was fully attested by 
the history of the two leading institutions 
above named. He made Lincoln school 
well-nigh famous through the whole country 
— certainly over the entire Pacific Coast — 
by the excellence of its discipline and the 
model methods of instruction. He possessed 
the ability of enthusing both subordinate 
teachers and students, and was beloved by 
all with whom he came in contact. His 
record here can well be as great a matter of 
pride to him as though he filled some exalted 
civil position; it is certainly a matter of pride 
to our city. He took the helm at the Boys' 
High school at a time of turbulence in 
the affairs of that ins itution, and although 
the responsibility which then devolved upon 
him was great, he was equal to the 
emergency, and brought the school forward 
to the position of high standing which it 
now holds. 

Mr. Wilson was for seven years a member 
of the city Board of Examiners. It will be 
observed from the foregoing that it has been 
the privilege of few public teachers to enjoy 
so rare and enviable an experience as that 
which has fallen to the lot of Mr. Wilson, 
nor is there probably another public educa- 
tor in California whose influence has been 
extended over so many of its young men. 

Besides being a member of the Local 
Executive Committee of the National Edu- 
cational Association, Mr. Wilson is also 
chairman of the Auditing and Reception 
Committee, exercising, in the former capa- 
city, a judicious influence over the finances 
of the Local Executive Committee. 



54 



JpACIFie t^URAb PRESS 



[July 21, 1888 



Where to Visit. 

Our educational visitors, after discharging 
the duties of the convention and having visited 
the various points of interest in and around Sin 
Francisco, strolled through the Golden Gate 
park with its magnificent drives, walks, 
grass plots, fbwer-bedg, arbors, artificial 
mounds, Key's monument and life-size statues 
of President James A. Garfield and General VV. 
A. Halleck; visited the old Mission Dolores 
church on Dolores street between Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth, and, though erected more 
than a hundred years ago, its adobe walls are 
nearly as strong to day as when erected: the 
United States Mint, one of the handsomest and 
most imposing Government buildings in the 
city, and where millions of gold and silver are 
annually coined; climbed Telegraph hill and had 
the finest view of the bay and other interesting 
points; visited the Presidio, Cliff House, Seal 
Rocks and Sutro Hights and picturesque ceme- 
teries; held their noses as they ran through 
Chinatown, peeping into josB-houses and Chi- 
nese theaters; had a sail around the bay pint 
Fort Point as far out as the Farallones; taken 
a drive over the queenly city of Oakland and 
its charming suburbs; stood on the Berkeley 
hills and looked into the Golden Gate, and the 
rays of the setting eun glinting the summit of 



tedious and difficult, but not dangerous. 
Strangers should never attempt it without a 

guide. 

In the mountains near Cilistoga is the Petri- 
fied I .rest. It covers an area of about -0 
acres, and is well worthy of a visit. Much baa 
been written by geologists of this wonderful 
forest. Miny think it was submerged in some 
distant age by a volcanic eruption, and when 
the water and ashes had passed away there 
emerged a prostrate forest of stone. Like the 
sphinx, the petrified forest keeps its own secret. 

The Geysers is a cluster of the greatest 
marvels. Nature must have been in her most 
freakish mood when this picturesque wonder 
was made. As the traveler enters the canyon, 
he hears a sound like that of a locomotive — 
puff, puff, puff — almost as regultr as the beat 
of a pulse. As he penetrates deeper, he will 
have a feeling that Pandemonium is not a mile 
away. The air chokes and suffocates and has a 
sulphurous taint. The ground is hot. There 
are over .'{00 springs and jets. The water varies 
in temperature from 150 to '210 degrees. The 
unfathomab'e pool, about tix teet in diameter, 
seething, roaring, emits a hideous tmell. The 
rocks that form the backs of this infernal fount 
are very hot and ornamented by crystals ot sul- 
phur. Another notable spot is the " Devil's 
(irist-Mill." The GeyBers cover about 1000 
acres, are about 1000 feet above the level of the 
sea, are surrounded by lofty and rugged mount- 



the Bridal Veil fall, over 900 feet high and of 
indescribable beauty. Cithedral rock, 2660 
feet above the valley, having the appearance 
from certain points of a dilapidated Gothic ca- 
thedral; Sentinel rock, so called from its re- 
semblance to a gigantic watch-tower or signal 
station; Vernal fall, Nevada fall, Cloud Rest, 
Mirror lake, North Djme, Three Brothers; the 
series of wonders culminating in the El Capi- 
tan, of which Starr King wrote: "A more ma- 
jestic object tban this rock I never expect to 
see on this planet." 

The Yosemite valley is absut 4000 feet above 
the sea. Its general course is northeasterly and 
southwesterly. The main Merced river runs 
through it. In many instances the walls 
of the valley are nearly vertical. The 
mountains surrounding it will average about 
4000 feet in hight. 

Three theories have been propounded in ex- 
planation of this wonderful valley. Professor 
J. 1 1. Whitney thinks that the bottom "sank 
down to an unknown depth, owing to its sup 
port being withdrawn from underneath during 
some of those convulsive movements which 
must have attended the upheaval of so exten 
sive and elevated a chain." This is the subsi- 
dence theory. 

J ihn Muir, a geologist, who has spent much 
time in the Yosemite region, advocates the 
glacial theory, that glaciers coming down the 
mountain-side scooped out this immense chasm. 



The Cogswell Polytechnic College. 

"Man is a tool-using animal. He can use 
tools, can deviM tools: with these the granite 
mountains melt into light dust before him ; be 
kneads glowing Iron as if it were soft paste; 
seas are bis smooth highway, winds and fire bis 
unwearying steeds. Nowhere do you find him 
without tools; without tools be is nothing; 
with tools he is all." — Girlyle. 

The object of this institution is not to 
teach trades but to prepare students to enter 
successfully upon any line of useful work. 
The aim is to fully develop the boy and girl 
J mentally, morally and physically, thereby 
| producing self- re. iant and self helpful men 
and women. The schcol and building are 
the result of a donation of $1,000,000 by Dr. 
Henry I). Cogswell, and are located at the 
corner of 26th and Fo'som streets, in this city. 

The building is three stories high, and 
from its imposing and substantial appear- 
ance is the most notable structure in the 
southwestern portion of the city. It is 71 
feet in width by 85 feet in depth, not includ- 
ing the projections. On each side there is 
a wing two sioiies in hight, each 35x40 feet. 
The building is surmounted with a high 
I roof, covered with ornamental metal <]ueen 




COGSWELL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Mt. Tamalpais — perhaps they may feel in- 
clined to visit other attractive points in this 
land of perpetual surprises. 

We do not propose to write a full and 
elaborate tourist article, but out of the nu- 
merous charming resorts, historical pi ices, 
mineral springs famous for tbeir curative 
waters and magnificent scenery, there are a 
few srots of natural curiosity to which we can- 
not forbear giving a brief mention. 

Dinner lake is at an altitude of 7000 feet 
above the level of the sea. Aside from its va- 1 
nous, novel and brilliant scenery, surpassing ' 
description, the lake and locality has a tragic 
interest as the site of a camp where the Donner 
party of emigrants, in October, 1846, were 
snowed in and many perished. The p ■r!y con- 
sisted of 81 souls, of whom 23 males and 24 
females lived to reach the valleys of California. 

The grandest lake in California is Lake 
Tahoe, pronounced " Tah-oo," meaning " Big 
Water." It is 6700 feet above the Bea level, 
aud is '20 miles long and 1'2 in breadth. Al 
though the mountains around this district are 
covered with snow during the winter, the 
wat-rs of the lake never frei ze, but n main 
at the same temperature all the year round. 
The shores aie lintd with picturetque forestB 
and the beach is moBt beautiful. 

At the northern limit of the Sacramento 
valley, like some solitary giant, stands Mount 
Shasta at an elevation of 14,440 feet. Its 
summit is covered with perpetual snow. The 
view from the top of this mountain is undoubt- 
edly the grandest and most extensive in Cali- 
fornia, if not in the world. The ascent is 



ains, 100 miles north of Sin Francisco, and are 
approached by the railroad through Napa val- 
ley to Calietoga. 

The natural scenery of California culminates 
at Yosemite. 

The name Yosemite is Indian, and means 
" big grizz'y bear." The valley lies very near 
the center of the State, reckoning north and 
south; about one-fit th the way across from east 
to wett, and almost exactly in the middle of 
the high Sierras, which inclose it. It is about 
140 miles from Sin Francisco in an air line. 
Toe main valley is seven miles 1 >ng, and the 
bottom of the valley is about 4000 feet above 
the level of the sea. It is really a huge sink or 
cleft in a tangle of rock- mountains; a gigantic 
trough, not scooped or hollowed out from above, 
but sunk straight down, as if the bottom had 
dropped plumb toward the center, having both 
walls so high that if either should fall, its top 
would reach clear across the valley and crash 
against the opposite cliff, several hundred feet 
above its base. 

Samuel Biwles, editor of the Springfield 
Republican, Mass., wrote of this group of mar- 
vein: " Indeed, it is not too much to say that 
no so limited space in all the known world 
offers such majestio and impressive beauty. 
Niagara alone divides honors with it in Ameri- 
ca. Only the whole of Switzerland can Burpaes 
it — no one scene in all the Alps can match this 
before me now, in the things that mark the 
memory and impress all the senses for beauty 
and for sublimity." 

After one gets over the surprise he may be- 
gin to Btudy these wonders in detail. First, 



No one advocates the theory of erosion, as it is 
believed that ordinary water currents coul 1 not 
have worn away walls bo vertical and crooked. 
There is the same objection to the glicial the- 
ory. The subsidence theory seems the most 
plausible, but we can attempt no argument for 
it here. The subject is certainly an interesting 
one, and we may at a future time refer to it 
again. 

In this route the tourist may take in the great 
groves of Sequoia Gigantea in Mariposa and 
Calaveras counties. No known trees of the 
world compare with them. Think of a stage- 
coach loaded with travelers bowling through 
one; 120 children and a piano crowded inside 
another; cotillion parties dancing on a smooth 
stump, or a man on horseback riding into a 
hollow log. But these trees have been so fully 
described that we will not further amplify. 



Dr. Joseph M. Frey of Newcastle, Placer 
county, died there on the 12. h inst. He prac- 
ticed medicine a long time in Sacramento and 
stood high as a physician. About 14 years ago, 
his health having become impaired, he moved 
to Newcastle, where he planted what is now 
one of the oldest and best citrus oichards in 
Placer county. 

Tried and Prized — That veteran horti- 
culturist and editor, Thomas Meehan of Ger- 
mantown, Penn., "writes us under date of July 
7th : " The Press is one of my old circle that 
I would not willingly have dissolved. There 
are few exohanges that I feel profited in perus- 
ing, and the Press is one of those few." 



Anne shingles, and has a handsome cresting 
on the ridges. In front a high tower rises 
to the hight ol 127 feet, the apex topped 
with a revolving crystal star set in a copper 
pinnacle. On the face of the tower, above 
the third-story line, is the did of a clock, 
and still lower down the name of the school. 
The main entrance is spacious and sur- 
rounded by a wide porch. On each side 
of the door is a niche for the placing of 
pieces of statuary. There are also two side 
entrances — one lor boys and the other lor 
girls. The main entrance porch is ap- 
proached by a broad flight of stone steps. 
The main hallway is 10 feet wide, and opens 
into a cross-hallway 12 feet wide, which 
crosses the building from end to end. From 
the cross-hall, stairways lead to the second 
story; stairs also lead to the stage at the 
rear and to the front of the assembly hall, 
in the story above. It will thus be seen 
that the means of egress are unusually ex- 
cellent, there being three wide doorways 
from the ground floor to the street and two 
from the second story to the assembly hall. 

The first session of the Cogswell Poly- 
technic College will open for the reception 
of students Monday, August 6, 1888. 



Photo-Facsimile Portraits.— Most of 
the portraits printed in this issue are made 
by the new photo facsimile process of the 
Uewey Engraving Co. 



July 21, 1888.] 



fAClFKB f^URAb PRESS. 



55 



Educational. 



HOPKINS ACADEMY, 

OAKUAND, O-A-Xj. 




EIGHTEENTH YEAR. 

Next Term begins July 31, 18S8. 

Large additions have been made to the buildings and 
furniture. New corps of instructors. Send for Circulars. 

W. W. ANDERSON, A. M. , Principal. 



Laurel Hall College, San Mateo, Cal. 




Farmers will find this a safe and pleasant school for their boys. It is a mile and a half distant from San Ma'eo, 
surrounded b farms and pastures and remote from saloons and all forms of temptation, j et within 40 minutes of 
San Francisco The climate is good, the buildings handsome and commodious, and all the appointments filtrate. 
The quality of the insl ruction may be inferred from the fact that the highest distinctions ever cainon by California 
students at the great colleges of the East have been won by pupils of this school. Send for Catalogue. 

JOHN GAMBLE, B. A., Ph. D., Principal. 



VAN NESS SEMINARY, 

(Ralston House) 1222 Pine Street, 

BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL 



YOUNG LADIES and CHILDREN. 

ENGLISH, 

FRENCH. 

GERMAN 

AND 

LATIN 

TAUGHT BY COMPETENT PROFESSORS. 

A Sunny Primary Room and Gymnasium have been 
added to the establishment. 

WILL RE-OPEN JULY 30, 1888. 

For particulars apply to 

MRS. SARA B. GAMBLE. 



California Military Academy 




NEXT TERM BEGINS JULY 23, 1888 

Thorough instruction in all Departments. Business 
Course complete. Location unsurpassed Send for 
Circular. COL. W. H. O'BRIEN, Principal. 



ST. MATTHEW'S HALL, 

SAN MATEO, CAL. 

A SCHOOL FOR BOYS, 

UNDER MILITARY DISCIPLINE. 

Thorough Preparation for College or for 
Business. 

The Next Term will Commence Thursday, 
July 26, 1888. 

43T For Catalogue, address, 

KEV. ALFRED LEE BREWER, M. A., 

Principal 



BOWENS ACADEMY, 

University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal 

Preparatory, Commercial, and 

Academic Departments. 

Next Term begins Monday, July 30, 1888 

Special preparation for University. 
T. STEWART BuWENS, B. A., T. C. D., Principal. 



SANTA CLARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA CLARA. CAL. 
Fall Term begins August 6, 1888 

Rev. R. E. KENNA, S. J., President 



TRINITY SCHOOL, 




IRVING INSTITUTE. 

A Select School for Young Ladies. 

TWELFTH YEAR. 
Fifteen Professors and Teachers. 
For Catalogue or information, address the Principal, 
REV. EDW. B. CHURCH, A. M. 
1036 Valencia St., San Francisco, Cal 



MILLS COLLEGE and SEMINARY 

THE NEXT TERM WILL BEGIN 

AUGUST 1, 1888. 

The College Course corresponds very 
nearly to thit of Wellesley College, 
Massachusetts. 

The Seminary Course of study remains unchanged. 

KS'Vnx circulars or information apply to 

REV. C. C. STRATTON, D. D.. 
or MRS. C. T. MILLS. 

Mills SemiDary P. C, 

Alameda County, Cal. 



D. J. Johnson. 



C. W. Weston. 



Pacific Split Basket Co 



SNELL SEMINARY 

FOR YOUNG LADIES, 
568 Twelfth Street, Oakland. Cal. 

Fall Term begins Monday, Aug. 7, 1888. 
Full Seminary Course of Instruction. Pupils fitted to 
enter the State University, and Va.sar or Smith College. 
Send for Circular to. 

MARY E. SVELL, ) „„:„„=„„,- 
RICHARD B SNELL, f mncl P al8 - 



FIELD SEMINARY, 

SCHOOL FOR GIRLS and YOUNG LADIES 
182'i Telegraph Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

The Seventeeth Year of this well-known 
Institution will open 

WEDNESDAY AUGUST 1, 1888 

For further information apply to 

MRS. R G. KNOX, Proprietor, 
Or to MRS. D. B. CONDRON, Principal 



T EC IB OAKS, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

The next year will begin oh Wednesday, July 25, 1888. 
For information address, MISS L. TRACY, Principal. 



BAINBRIDGE 

Business College 

AND 

NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Institute of Short-Hand and Type-Writing. 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
Send for Catalogue. J. C. BA INBRIDGE, Principal. 

(Formerly Principal of Stockton Business College and 
Normal Institute.) 




1534 Mission Street, 



San Francisco. 



Prepares Boys and Young Men 

OR 

College, Unlv rsity and Business. 
Christmas T«>rm opens Wednesday, Aug. 1st. 
RKV. K. B, SPALDING, Rector. 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

24 POST ST., S. F. 

FOR SWVKNTY-FIVK DOLLARS THIS 
College instructs in Shorthand, Typo Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to buidnets, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
£_#"Sbnd for Circular. 

E. P. II HA LI), President. 

C S. HALEY, Secretary. 



-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



SPRUCE 

Satchel, 
Fruit and 
Market 

BASKETS. 

2H Mission St., 3d floor, S. F. 




SPENCER PIANOS 

Latest Improved Repeating Action 

(PATENTED). 



TONE CNSURPASSED. 

Durability Guaranteed in any Climate 
F. W. SPENCER & CO., 

723 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal 

Second Floor, History Building. 
Largest Piano Warerooms in California. Catalogues 
and prices by mail. Visitors always welcome. 



Self-Plaving Organ. 

An Automatic Organ Combined with an 

Ordinary Five Octave Organ. 
No Teacher or Practice Necessary, 

ANYBODY CAN PLAY the latest and most difficult 
music of every cla6S. Every home should have one. 
Send for descriptive circulars, prices and terms to 

KOHLEE & CHASE, 137 & 139 Post St 

Dealers in all kinds of Musical Goods. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD 




DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS, 29 Post St., S. F. 



THE WHITE IS KING 

OF ALL 

SEWING MACHINES. 

Simple in Construction, Light Running, Most Durable 
and Complete. 
Visitors always welcome. 

WHITE SEWING MACHINE CO 

108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 



WINCHESTER HOUSE, 

44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal 

This Fire-proof Brick Building Is centrally located,!: 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 

HOT AND COLD BATHS FREE. 

Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 
ROOMS WITH OR WITHOUT BOARD. 

FREE CO '.OH TO THE HOUSE 
J. POOLEY. 



THE SCIENTIFIC KIT OF TOOLS 

FOR 

Farmers. Dairymen, Stockmen & Machinists 




Blacksmith's Drill 
Press, H»nd Feed; 
Weight, 65 lbs. 

Combination Anvil 
and Vise, hardened 
face, finely polished; 
weight, tiO lbs. 

Farmer's Forge, 
No. 6 B, will heat 
lAinch iron. 



Blacks mith's 
Hammer and 
Handle. 2 ths., 
solid cast steel. 




Blacksmith's Tongs, Wrought Iron, 18 inches. 




W Farrier's Pincers, Cast Steel; 12-inch. 



Shoeing Hammer and Handle; weight, 
9 ounces. 




EVERY TOOL GUARANTEED, 

And we offer this complete 

OUTFIT FOR ONLY $25.00 

Which is hardly half the regular prices, and none can 
afford to be without this set. Orders by mail promptly 
filled. Addre-s, 

G G. WICKSON & CO., 
Nos. 3 and 5 Front St., San Francisco. 



RURAL HEALTH RETREAT 




At Crystal Springs, St. Helena, Cal. 

Thi-s delightful Resort offers unrivaled advantages to 
Tourists and all classes of Invalids, both for 
Winter and Summer. It is situated on the southwestern 
slope of Howell Mountain; BO 1 fe't above and ovtrlookiug 
tin- noted and beautiful Napa Valley, and 2J miles Tom 
St Hel na. It is noted for its Pure Water, Dry Atmos- 
phere, Clear and Balmy Su shine. Even Temperatur , Mild 
Breezes, and the absence of high winds. 

Till-; RATIONAL TREATMENT 
By all known remedial agents is employed in this Institu 
tion With these natural and acquired advantages, pleasjut 
and desitable surroundings, thorough and judicious treat- 
ment and wholesome diet, most invalids who avail them- 
selves of these agreeable facilities, rapidly recover Patients 
have the care of a regularly graduated Pliysiciau of experi- 
ence, who is assisted by well-trained and courteous gentle- 
men anil lady assistants. 

All Invalids and Tourists will be courteously re- 
ceived and kind y car d for. For circulars and further par- 
ticulars, audress as above. 




Send stamp for 100-pagc Ilhistratkd Catalog..: of 

FISHING TACKLE, 

Guns, Pistols, Cartridges, Air Guns, Hunting Coats, Leg- 
gings, Loading Implements, Base Ball Goods, Lawn 
Tennis, Boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium Goods, Ham- 
mocks, etc. 

Fine Uun work done by first-class smiths. 
GEO. W. SHREVE, 
525 Kearny Street, San Francisco. Cal. 

420 and 422 Ninth St , Saa Francisco. 

SOLB MAMM'ACTURKR of 

PATENT TULE COVERS 

For Bottles aod Other Fragile Ware. 

Fac tory Price, 8 cts. per doz. 
Patented Nov 17, 1874; April 26, 1876; Oct. 18, 1881; 

.luly 11. 1882, and Dec. 15, 18S5. 
THE BEST AND SAFEST PACKING. 
Can be had of all Box Makers. 



Poultry and Stack Book 

successful Poultry and Stock Raising on thePacific Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely illustrated with 
handsome, life-like illustrations of the different varieties 
of Poultry and Live-Stock. Price, postpaid 60 cts. Ad- 
dress PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, San Francisco, Cal 



Nilos's new 
manual and 
r e f e r e nca 
book on sub- 
j e c t s con- 
nected with 



56 



pAClFie RURAb PRESS. 



[Jolt 21, 1888 



Land? for Sale apd Jo Let 



PARK PLACE. 



Land Between Fruitvale and 
Mills Seminary. 



To parties desirous of establishing homes, a rare 
opportunity is offered to secure land at a price lower 
in comparison than any where else in California. 

It is located only a short distance from Oakland, 
between FRUITVALE and MILLS' COLLEGE, 
and immediately ADJOINS THE GROUNDS OF THE 
LATTER, 

The land is just rolling enough to render it beauti- 
ful for building sites. Situated at the base of the 
foothills, it has a most desirable climate, and its 
proximity to the best Female Seminary in the State, 
makes it suitable as residence property for families 
having girls to educate whom they wish to live at 
home. 

'I he land can now be purchased at a low price, 
in quantities to suit, and its nearness to Oakland, 
the best market in the State, makes it desirable for 
the growing of Orchard, Small Fruits, Fowl, etc. 

That the land is specially adapted to Fruit culture 
is guaranteed by the reputation of this famous Fruit- 
vale district for fine Fruits. 

The best large market in the State, Oakland, be- 
ing only four miles away, and several Canneries in 
the vicinity, make the paying of freight charges un- 
necessary. 

The setting out of Fruit Trees would increase the 
value of the land, besides furnishing an income. 
The value will also be enhanced by the building of 
the Alameda County Railway, now in course of con- 
struction, which is to have a depot on the land, and 
then San Francisco can be reached in 55 minutes, or 
Broadway, Oakland, in 15. 

For investment it is an opportunity which rarely 
occurs, as Oakland is rapidly extending in this di- 
rection, and must, in the near future, include this 
land within its limits. This is proved by the fact that 
in i860 Oakland had but 1000 people ; in 1870, 10,- 
000; 1880, 30,000; and now 60,000, and growing 
more rapidly than ever. 

People in the interior who desire to educate their 
children at the State University, in Berkeley, or at 
schools in Oakland or San Francisco, can establish 
here a rural home and be constantly with them. 

This land was part of the Laundry Farm, that 
old and well-known Summer Resort, and is just far 
enough from the Picnic and Camping Grounds to 
be desirable and add value. 

Address, JOSEPH H. DORETY, 529 Commer- 
cial street. San Francisco, Cal. 



CHICO VECINO! 

Best location in the State of California for beautiful 
suburban 

HOMES. 

Located near the thriving city of CII [CO, Butte County, 
California. Subdivided from the heart of tue famous 

RANCHO CHICO, 

The well-known property ol 

GENERAL JOHN BIDWELL. 

Town Lots and acreage proDertv, from fractions of an 
acre upward. TERMS REASONABLE. For further 
particulars, address: 

CAMPER & COSTAR, Real Estate Agents, 
Chlco, Butte Co., Cal. 



Or WM. H. 
809 Market Street, 



MARTIN, 

San Francisco, Cal 



LAND & WATER FREE! 

800 Acres Rich, Level Land. 



To some one who will summer fallow and cultivate 
well, will be furnished free water and use of 160 acres of 
good land (S. E. Sec. 13, T. 21, R. 23) within 9 miles of 
Tulare, S. W. Forty acres formerly plowed. Land on 
all sides cultivated and pastured. Water for irrigation 
(if needed) free. Also (without water) 640 acres (Section 
13, T. 23, R. 24), four miles westerly of Tipton and S P. 
R. R., all in Tulare County and the Artesian belt. For 
particulars call 011 E. M. DEWEY, 7 miles S. W. of Tu- 
are, or A. T. DEWEY, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 



FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE. 

Ranch of 200 acres on Coquille River, Coos County, 
Oregon; 40 acres bench land 1 CO acres bottom, 80 acres 
under cultivation; 1 J miles from Coquille City, one-half 
mile from steamer landing. An abundance of fine 
spring water on place. Price, $1500 cash, or will ex- 
change for California property in vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. For further particulars apply to 
H. GOBTZ. 
659 Clay St., San Francisco, Cal. 



FOR SALE OR RENT. 

THE YOLO WINERY PROPERTY, 

Situated in Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal., 

Consisting of large cellar, press, rooms and distillery, all 
ocmplete aDd new, haviDg been used only two seasons. 
For particulars inquire of 

L. D. STEPHENS, 

Woodland, Cal 



LANDS I FOREIGN ESTATE AT PUBLIC AUCTION! 

TO THE! HIGHEST BIDDER! 

Sold by order of the Superior Court of Ventura County to close the estate of THOMAS A. SCOTT, Deceased. 

A.± HUE!]X"E3]VIE, Ventura Oountv, 

Commencing MONDAY. JULY 30, 1888. 

'er Cent Rectuired a.t Time of Sale. 



Only Ton. 

16,000 ACRES 

OF THE FINE FARMING LANDS OF THE 

RANCHO LA COLONIA IN VENTURA COUNTY, 

INCLUDING CHOICK LOTS 100x200 IN THE TOWN OF 

HTTENEME, 

From which port is annually shipped by sea more Grain than is shipped from any other port in California, excepting San Francisco. 

The Lands are Divided into Tracts of from 10, 15,20, 40, 80, 160 Acres and upwards, including 
many improvements. Lots in the Town of Hueneme to be Sold Separately. 
Also Town Lots in SAN BUENAVENTURA. 

Here is an opportunity for every body to buy choice lands now under cultivation at fair and reasonable prioei, in the most fertile and pro- 
ductive valley in California, upon CREDIT. 

ARTESIAN WATER AT 140 FEET. NO COMMISSION! NO AGENTS! 

O" Remember the date of Sale, JULY 30, 1888, and that it will be continued from day to day till all the property shall be sold. 
For maps or further particulars address, THOMAS R. BARD, Huenema, Cal. 

Persons desiring to purchase and not able to attend the sale may do so by addressing, T. H. MERRY, Hueneme, Cal. 



SANTA YNEZ, 

Santa Barbara County, Oaliiornia. 
THE SANTA YNEZ LAND AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

Is now offering for sale at low prices and upon very moderate terms the choicest of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Lands 

Of the famous College Grant, in the aforementioned beautiful valley. The CLIMATE is perfect, SOIL rich and 
diversified, TOPOGRAPHY unumially varied and beautiful, a park -like growth of Oaks covering the entire valley 
WATER SUPPLY more than sufficient for irrigation of all irrigable lands, and no alkali either in water or soil. 

TRANSPORTA1ION FACILITIES superior now, and two trunk lines certain to pass through the valley 
within a year. 

43,000 ACRES OF THESE CHOICE LANDS 

Are for sale at from $25 to $150 per acre; terms of payment being one-third cash, one-third in two, balance in three 
years; six per cent interest on deferred payments. 

To reach the Santa Ynez valley take any transportation line to San Luis Obispo, thence by Pacific Coast Rail- 
way to Santa Yncz or to Santa Barbara, thence by stage to Santa Ynez. Persons seeking lovely homes or lands for 
lonie or quickly paying investments, cannot do better than purchase here. For further information refer to 

E. W. STEELE, Manager, Santa Tnez, Cal. 

E. de la CUBSTA, Agent, Santa Tnez. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents, 325 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
SIDNEY LACEY, Agent, Los Angeles. 

COOPER Sc DREYFUS, Agents, Santa Barbara. 

McCLUNG <Sc PRAY. Agents San Diego. 



MERY'S IMPROVED PIONEER 



BARLEY CRUSHER 

Using toe Benoit Corrngatel Rollers. 

STILL at The front. 




Agricultural and Grazing 

LANDS FOR SALE. 



7975 Acres of fine grazing and agricultural land, in- 
cluding 4000 head of fine grade stock sheep; abundance 
of water; 9 miles from Merced City, and near Merced 
River; price, $7.25 per acre; 1000 acres good wheat land. 
Address 

OSTRANDER & SONS, 

Merced, Cal. 

Or N. C. OARNALL CO.. 
624 Matket Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



This Mill has been In use on this Coast for 7 years, 

TAKEN THE PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR 

Four years in* succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 225 of them in use in California, Nevada & Oregon. 

It is the roost economical and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole manu- 
facturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all ready to mount 

on wagons. 



Cnico, Cat. , Feb. 1, 1887. 
M. J.. Mery, Ek<i.— Dear mr: The 9x11 Birlev 
Crusher bought of you and used in the Calfornia Mills, 
gave entire satibf action; have crushed 8000 pounds an 
hour. I have also crushed »s much or more on set 10x'20 
when working for General Bidwell, which set he is using 
in his mill to-day. Yours truly, 

GEORGE SIIAND. 



Travrr, May 3, 1P87. 
Having used one of the Barley Crushers manufactured 
by M. L. Mery, of Chico, Butte county, I can say it will 
do all that is claimed for it, and to those wishing an A 
No. 1 machine, I would recommend it as the very best. 
I have crushed 35 tons in 11 hours' work. 

J. D. GOLDEN. 
M. I.. Mbrv, Manufacturer, Chico, Cal. 



I thank the public (or the kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works, Chico. Cal. 



Howe's Scales and Crescent Coffee Mills 

D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, General Agents, 

117 and 119 Market St., cor. Main, San Francisco. 



Artesian Belt Land 

AT LOW FIGURES. 

The southwest quarter of Section fifteen, Township 
twenty-three, Range twenty-four west, one-hundred and 
sixty acres of rich level land, near the center line of the 
Artesian Belt in Tulare County, five miles northwest of 
Alila, on the S. P. R. R., is offered for sale at the ex- 
ceedingly low price of fifteen dollars per acre. Address, 
" Landowner," Box 2361, San Francisco P. O , or to the 
care of this paper. 



CHEAP LANDS! 

For Actual Settlers. 



We own. in fee simple, nearly 100,000 acres of very 
fine lands in the Eastern part of Ventura County, Cali- 
fornia, which we are offering in tracts of from 10 to 
10,000 acres, and at prices varying from $o to $100, ac- 
cording to quality, situation and extent. Climate as 
healthful as any in California, and water very abundant. 
For particulars address, 

8IMI LAND AND WATER CO.. 
IS West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



G000 CROPS EVERY SEASON WITHOUT 
IRRIGATION. 

Free by mail, specimen number of *' The California 
Real Estate Exchange and Mart," full of reliable infor- 
mation on climate, productions, etc., of 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 
Address. H. MEYRICK. Box S. Santa Cruz. Cal. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

For the ha'f-year ending June 30, 1888, a dividend haa 
been declared at the rate of four and one-half (4|) per 
cent per ai.num on Term Deposits, and three and three- 
quarters (3|) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits. 
Payable ou and after Monday, July 2, 1888. 

WM. HERRMANN, Secretary. 



Carriages. 

We are receiving 10 carloads of Carriages, Buggies and 
Wagons from the Briggs Carriage Company of Amesbury, 
Mass., which will be sold at prices that will be satisfac- 
tory, considering style and workmanship. Quality of 
material guaranteed the best. 

F. A. BRIGGS & CO., 
220 & 222 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



July 21, 1888.] 



PACIFie I^URAId press 



57 



NTOJVIObOQICAb. 

The Imported Parasite of the Fluted 
Scale. 

Editors Press : — The recent introduction of 
an Australian parasite of the fluted scale {Icerya 
purchasi) into California is a matter of much 
interest not only to fruit growers of your State, 
bnt to naturalists in general. The specimens 
were sent by Mr. Frazer S. Crawford of Ade- 
laide, Australia, with whom I have been in 
correspondence for some time, and whom I re- 
quested last November to attempt the experi- 
ment by mailing living specimens to my agent, 
Mr. Coquillett, and to Mr. Klee. As your read- 
ers already know, Mr. Crawford found that this 
same parasite infested not only the Icerya, but 
also a very large bark-louse which he called 
a Ccelotloma, and which Mr. Maskell has since 
described as Afonophlcebut Crawfordi. The 
superior size of this last, and the large number 
of parasites which a single individual con- 
tained, rendered it a better medium for trans- 
portation. He therefore mailed a nnmber of 
specimens of the Monophlabus to Mr. Coquillett 
and to Mr. Klee. Many of the parasites issued 
on the journey and nearly all were dead upon 
receipt. Those sent to Mr. Klee were sent by 
him to my agent, Mr. Koebele, at Alameda. 
All of this lot were dead, but after keeping 
them for a few days more parasites issued, 
which Mr. Koebele endeavored to colonize by 
placing them with Iceryan inclosed upon or- 
ange. The experiment, however, does not 
seem to have been successful. All of these in- 
dividuals are dead, and there is no indication 
at the present time that any of them oviposited 
upon Icerya. The same may be said of Mr. 
Coquillett's parallel experiment, although some 
of the parasites were alive upon receipt and 
more issued subsequently. This dipterous 
Australian parasite is, however, in spite of the 
want of success of this primary experiment, the 
most hopeful of any of the foreign enemies of 
the fluted scale, and a special endeavor will be 
made to transport it in number by Mr. Koebele, 
who goes to Australia under my direction next 
month for the purpose of investigating the Aus- 
tralian enemies of this destructive scale. He 
goes, however, by the courtesy of the State 
Department and of the special committee ap- 
pointed to represent this country at the Mel- 
bourne Exposition. In other words, it is 
through Mr. McCoppin's appreciation of the 
importance of the matter and of the fruit- 
growers' interests that we are able to make the 
investigation. The agricultural appropriation 
bill, as it left the House, would have permitted 
the Commissioner of Agriculture in his discre- 
tion to have sent an agent or agents to Aus- 
tralia in pursuance of this investigation; but, 
in spite of repeated appeals from the Commis- 
sioner for recognition of this special matter, in 
the face of resolutions from your own fruit- 
growers, in disregard of a special letter and 
argument by myself, and of whatever efforts 
the California Representatives and Senators may 
have made — the Senate Committee insisted on 
a restricting clause which prevents the Com- 
missioner from sending any representative to 
any foreign country. I cannot trust myself to 
characterize this mode of legislation without 
discussing the whole matter of congressional 
legislation in behalf of agriculture, which would 
be foreign to the purpose of this communi- 
cation. 

The exact scientific position of the little para- 
site which we have endeavored to introduce by 
post has been no easy matter to determine. 
Upon receiving the first specimens from Mr. 
Crawford a year ago, I compared it very care- 
fully with the material in our national collec- 
tions and with the characterizations extant, 
and concluded that it was something quite new 
genetically and would prove probably an aber- 
rant species of Oscinidos. Specimens were for- 
warded to Dr. S. W. Williston of New Haven, 
who is our best authority upon the diptera and 
whose opinion is indicated in a note on page 30 
of Bulletin 15. Dr. Williston did not care to 
describe it from the fragmentary material of a 
year ago, but, having since sent him fresh 
specimens received from Mr. Crawford, and 
also from Mr. Koebele, Dr. Williston has de- 
cided to erect a new genus in the family 
Oscinidce for the species. I have received his 
manuscript description, which will appear in 
the first number of a periodical bulletin of this 
Division, which is now going through the 
press. He has called it Lestophonus icerya, 
and the name is well worth remembering as 
that of an insect of which we have great hopes. 

Washington, D. C. C. V. Riley. 

[Our readers will remember that a new im- 
portation of the parasites has been received, as 
described in last week's Rural. We are glad 
to have this interesting letter from Prof. 
Riley. — Eds. Press.] 

The Sphinx Moth. 

A few weeks ago certain vineyards in Napa 
and Sonoma counties were threatened with 
ravages of a caterpillar or "worm." Some 
specimens having been brought to the office of 
the Republican from Bennett valley, the same 
were handed to L. E. Ricksecker, who identi- 
fies and reports upon them as follows : 

The caterpillars are the larvae of a Sphinx 
moth — Deilephila lineala — one of the common- 



est species of Sphinxes, being found all over the 
United States, Canada and Mexico. 

The larvaj being fed until they',arrived at ma- 
turity, made a very frail cocoon by uniting the 
edges of some leaves in the bottom of the breed- 
ing-cage in which I had confined them, and 
after lying dormant a few days transformed 
into the pupa state. 

In nature they enter the ground for this pur- 
pose, after the manner of the tobacco worms 
and all other Sphinxes, but having neglected to 
put any earth into their box, they were com- 
pelled to arrange some sort of covering for that 
protection which they knew was required 
while in their defenseless condition during the 
pupa state. In being successful in uniting 
the leaves, they acquired at least a partial 
shelter, and gave us a beautiful illustration of 
that great law, " the survival of the fittest." 
Had they shown themselves less apt in getting 
this protection, they would have been less 
fit to survive, and consequently would have 
perished. 

After being in the pupa state for about three 
weeks, they emerged in imago the first week 
in July; that is, they became fully developed 
moths, male and female, ready to fly away and 
produce their species. This they do by de- 
positing their eggs upon their natural food 
plants. These are given in the books as being 
purslane and turnip, but it is highly probable 
that this species has long ago learned to eat the 
leaves of many herbaceous plants found in fields 
and wayside places. I know of no instance 
where these caterpillars have been found in 
their earlier stages on grapevines. They are 
reported as coming into the vineyards about 
two-thirds grown, and it is probable that they 
only do so when their natural food is exhaust- 
ed. More information on the subject is want- 
ed, and it is therefore desired that vineyardists 
and others observe the food plants of this species 
and report upon them, or, better yet, send in 
some specimens. 

At the present time the moths are very 
abundant, and many of them are killed in the 
electric-light globes in Xuita Rosa each night. 

They are dark olive in color, with narrow 
white lines. On the abdomen there are two 
rows of alternate black and white patches. 
The entire wings are olivaceous, with a narrow, 
straight, buff band. Their flight is strong and 
rapid, like that of humming-birds; hence some 
people call them "humming-bird moths." 
They can often be seen toward evening hover- 
ing over beds of flowers, especially petunias, 
into which they thrust their long tongues for 
honey. 

The mature larvse are generally yellowish- 
green, with two rows of elliptical yellow spots 
surrounded by black, but the specimens brought 
from Bennett valley showed that a variety is in 
process of formation which may, perhaps, be 
due to their new food-plant, the vine. They 
were dark brown in color with some small yel- 
low specks on the sides. 

It is an open question whether this species 
has two broods or only one each year. If two, 
then the young larvse of the second brood will 
appear before the middle of July. Vineyard- 
ists should observe this and report the fact at 
once to the newspapers, so that others may be 
warned and the young brood destroyed before 
any damage is done. If none appear before the 
middle of July, the vines will be safe until next 
spring, at which time early attention should be 
given to this pest. Keep the fence-rows clear 
of weeds and watch the fields contiguous to 
the vineyards for young larvse. It will be 
easier to destroy them then than later when 
they are nearly full grown; and don't forget to 
report your observations to the newspapers so 
that others may benefit thereby and aid in that 
concerted action which is needed to check this 
threatened pest. 



Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or beyond the time tie intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A postal 
card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will not know- 
ingly send the paper to anyone who does not wish it, but 
If it is continued, through the failure of the subscriber to 
notify us to discontinue it, or some irresponsible party re- 
quested to stop it, we shall positively demand payment for 
the time it is sent. Look carefully at the label on 

YOUR PAPER. 

" Doctress " Mary Von, the murderess, who 
is now serving a life sentence at San Quentin 
for the killing of J. W. Bishop, attempted to 
murder Mary Kane, the matron of the female 
department of the prison. Mary Von was 
secreted, sprang upon the matron and dealt her 
heavy blows with a piece of iron. 

$500,000 

On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, io6 Leidesdorff St., 
Room 3. ** 

Remember. — We can make it an object for 
some friend going Eist to consult us before 
buying tickets. 

Any one wishing a bargain in the way of a new 
carriage, or wagon, will do well to call at this office. 



Auction Sales of Fruit at the East. 

Chicago, July 12.— The prices realized at 
the auction sales of California fruits to-day 
were as follows: 1249 boxes Birtlett pears, 
$l.35@1.80; 97 boxes Clapp's Favorite pears, 
$1.30(«*1.40; 298 boxes Purple Duane plums, 
$1.25@1.60; 69 crates Bradshaw plums, $1.50; 
20 boxes Magnum Bonum plums, $1 60; 179 
boxes Crawford Eirly peaches, $2.35@2.55. 
Owing to the late arrival of the train the sale 
was not held until three o'clock, and prices 
ranged quite low, as buyers had not time to 
make shipments out of town. 

Chicaoo, July 13. — Prices realized at the 
auction of California fruits to day were as fol- 
lows: 263 boxes of Crawford Earlv peaches at 
$1.60 to $2.15; 441 boxes Purple Duane plums 
at $1.20 to $1.50; 54 boxes Magnum Bonum 
plums at $1.75; 92 crates German prunes, $1.80 
to $185; 828 boxes Bartlett pears at $1.25 to 
$1.50. The principal feature of to-day's mar- 
ket is a decline in the price of B irtlett pears, 
caused chiefly by delayed sales of yesterday, 
which afforded shippers no opportunity to ship 
to outside towns, and the large arrivals (four 
cars) of this line of fruit being more than the 
local markets could well absorb. Prices for 
other fruits are fully up to expectations. 

Chicago, July 14. — California green fruits 
met with very good demand. Bartlett pears 
brought $1.75 per box and Clapp's favorite, 
$1.50. Consignments of peaches were received 
by various routes, some coming in early and 
others late. The total receipts were fairly lib- 
eral, and the supply was good. Crawfords, in 
20 pound cases, sold at $2 25(«J2 50, and Hale's 
early, same size, at $2@2 25. Plums are quite 
plenty. They run anywhere from over-ripe 
and soft to small green stock; 20-pound cases of 
Purple Duane sell at $l.75(<y2, and the same 
size of Bradshaws at $2 50. German prunes, 
$2@2 25. 

Chicago, July 16. — The attendance at to- 
day's sales of California fruit was more than 
usually large, and the prices obtained were cor- 
respondingly good. Some of the plums which 
brought lowest prices were ripe enough for im- 
mediate use. Pears are arriving still a trifle 
green. A total of five cars was sold. 

Prices realized were as follows : Purple 
Duane plums, boxes, $1.15(^1.35; plums, crate, 
$1 3C(o> 1 95; plums, extra choice and large 
crates, $2 20; plums, Magnum Bonum, $1.45; 
Early Crawford peaches, $l.25(g}1.55; Bartlett 
pears, $1.75(ojl 80; fancy German prunes. $1.30 
@1.35; fancy German prunes, crates, $1 20@ 
1.60; Fontainebleau erapes, orates, $1 ,10(a)1.45; 
red nectarines, $1.55(« 1.75. 

New York, July 16. — Six carloads of Cali- 
fornia fruit, mostly pears, arrived to-day and 
were sold at auction. They met considerable 
hot weather en route, and the peaches espe- 
cially were injured. Bartlett pears realized 
$2 65 to $1.55; Crawford peaches from $1.65 to 
$1.20, and plums and prunes from $2 40 to $1. 

Chicago, July 17. — The attendance at the 
California fruit sales is increasing, and competi- 
tion is quite eager. The peaches offered to-day 
were the finest that have yet come to this mar- 
ket. Pears, being in small quantity, ruled 25 
cents higher. Three carloads were disposed of. 
Prices realized were as follows: Plums, $1.10 
@1.30; Bradshaw plums. $l.25(« 1.45; Mag 
uum Bonum plums, $1.30(a,1.40; Early Craw- 
ford peaches, $1.35@1.50; Bartlett pears, 
$2.05; nectarines, crates, $1.40; grapes, $1.50; 
German prunes, $1.15@1.60; apricots, $1.35; 
cling peaches, $1.45(5 1. 60." 

Prompt Settlement of Damages. 

The Chronicle states that a fruit car contain 
ing peaches and apricots, bound for Chicago, 
having been badly smashed in an accident to 
the East-bound "flyer" near Winnemucca 
Sunday morning, the railroad officials patched 
an empty car to take that part of the fruit re- 
maining uninjured to Ogden, where it will be 
sold. A telegram was at once sent to the Chi- 
cago consignee, who duplicated his order with 
the shipper here, and thus the California fruit 
man disposes of two carloads at full price 
where he would otherwise have disposed of but 
one, the railroad company paying full damages 
for the entire carload, the greater portion of 
which was made into peach jam by the ditching 
of the train. 



Pacific Cold-Storage and Ice Company. 

The above-named company has taken the 
building at Eighth and Brannan streets, for- 
merly occupied by the S. F. Sugar Refinery, 
and has fitted it up, on scientific principles and 
at great expense, with appliances for control- 
ling the temperature. Visitors are welcome to 
inspect the huge warehouse, and the superin- 
tendent is instructed to give all desired infor- 
mation respecting the means employed. So 
perfect are the arrangements that the temper- 
ature can be regulated to a fraction of a de- 
gree — electrical annunciators connecting with 
the superintendent's ofhoe. 

The establishment is now ready for the stor- 
age of eggs, meat and other perishable articles, 
but the company devote themselves particu- 
larly to the handling of green fruit, which they 
guarantee to deliver at the end of three or five 
months in condition as fresh and perfect as 
when it was placed in their charge. E. A. Rix 
is president and F. De Ruyter manager of trie 
company. The latter advises every one who 
thinks of putting goods, especially fruit, in 
storage, to consult with him in advance, as 
proper packing is necessary to insure a full 
success . 



List of D. S. Patents for Paoiflo Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents In Diwit A 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., S. F. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JULY IO, 1888. 

385,985.— Station Indicator— Mark Anthony, 
S. F. 

385,696.— Churn— J. C. Cole, Brents, W. T. 

3 8 S.793- —Lathe Chuck Attachment— Findlay 
Cumming, S. F. 

385,701.— Railway Rail— F. Euphrat, S. F. 

3 8 5. 8 59- — Cement— 1. C. Hatch, Santa Cruz, 
Cal. 

385,812.— Dredger — Knight & Lambing, Sutter 
Creek. Cal. 

385 936.— Dental Engine — W. A. Knowles, 
AUmeda, Cal. 

386,024.— Car Brake— I. Nicholson, S F. 

385,780. — Instrument for Plotting Contours 
of Ground— M. Stixrud, Seattle, W. T. 

386.046. — Lamp Shade — Genevieve Watson, 
Seat le, 'W. T. 

386,049.— Railway Signal — G. H. Wright, 
S. F. 

Nora.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Paciflo Coa jt 
inventors transacted with perteot seourity, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest nossible time. 



Our Agents. 

Our Friknds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 

but worthy men. 
G. W. Ingalls — Arizona Territory. 
A. F. Jkwett— Tulare Co. 
C. E. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Co.'s. 
John L. Doyle — Oregon, Montana and Idaho. 

E. B. Grbenocoh— Humboldt Co. 

W. W. Theobalds — Sonoma, Napa and Yolo Co.'s. 

F. B. Logan — Lake Co and Nevada State. 

S. J. LixiLRFiELD— Santa Barbara, Los Angeles and 
San Diego Co. 'a. 



Rats by the Gallon.— The Chicago Herald 
tells how a Georgia farmer thinned out the rats 
that ravaged his corn crib. He got a three- 
gallon jar and half filled it with water. On 
the top of the water he placed a thick layer of 
cottonseed. The seed, so he argued, would at- 
tract the rats as a pleasant place to play, and, 
of course, the moment they touched the seed 
down they would go. The trap worked like a 
charm. The rats came; they attempted the 
frolic act on the seed with the deceptive foun- 
dation, and, to use Mr. Kilgore's own words, 
he " caught a gallon and a half of rats the first 
night," running the water to the top. 



WHAT 



WARNER'S IE 

I [ 



'BACK AGHE, 
j BLADDER TROUBLES, 
RHEUMATISM, 
$SAFE CURF^ NEURALGIA, -«r 
POArc wnt^ HEADACHE, M 
CURES NERVOUSNESS, M 
C ° VINQICESTION. M 

/ There is no doubt of this 
' great remedy's potency. It is 
no New Discovery unknown 
and mayhap worthless, but 
is familiar to the public for 
years as the only . reliable 
remedy for diseases of the 
Kidneys, Liver and Stomach. 
To be well, your blood must 
be pure, and it never can 
be pure if the Kidneys, (the 
only blood purifying organs) 
Vare diseased. 



< 



DIZZINESS, -*f\OURED 
ACUE, M 1 U 
DYSPEPSIA, M 



WITH 



SETO WARD'S 
EST -iSAFE CURE. 

Ask your friends and neighA 
bors what 

WARNER'S SAFE CURE 

has done for them. Its record 
is beyond the range of doubt,. 
It has cured millions and we 

have millions of testimonials to 
prove our assertions. 

WARNER'S SAFE CURE 
will cure you if you will give it 
a chance. / 



3 



58 



fACIFie r^URAb PRESS. 



[Jolt 21, 1888 



Breeders' Directory. 



Ml lines or less in thiB Directory at 50c per Hoe per month. 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 



P. H. MURPHY, (Brighton,) PerkinB P. O., breeder 
of Recorded Short Hurni and Poland China Hogs. 



COTATB RANCH BREEDING FARM, Pages 

Station, S. K. s N. P. K. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, 8panish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



VALPARAISO PARK. Thoroughbred Durham 
Cattle. ThoroughDred Berkshire awine. Address 
tf. I). Atherton, Menlo Park. 

rJETti COOK, breeder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von. Durham, Polled Aberdeen Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breeds on hand for 
sale. Warranted to be pure bred, recorded and aver- 
age breeders. AddresB, Geo. A. Wiley, Cook Farm, 
Danville, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



W. J. MARSH it SON, Dayton, Nevada, 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred attains. 



Ksgis- 



J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., brecdsr 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

R. J. MEBKBLEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

HOLSTEINS— New lot Eastern-bred animals, includ- 
ing Netherlands; Augific'B and Case Strains. Punch 
for ringing bulls, S1.00 postpaid. Berkshire Swine. 
Catalogues. F. H. Burke, 4U1 Montgomery St, S. F. 

M- D HOPKINS, Pc-taluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and Heifers for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 

EL ROBLA hANCHO. I os Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal.. Francis T. L'nderhill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mail. C F. Swan, manager. 



J . R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

T. E. MILLER. Beecher, 111. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 



POULTRY. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choices* va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 



E. H. FREEMAN, Santa Clara, Cal., breeds the best 
strains of thoroughbred poultry. Send for circulars. 

PIEDMONT POULTRY YARDS, cor. Piedmont 
Ave. tL Booth St., Oakland. Wyandotte*. L. Brahmas, 
P. Rocks. Langshans, B. Leghorns, H. B. R. O. Bantams. 
Eggs*; for 13; circular free; Mrs J. N. Lund, Box 116. 



W. C. DAMON, Napa, $2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Leghorns, Lt. Brahmas, Houdaus. Eggs, *2. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St.,S. F.. Importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

O. J. ALBEK, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

KIRKPATRICK St WHITTAKER, Knight'B 
Ferry, Cal.. breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

JULIOS WEYAND, Little Stony, Colusa Co , Cal., 
breeder of pure blood and graded Angora Goats. 
Choice Bucks and Docs for sale. 

BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep. Premium band of the State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 



■V.G 8TONESIFER, Breeder of pure-blood French 
Merino Sheep. Hill's terry, Stanislaus Co , Cal. 

.11. W. WOOLSEY St SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
& breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
aferino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; sec adv't. 



SWINE. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
»hori»nihhr«d Berkshire and EaaeY Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Ciroularsfree 



ANDREW SMITH. Redwood City. Cal.; sen adv't. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID 

NON-POISONOUS 

SHEEP DIP. 

LITTLES PATENT POWDER DIP 

(poisonous). Information by mill. 
CATTON, BELL & CO., successors to Falknkr, 

Bull & Co , 406 California St., S. F. 
Wool Aicency Warehouse. Sixth and Townsend Streets. 




SPECIAL OFFER. -I will ihlp 
localities where, as yet, I have no 
AOKNT, one sample Improved "New 
Becker" Washer at wholksalk prices 
Descriptive pampldet free. E.W. Me Kin 
Prop. Office, 806 J St., Sacramento, Cal, 



IMPORTANT! 

ImpThat the public should know that for the past Sixteen Year* our Sole Hasinas* has been, and now Is, 
aborting (Over 1 OO Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshire*, 
ply Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
term*. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1886. PETKK SAXE & SON, Lick Honsa, S. F. 



REGISTERED SHROPSHIRE SHEEP AND BERKSHIRE PIGS 



ini'»Rri:ii i icom 




Uoyal Ouke of C'alifornl 



KV(.I.IM» UIKKl'T. 

Winners of all blue ribbons 
in their classes and sweep- 
stakes prizes at State Fairs, 
Sac amento, 1886 and 1887. 
Importations made by uie an- 
nually of the best M <m1 ob- 
tainable in England, r gard- 
les«ofc»st. Young stock, bred 
from these Importations, malo 
and female, from dirTerei.t 
families, for sale at reasonable 
pric s, and every animal guar- 
anteed. Addrei 




ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal , or 218 California St., S. F. 



Redwood Duke, No. 13,368. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Holstein-Friesians 4 Jerseys 

A choice lot of young Cattle of the above breeds for 
sale at very low figures. Their breedim; is A No 1 and 
from the BEST MILKING FAMILIES. Prices and 
QUALITY will suit. ELEVEN YEARS' experience 
on this Coast. Correspondence solicited. 

Publisher of "Nlles' Pacific Coast Poultry anil 
Stock Hook," a new book on subjects connected with 
successful Poultry and Stock raising on the Pacific Coast. 
Price, 50 cents, post-paid. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles. Cal 




POPLAR 

GROVE 

Breeding 
FARM, 

""BARON VALIANT N24052. 

STRA O" JF3 JEJ . 3F*. O. Address, Fresno, Cnl. 

IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 

POLLED ANGUS CATTLE ~ TROTTING HORSES. 

For information adilrens or call on S. N Straube as above. No trouble to show stock to intending purchasers. 






THHJ EUREKA 

Improved Wind Mill ! 

For 1888! 

Is confidently offered to all who wish to make the winds pump their 

WATER FOR IRRIGATION OR OTHER USES. 



P 1 ^ 

^IMPROVED 



Three years have 
fully tested its merits. 
It is simple, strong, di- 
rect action, will FACE 
the wind, self-protect- 
ing. 

CAN BE CONTROLLED BY A BOY OR A WOMAN. 

NEEDS OILIisG ONLY OCCASIONALLY. 

We also Manufacture the EUREKA, JR., which 
for Price and Power is the Cheapest and 
Best Wind Mill now made. 

«W PAMPHLET ON APPLICATION. 

E. B. SAUNDERS, 

No. 00 Montgomery Street. SAN JOSE, CAL. 



SAN FRANCISCO TOOL CO., 

WORKS : First and Stevenson Sts., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

MAKEKS OF 

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS = 

IRRIGATION AND RECLAMATION. 



STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS of all kinds, 

MACHINE TOOLS, and full line of 

MACHINE SHOP APPLIANCES carried in stock. 

ELEVATORS for freight and passenger use, both worm gear and patent double capacity 

hydraulic. 

WATER METERS of the Worthington pattern. 

ELECTRIC APPARATUS for the generation and distribution of electricity for LIGHT 

and POWER. Keith .System. 
FLOUR MILL ROLLS ground and corrugated. Gear Cuttino a Specialty. 

tST I'RICKS ON APPLICATION. SEND FOR CATALOGUE, "ft* 



DR. A. E. BUZAR0, 
VETERINARY SURGEON. 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
Ix>ndon. (Diploma dates April 22. U70 ) For two year 
Veterinary Inspector of Livestock for the British Gov- 
ernment. Parties having sick or injured horses, cattle, 
dogs, etc., can have advice ai d prescriptions by return 
of mail by sending full particulars < f discace and $1. 
Calls to the country by mail or telegram promptly at- 
tended to. Fees reasonable. Residence and Pharmacy. 
No. 11 Seventh St., near Market, San Francisco, Cal 

All horse, cattle and dog rmdicincs kept on hand. 



APIARIAN SUPPLIES for sale by Mrs. J. D 
Enas, Napa City, Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD 
Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

SOBEBT ASHBURNEB, 
R»r1ftr> Station. • San Mstao Co.. Cal. 



Ikll/CIUTfiRC on the Pacific Coast should seoure 
INVCIl lUriO their Patents through Uewey&Co.'s 
Minixq and SciKKTiric Prbss Patent Agency, No. 220 
Market St, S. F. 



PqUlthy, Eye. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 



Cor. 17th Si Castro Sts., 



Oakland, Cal. 




Man ufactorv of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
BnOODEK. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
A'sn every variety of land 

. and water Fowl, which 

have won first prizes wherever exhibited Kggs for 
hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. 8end 2c. stamp for 60 page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR Co., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 

HATCH CHICKENS 

WITH Ills— 

INCUBATOR. 

Toe Most Successful Machine 
Made. 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 16 

I irst Premiums. 
Hatches all hinds of Kgg,.. 
Made In all Sizes. 
Write us for Large Illustrated Cir- 
cular Free, describing Incubators, 
, How to Raise Chickens, etc. Address 
PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 

JOHN McFARLING, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Brown and White Leghorns, 
r- en. in Bantams, Light Brahman. Part- 
ridge Cochins, Bufl cochins, ttlack Ml- 
norcas, Reulstered Berkshire Pigs. Also 

one pen of Ijuigshans direct from China. 
706 TWELFTH ST., OAKLAND, CAL. 
Large lot of young birds ready for sale; send for circulars. 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St , Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred Poultry anil Kggs. 

Send Stanly for Circular. 

fELLINGTON'S IMPROVED EGG FOOD. 

STANDARD POULTRY preparation for TEN 
VKARis. Hold hy every principal merchant; also at 
IH Wakhim+tuN Strhkt. San Kuancihco 





S. CHILES. 

DAVISVILLE, CAL.. 




2 




Breeder of SHORTHORN CATTLE 

Of the he*t families. A choice lot of young BuIIb and 
Heifers for sale, 4 years old and under, from the cele- 
brated Kirklevingtou Oxford Count. 36-23 



TO STOCKMEN. 

For Sale, at the Souther Farm, 75 Head 
of Youig Heifers. 

Will be sold cheap if taken at once. A fine chance for 
any cne who has pasture or plenty of hay. 

SOUTHEtt FARM, 
P. O. Box 149. San i eandro, Cal 

COLTS J5R0KEN. 

THE SOUTHKR F.\K1>T, one and a half miles 
nonhca-t of San L -andro, Alatncda county, las every 
facility f, r Breaking Colts prni erlr. Rates very reason- 
able. Horsis boarded at all times. 

SOOTHER FARM. 
P. O. Bot 149. Ban Lenndro Cal. 

Baden Farm Herd 



SHORT HORNS 

Will be sold at AUCTION on the premises 

ok 

AUGUST 16, 1888. 

Catalogues can be had of KILLIP & CO , 22 Mont- 
gomery St., S. K., or R. ASHBURNER, Schoolhouse ?ta- 
tion, San Mateo Co , Cal. 

FOR SALE. 

Two Thoroughbred Red Mazurka Bulls, 

One 13 months, the other 15 months old. 
also 

200 Full Blooded Angora Ewes. 

M. WICK. Sundale. Butte County. Cal. 
LARGEST STOCK OF 

SADDLERY AND HARNESS 

On the Pacific Coast. Wholesale and Retail. 
tV'Seml order and try goods and prices. 

C. L. HASKELL, No. 10 Bush St., S. F. 



July 21, 1888.] 



PACIFI6 r^URAlo fRESS. 



59 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Incorporated April, 1874. 




Authorized Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid up In gold coin 624,100 

Reserved Fund 40,000 

Dividends paid to Stockholders.. 515,620 
OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

General Banking Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

Jan. 1, 1888. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

HORTON & KENNEDY'S 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulating 

WINDMILL 

e recognized as the 
BEST. 

A lwavs gives satisfaction. PIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with doublk bearings for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have nevercost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, arc genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are beir g offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Addrtss, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
LI VEKMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTH 
120 Front St. , San Francisco. 




TXTo. 107 $25.00. 




MONARCH GASOLINE RANGES 

ARB the; best. 

Gasoline Stoves, $5 to $35. Gas Stoves, 75 cents to $35. 
Oil Stoves, 75 cents to $30. 
WOOD AND COAL RANGES.— Roval, No. 6, 
116. No. 7, $20. Pacific No. 6, $18. No. 7, $25. 
Lamps, 20c. to $10. Hanging Lamps, $2 to $20. 
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, and Kitchen Ware at low prices 
JOHN F. MYERS & CO., 
Opp. Baldwin Hotel, 863 Market St., S. F. 



J. L. HEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers k Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notioe. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, ami all appliances u_ -iin Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor. Etc. 



GIVEN AWAY. 



I wiH give m 
l>c>,il>li- Can 
HAV I'RKS 
away if it wi . 
not fill the de- 
mand of mv circulars. Send for Circulars Bnd Price to 
the Manufacturer, JAS. KKMP, Kerapton, II.. 




LARGE AND SMALL 

Received First Premium, State Fair, September 24, 1887. 



CO 




CO 



No Failures. None Ever Returned. Beware of Experiments. 

BUY THE HOUSBR ! 

They Have a Larger Sale than all Other Harvesters Combined. 

THE SMALL HOUSER 

Is adapted for Small Farms — few animals; rolling or foothill land. In weight, one-half of the 
Large HouBer. Both the Large and Small Houser have our 

Improved Doutole Shoo Cleaner, 

Which received the Premium over all competitors at both State and County Fairs and Field 
Contests in 1887. 

The MILLER LIGHTNING HAY PRESS 

CAPACITY 30 TONS PER DAY, 
For Standard Size Baling Press, 



AWARDED 

First Premium at 
State Fairs, 1884, 
1885, 1886 & 1887. 

AWARDED 
Gold and Silver 
Medals at Nevada 
and California 
State Fairs, and 
won Contest 
Money, $50. 
a 



PATENTED ) 

May 26, '85. )' 



Or seven and half tons per day for each man 
employed, which is more than has been or 
can be accomplished by any other Press yet 
manufactured. Twenty Tons a dav with 
Tight Biling Press. Can put Ten Tons in 
a car. 




Does not require Hay Slacks 
built to suit our Press. 



Cor re 



ponuknck Solicited. For kiirhikr information, etc., addrrss 

STOCKTON COMBINED HARVESTER & AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

Sole Manufacturers for the Pacific Coist, Box M, STOCKTON, CAL 



Farmers and Fruit-Growers, Attention! 

To grow large and profitable crops and at the same time to make the farm 
better each year, is the problem for the farmer. 

FERTIL IZE 1 FERTILIZE! 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATE. 

University of California, Nov. 3, 1886. fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use In 

Dr. J. Koebio — Dear Sir: I haveanalyzed your sample ?*\ if " rnl \ on . »<* ou . n ' of , f'' e predominance in 

of "Nitrogenous Superphosphate," with the « of Phosphoric Acid, which is Kenerally in small 

following reijult- supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that "com- 

B ' plete" fertilizers be used in our orchards and vine\ ards, 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid . . 12.90 per cent and yours is of that character In furnishing 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid 95 " Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully, 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " E W H1LGARD 

Pota-h 2.23 " 

Ammonia... 1.87 " The value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 

Nitric Acid.",'.'.'. ...... 2.95 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid— the chief 

, ' "' "1111 ' , '". "," , . „ „, element of all plant food— in combination with the 

The above amount of Nitric Acid is equal to 0.85 „ ece quantities of Potash and Ammonia, and 

per cent Ammonia, therefore, total of Nitrogen calcu- the ea9e J a ,7 a cheapness with which it can be applied, 

lated as Ammonia, i.U per cent. In ordmary Boi , 8 tne following quantities will be found 

This Fertilizer is a Valuable Manure for vine- sufficient: / or wheat Bailey, Corn and Oats, 300 to 350 

yards, orchards, gardens, farms, and I recommend its j acre For „ s Beet8 an(] v 

use by the cult.vators of the soil generally,. n Call- f able8 2B o to 300 pounds per acre. For Vines, Fruit 

fornla. Yours truly, DR. E. A. SCHNEIDER. Trees, from J pound to 6 pounds each. For Flower Gar- 

. «•»■"• #, ii < • dens. Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 

University Of California, College Of Agn- applied at any time, will be found very beneficial. 

culture - FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT, 

Berkeley, Nov. 20, 1886. 

Dr. J. Koebio, San Francisco-Dear Sir: I take pleas- 0n board cara at Sobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 

ure in adding my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 
phosphate" Fertilizer, analyzed by him at your re- _ .-, . . _ . 

quest. It is a high-grade article, and as such re- CO., H. DDTARD, President, room 7, Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, Or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



A FRUIT DRIER 

Complete, which makes 20 pounds of Dried Fruit of 
superior quality in twehe hours, and at very little cost, 

FIVE DOLLARS. 

The perfection of simplicity. Rights to manufacture 
larger capacities sold at reasonable price. 

LEONARD COATES, 
Proprietor Napa Valley Nurseries, 

NAPA CITY, CAL. 



When Visiting the City 

STOP AT THE 

HOTEL MARQUETTE, 

1206 MARKET STREET. 
Strictly First Class! 

Board by the day, week or month. Rooms may be 
Dgigcd by telegraph or letter. 

R. DIBFENDORF, Proprietor. 



FLOUR MILL 

WITH 

Immense Water Power 

FOR SALE 

At Merced Falls, Merced County, located on Merced 
River; s ; ze of Mill, 33x70; two stories in front and four 
stories in rear; latest improved roller machinery; new 
capacity; 100 barrels per day; power to increase to any 
capacity desired; title to water and land perfect; 60 acres 
of laid, comprising the town site of Merced Falls; 
reputation of Hour is Al; commands all mount- 
ain trade; Are wheat country surounding; no failures 
ever known; grain warehouse 80x80; four dwelling 
houses; 28 shares of Merced Falls Woolen Factory go 
with pur;hase. Address 

OSTRANDER & SONS, 

Merced, Cal- 

Or N. C. CARNALL & CO., 
624 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



THE OREGON FRUIT DRIER 




00 CO 

?* B 

— C 

- (B 
t 

X S» 

CO CO 
• 00 

%> 



Awarded \ irst Premium Oregon and California State 
Fairs, 18*57 Is easily managed, economical in fuel, has 
large capacity in proportion to cost; is fire-proof pnd 
durable. Made in various sizes tuitable for Families 
or Factory. 

CHAS. JORY. Manufacturer, 
459 Union Street, - - Stockton, Cal. 

The Western Whipsocket. 







The Best Whipsocket ami 
Rest Combination Tool in 
i he world. A half-inch 
lontrer than the ordinary 
socket; yet carrying with 
it an oiler and wrench, 
without which no vehicle 
is thoroughly equipped for 
the road. In it a whip 
touches nothing but rub- 
ber. No rattling, no leak- 
age. Price, by mail, 91-60. 
Mention desired size of 
wrench. Address I*. O. 
Rox 70. 




WESTERN WHIPSOCKET CO., 

San Buenaventure, Cal. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE 

HOTEL, 
319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

One door from Bank of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior ac- 
commodations to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 

the prices are within the 
> reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $150 per day. 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 
CHAS. & WM. MONTGOMERY, ProD'ra 

MISSION ROCK DOCK 

AND 

GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

75 OOO TON8 CAPACITY. 7c Af|n 
I KJ y \JKJ\J storage at Lowest Rates. ' <-),WKJ 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
Cal. Dry Dock Co., props Office. B08CaJ. St. room 18 

BEST TREE WASH. 

" Greenbank " 98 degrees POWDERKD CAUS- 
TIC SODA (tests »9 3-10 per cent) recommended bv 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc , for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON St CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 California St., S. F. 



TUp finn In health, habits and disease, breeds All 
I Ilk HVU »nd treatment; 60 outs; 26a Thli office. 



GO 



f> ACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jcly 21, 1888 



IS.H.Qa^ketJ^epofit 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, July 18, 1888. 

Hot weather the past week is said to have done 
considerable damage to the fruit crop, but it is al- 
together likely that the reports are colored. The 
heat, it is also claimed, dried out the heads of grain, 
but fortunately no strong, hot wind blew so as to 
shell out the kernels. Trade the past week in farm 
products was very active, and as a rule at good prices. 
The Eastern and European wheat markets have 
fluctuated some. The following is to-day's cable- 
gram: 

Liverpool, July 18. — Wheat— Firm. California 
spot lots, 6s 6d(ai6s od; off coast 33s od; just shipped, 
34s 3d; nearly due, 33s od; cargoes off coast, firmer; 
on passage, very finn; quantity on passage to Con- 
tinent, 384,000 qrs. ; wheat and flour to U. K., 
1,945.000 qrs.; French country markets, firm; wheat 
and flour in Paris, steady; weather in England, 
stormy. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
in New York: 
Day. 



Cash. 


Ju'v. 


A 111;. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


91} 


8H} 


88.} 


89} 


90} 


90S 


87* 


87} 


88| 


893 


90} 


878 
88 J 


88 


8SJ 




91 


89 


891 


903 


90} 


88} 


89J 


89} 


90 



The closing prices for wheat have been as follows, 
at Chicago: 

Day. Cash. July. Auit. Sept. Oct 

Thu.sday 81 SIS 80} 81} 81} 

Friday 81 80S 79} 79} 80 

Saturday 80S »>s 79} 79} 79| 

Monday 81} 818 80} 80 80* 

Tuesday 81} 81} 79} 79} 80} 

" New York, July 18. — Wheat — go^@9tc for 

cash, 88Hc for August. 8q^@89J£c for Sept., go}ic 

for Oct. and 92^ for Nov. 
Chicago, July 18. — Wheat — Si'Ac for cash, 

81 Kc for July, 80c for Aug., 79%c lor Sept. and 

8o>£c for Oct. Corn — 4754c for Aug. 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, July 14. — The dried fruit trade is near- 
ly fair for this season, as stocks are so reduced that 
only small quantities are offered. The demand is 
also very tame. When sales are made they are us- 
ually at former prices. There is no change quotable. 
Apricots, sun-dried # lb., 8@9c; do, bleached, ac- 
cording to quality, n@i6c; do, evaporated, choice 
to fancy, 1 45^(011 6c; peaches, sun-dried, $ lb.. 9® 
10c; do, evaporated, unpeeled, iofaitoc; do, pteled, 
i5@2oc. Plums, unpitled, $ lb., 6<8;7c; do, pitted, 

IOC 

Raisins, loose Muscatels, 2-crown, $ box, $1.35® 
1.40; do, 3-crown, $ box, $i.45@i-55. do, London 
layers, # box, $2.20@2.2S. 

Prunes, small, fci lb., 5(<<v6c; do, fancy, large 7@gc. 

Hops — Reports from Eistern yards are not as 
favorable as they have been. The recent excessive 
heat is said to have been quite injurious to the vines, 
and it is now estimated that the yield cannot be 
more than two thirds of what it was last year. Pros- 
pects on the Pacific Coast are not of the most fa- 
vorable kind. Stocks here are small, and a firm feel- 
ing prevails, though trade is very moderate. Califor- 
nia, good to choice, 8@ioc. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, July 13. — While the demand for wool 
has been better and transactions for the week larger 
than for the previous week, it cannot be said the 
general situation is improved. Prices still rule very 
low. Dealers complain of small profit, holding 
themselves lucky, in fact, if they come out whole 
and get from the manufacturer a price which equals 
cost in the interior, with freight and other expenses 
added. There is no greater confidence among deal- 
ers than has been previously noted, but prices are 
no lower than last week, and the market has a 
steadier appearance. Under the impetus of an en- 
larged demand manufacturers who were in this 
week have talked extremely low and firm of their de- 
termination to buy wool as they did last year, in 
such lots as are needed for immediate use. Receipts 
of new wool have been larger this week and dealers 
have been busily employed receiving and opening 
supplies. The principal receipts have been from 
Michigan and Texas, and a number of sales have 
been made of these wools. 

Philadelphia, July 13.— Wool is unchanged 
and quiet. 

Boston, July 13. — Wool is quiet and unchanged. 

Russian Wheat. 
St. Petersburg, July 12. — The exports of bread- 
stuffs from Southern Russia during the coming 
autumn are expected to be enormous. The reports 
from Odessa indicate a harvest of immense promise. 
Crop Prospects of India. 
London, July 12. — Advices from India say crop 
prospects are improving. A drought-caused famine 
is only feared in Orissa, where no rain has fallen. 
The Visible Grain Supply. 
New York, July 16. — The visible supply of grain, 
July 14th, was: Wheit, 22,418,000 bushels; corn, 
9,332,000; oats, 3,488,000; rye, 143,000; barley, 
149,000. 

Local Markets. 

The closing sales on the San Francisco Call Board 
were as lollows: 

wheat. 

Date. liuyer Season. liuyer Ye\t. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

BARLEY. 

Date. liuyer Season. 

Thursday $ .99} 

Friday 1.00} 

Saturday 1.00} 

Monday 1.01 1 

Tuesday l.OOjJ 

BARLEY — The market gained in strength up to 
Tuesday, when a weaker tone set in. On Call 



S1.50J 
1.503 
1.5UJ 
1.62; 
1.51S 

Buyer Year. 
.91} 
.913 
.94 
.94} 
.925 



trading was quite active, with some fluctuations. 
The following are the reported sales made 
to-day on Call: 

Morning Session: Buyer season— 100 tons, 99c; 
200, 99>sc; 300, QOjfc; 100, 99K : 100, QQjfic. Buy- 
er 1888- -400 tons, 92c; 400, qi 5 sc; 500, f)i%c 
ctl. Alt'rnoon Session: Buyer season — too tons, 
99)fc. Buyer 1888 — 100 tons, 91 &c fc? ctl. 

BAGS— The market is very quiet, but hold- 
ers are firm at 8u@8Kc for Calcuttas. 

BUTTER — The market for choice to fancy is 
stiff and active. Poorer grades are hard to place, as 
is Eastern. Pickled is slow. 

CHEESE— The market is stronger and higher, 
under light receipts and a good demand. 

EGGS— Strictly choice fresh laid are wanted at 
higher prices, but poorer qualities are slow to sell 
even at the low prices. 

FLOUR — The market is steady, with a firm tone. 

WHEAT— In the sample market there was con- 
siderable trading up to Tuesday, when buyers were 
more offish. On Call the trading in options was 
fairly active throughout the week. The following are 
the sales reported on Call to-day: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1888 — 400 tons, $1.52; 
703, S1.51K; 200, $1.51 Ji; 100, $1.51^; 300, 
$1.51 'A. August, new — 400 tons, $1.38^; 400, 
$1.38^. December— 300 tons, $1.46^ ^ ctl. After- 
noon Session: Buyer 1888 — 500 tons, $1.51 }i ; 100, 
$1.51^; 400, $1.51}^ ^ ctl. 



[COMMUKICATBD.] 

Market Information. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following are the receipts of the principal 
items of California produce at San Francisco from 
the beginning of the harvest year to date, compared 
with the corresponding period in the previous harvest 
year: 



Rye, sks 

Buckwheat, sks 
Beans, sks 



Salt, tons. 



Raisins, 



July 1 to 


July 1 to 


July 16, '87. 


July 14 '88. 


• 69.776 


103,607 


196,931 


37.5«> 


• 94.58o 


33.737 


• 3.°73 


1,127 


56,692 


54.883 


8,156 


4.7'3 




829 


'43 




2.30J 


3.310 


■ 8.453 


18,697 


5.651 


4.9'5 


780 


850 


6, 102 


2.592 


• 4.87t 


4,168 


'.377 


75 


i,i5 2 


606 


9' 


84 



Hops, bis 

The receipts of certain articles of produce from 

Oregon, Washington Territory and other distant 
points, for the same period compared as follows: 

July 1 to July 1 to 

July 16, "87. July 14, '88. 

Flour, sks 6,830 37.075 

Wheat, ctls 9.910 41,163 

Oats, ctls \. 7,425 7,511 

Corn, ctls 4.337 

Wool, bales 3,060 4,141 

Bran, sks 3.321 2,620 

Hops, bales 114 

Hides, No 590 1,103 

Cereals. 

In the United Kingdom there were warm rains 
during the first two weeks in June. The hay har- 
vest at last mail advices was in progress, and the re- 
ports of the crop on the whole favorable. The har- 
vest is late; hay-making was delayed by rains. In 
a good many districts the crops are under average. 
In the southern and western counties the crops are 
moderately heavy; better than expected a few weeks 
ago. The corn crops were looking well, wheat be- 
ing in ear June i£th in some districts. At Wisbeck 
on June 23d and 24th the first ears of wheat were 
shown, being two days earlier than in 1887. In 
wheat contracts the National Association of British 
and Irish Millers have nude a modification, in 
cases of arbitration in quality, if it runs 3 per cent 
below, the buyer can rrject the purchase. It is be- 
lieved that English wheat crop of 1888, unless there 
shall be an unusually fine and favorable July and 
August, will not reach an average. 

The United Kingdom's supply of wheat and 
wheat flour, including foreign imported and home 
wheat delivered for 304 days ended June 30,1888, 
has been equal to 169,750,935 bushels wheat, com- 
prising 110,321,523 bushels foreign imported and 
59,429.412 bushels home wheat delivered. The 
supply for the 304 days ended June 30, 1888, has 
been at the rate of 203,749 000 bushels annually. 
The estimated minimum consumption of the king- 
dom is about 208,000,000 bushels. The indications 
are that lor the last two years the consumption has 
been somewhat less. The requirements to be pur- 
chased in and shipped from all foreign countries in 
60 days since June 30, 1888, to August 31, 1888, 
after deducting the quantity on pass ige, about 18,- 
000,000 bushels for the United Kingdom, is com- 
paratively small. 

The quantity of wheat and wheat flour on passage 
for the United Kingdom |une 22, 1888. was 19,640,- 
000 bushels, against 16,800,000 bushels a year ago, 
including 1,016,000 bushels from the Black sea, the 
Azov sea and the Danube, against 48,000 bushels a 
year ago; 1,456,000 bushels from Atlantic ports, 
against 2,192,000 bushels a year ago; 6,600,000 
bushels from California and Oregon, against 4,880,- 
000 bushels a year ago; from British India 3,360,000 
bushels, against 4,162,000 bushels a year ago; 1,656,- 
000 bushels from Chili, against 2,216,000 bushels a 
year ago; 520,000 bushels from Argentine Republic, 
against 740,000 bushels a year ago; 3,952,000 bush- 
els from Australia, against 7,888,000 bushels a year 
ago; and from Russia, sundries and off coast i,o8o ( - 
000 bushels, against 720,000 bushels a year ago. 

From January 1 to June 22, 1888, 391 steamer 
cargoes of wheat have passed the Dardanelles, in- 
cluding 137 cargoes to "the United Kingdom, 63 to 
Marseilles, and 42 to other ports: 39 cargoes to 
Belgium, 18 to Holland, 24 to Spain, 62 to Italy, 3 
to other ports; also 90 sailing ships, principally for 
German and Mediterranean ports. 

Harvesting in this State is very general, and it 
might be said that it is fully one-half, if not more, 
along. The outturn is about as reported in last 



week's report. The quality is the best known for 
years, and averages in value fully 1^ to 3KC per 
ctl better than last year's. The grades will be much 
better, lor it is altogether likely that No. i shipping 
wheat this season will equal in qualily fair to good 
milling wheal of last year's crop. Farmers in selling 
according to the Produce Exchange's standard must 
recollect that the quality will be much better this 
season than last. Oregon crop advices are hard to 
get, and when received it is not certain that implicit 
confidence can be placed in them, for they are often 
colored according to the feeling of those advising. 
The few reports received are still confirmatory of 
short crops both in Oregon and Washington Terri- 
tory. The grade will also be poorer. 

The local wheat market the pabt week was fairly 
active, at higher prices up to and including Monday, 
but Tuesday it was tamer, with the tone barely steady. 
The improved feeling was brought about by bad 
weather abroad, causing exporters to enter the mar- 
ket, but Tuesday the weather was said ti be slightly 
better and exporters were more quiet — disposed to 
bidjdown. The short crop in France and Austria- 
Hungary, together with a light rye crop, is favorable 
to a much better market later on in Europe. 

Barley is about harvested, or at least fully 75 per 
cent is thrashed. The yield averages better to the 
acre than last year, but then there was a decided fall- 
ing off in the acreage seeded, and besides, there was 
a larger number of fields cut for hay than were cut 
last year. The grain this year is plump and of good 
quality. The Washington Territory crop will be 
short, but the grade bright. Last year the crop was 
large and the color more or less dark. The barley 
market ruled strong, with slow but steady advances 
up to and including Monday, but Tuesday it was 
quiet, and although not quotable lower, was some- 
what in favor of buyers. The consumption this year 
is very large, considerably more than last year. The 
largest increase in the consumption comes from 
orchardists, owing to the very large additional teams 
run to market their fruits. The warmer weather has 
created more inquiry for brewing barley, owing to 
the increased consumption of beer. 

Oats ruled firm throughout the week, with a slight 
advance obtainable. The demand is only fair, but 
then receipls are light. 

Corn is quiet, but the tone of the market appears 
to be steady. Dealers do not appear disposed to 
anticipate their wants, but confine their purchases, 
unless concessions can be obtained, as far as pos- 
sible. Crop advices both in this State and in the 
central States continue favorable. 

Rye is dull, with buyers disposed to bid down. 
In buckwheat there is nothing doing. 

Feedstuff. 

The demand for ground feed is said to be excep- 
tionally good for the season of the year. Prices are 
without essential change. Although bran and mid- 
dlings are quoted higher, yet at the close there is a 
weaker feeling, owing to liberal supplies. Giound 
barley is firmer. 

Hay has come in more freelv, but as dealers had 
light stocks and as the consumption is large, it took 
more to give a fair supply. With b«t:er stocks buy- 
ers are disposed to bid lower, and even then do not 
buy liberally. There appears to be a feeling that 
fanners' deliveries will increase to such an extent 
that to save expenses lower bids will be accepted. 
The consumption in the Sute is very large, said to 
be considerably more than at this time last year. 

Fruits. 

A writer in the London, England, Farmer says: 
"Seldom, if ever, I hope, has such a plague of in- 
sects, maggots and caterpillars been experienced as 
the long-suffering fruit-grower has to witness this 
season. The dry, harsh winds and frosly nights of 
what spring there was worked more than enough 
havoc among the pears and stone-fruits, and now a 
legion of insect pesis threaten to complete the gen- 
eral ruin. Throughout Kent the ' curl' maggot 
has completely spoiled the appearance of many of 
the trees, the caterpillar is rapidly decimating not 
only gooseberries, but currants as wfll. the black 
variety especially, while nuts and filberts are riddled 
with magKots already." 

If the English and French fruit crops are as poor 
as represented, then Europe will draw considerably 
more dried and canned Iruits from this country. 

Crawford peaches are coming in more freely, but 
as yet the quality is only fair. Canners test-d 
peaches the past week, but will not can many until 
the quality improves. Apricots are going oul 
Some came in from San Buena Ventura the rast 
week, for canners. Two carloads were the poorest 
ever sent to this city; the other carloads were good 
to choice. Berries dragged to some extent the past 
week. The extreme heat of Friday, Saturday, Sun- 
day and Mondiy is said to have done consider- 
able damage; at any rate, much of the fruits received 
showed the effects. 

Canners paid the past week for good to choice se- 
lected fruits as follows: Apricots, 3@3Kc; Bartlett 
p -ars, 1 K@2c; peaches, 1 %(d, 1 Kcforlree, and 1,(1/ 
2c for clings; plums, 1 yi(a> t Jic; berries, $2.75(g>$3.25 
a chest. It now looks as if the more choice Bartlett 
pears will do better, for the crop East, in Oregon 
and in this State is not an average. 

The writer is informed that 5c per lb. has been 
paid for raisins in the sweat, but the quantity was 
not large. Large packers name 4j£c, but curers 
ask 5@5Kc. The impression among packers ap- 
pears to be that there will be a selling pressure, and 
prices in consequence go lower. If curers will grade 
their raisins they are likely to get better prices, for 
the demand this year will be for the best. Those 
curing and packing for this market should use at- 
tractive labels, boxes, etc. Everything depends on 
the general appearance. 

Dried apricots are being picked up at from 10 % 
to I2j4c for sun-bleached. Some driers ask more 
money, but as yet buyers are not disposed to advance 
prices. The qualily is greatly improved over last 
year's. 

Live-Stock. 

Bullocks and mutton sheep are weak and in buyers' 
favor. The hot weather and liberal supply of fruits 
and vegetables are against consumption. Hogs 
are scarcer and wanted. The supply in the State it 
is claimed is light. In horses there is nothing to re- 
port. 

The market for dressed meat is quoted as follows 
by slaughterers to butchers (to get the price of stock 
on foot, take off one-third of the price for stall 'and 
grain fed and one-half from the price of grass fed, 
that is, animals running at large). 

HOGS — On foot, grain fed, 6^@6Hc#R>.; 



dressed, 9 % @ 10c \f lb. ; soft, 5 % @6c # It). ; dressed, 
8K@9Mcfc.rb. Slock hogs, 4@5Mc |» tb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 8c%— $ tb. ; grass fed. extra. 
7(^7 'Ac lb.; first quality, 6^@6>£c # It..; second 

quality 6(a}— fcr It..; third qualily, $(w tfi tt>. 

VEAL— Choice 8(0)90 lb.; fair to good, 6@7c 
MUTTON -Wethers, 6fe6*d lb. ; ewes. 5 a @ 
6c t* tt>. ; lamb, spring, 8@9c tf? lb. 

Vegetables. 

Potatoes have ruled in buyers' favor throughout 
the past week. The demand was free, but then re- 
ceipts were so liberal that stocks accumulated to 
some extent. To clean up, inducements were offered 
buyers. 

Onions have been weak throughout the week, but 
still there was no decided change in quotations. 
The demand improved Irom distant points. 

Cabbages are weak. String beans and peas are 
in fair receipt. Summer squash are without change. 
Tomatoes and cucumbers continue to weaken off. 
Picklers are buying the small varieties of the latter. 
The bulk of the corn is very wormy and hard to sell 
at satisfactory prices. 

Hops. 

In futures there is more inquiry, but so far as the 
writer can learn, buyers' views are too low. The 
crop on this coast, it is said, will not equal last 
year's. 

From the Afuri Lane Express the following re- 
garding the English crop is taken: The warmer 
temperature of the last day or two has improved the 
color of the bine; some of the be t cultivated 
grounds now look fairly well, but in every district 
there is a large acreage of badly-farmed gardens, the 
cultivation has been greatly neglected and no ma- 
nure has been applied; a great deal of the bine in 
these grounds is not half up the poles, and does not 
look like even being able to get to the top, as they 
are still infested with flea, fly, and lice are still re- 
ported from every district, but they have not in- 
creased since the hot weather returned. Market is 
still exceedingly firm, and there is a good demand 
for colory hops of all descriptions, holders of which 
have advanced their price 155 per cwt. during the 
last week; good medium hops are 5s to 10s per cwt. 
dearer; the brown and diseased samples are neg- 
lected, and remain nominally at the low rates cur- 
rent for such hops. 

Miscellaneous. 

In poultry the market exhibits at the close a 
stronger tone, under keener competitive buying. 

Honey is in good demand, with buyers apparently 
more disposed to bid up. Comb honey is slow. 
Beeswax is firm. 

Wool, if of medium to fine fiber, of fair staple, 
lively and clean, finds ready buyers, but off clips are 
very slow and hard to place. Sales the past week 
aggregate about 700,000 lbs. 

Lima beans are firm, under light stocks and a 
good demand. 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

Kxtra choice Id good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotation*, while very poor grad. • Bell leas than the lower 
quotations. Wki.nihi.ay, July 18, 1888. 



Apples, bx, com 40 @ 1 f I do qrtd ....... 3 

do Choice 1 25 n 1 50 do evaiurated 6 (ft 

Apricots, bx — @ — Plums, evapo'ed 10 (<e 

do Royals tt>. 2 (ft 31 do unpl.ted.. 4 <a 

Bananas, bunch 2 0U «* 4 00 Pruues 

Blackberries, ch 2 50 % 3 50 do French 8 @ 

Cherries, wh. bx — «g — RAISINS. 

du black, bx . . — W — Dehesa Clus, fey — @ 

do Royal Ann — (ft — Imperial Cahiu- 

Cranberries IOOOk.12 00 et, fancy — (ft 

Currants ch 1 00 «r 2 00 Crown London 

Go tseberries tt>. ltygv 7 ' Layers, fey.. — & 

Limes, Mex 2 50 la 4 00 do Loose M . 

Lemons,Cal. bx 2 00 (ft 3 00 

do Sic Is. bui, 4 50 (it 6 00 
Oranges.Combx 3 00 (•' 4 00 

do Choice — @ — 

doXtuli 

choice 3 50 (ct 5 00 



m - 



catels, fancy 
do Loose Mus- 
catels — & — 

Cal. Valeucias.. 1 60 (d 1 80 

do Laytra 1 60 (ft 1 60 

do Sultanas... 1 60 1st 1 75 



do do Com... 2 00 <« 3 00 Dried, sacks, lb. 5 <g 6 

Peaches, bt 25 (A SO Outside brands of raisins 

Crawford, bx . . . I" •' 60 sell at from 25 cts to 50 cU less 

Hale's K:irly, bx 4U ki 6(1 than alK>ve quotations. 

Pineapples, doz. 2 50 (a 4 50 Fractious come 25, 50 and 75 

Raspberries ch.. 3 50 (<* 5 00 cents higher for halves, quar- 

Strawberriea ch. 4 00 itt 5 00 ters and eighths. 

"'• S « t m I VEGETABLES 

lo Choice. ... 60. «' 1 00 a^^^ bl . . . 75 ,„ 1 25 



Plums, V th 1\V 

Fins, black, bx.. 40 I" 

do white, bx. 30 «t 

Grapes, bx 40 ■ 

Nectarines, bx.. 40 <ft 



Wa'rmel ns, 100.10 00 i»15 00 



do ext'a choice 2 00 (ft 3 50 
Okra. dry, If, . . . 15 w 25 
do Green bx.. 1 00 & 1 25 
Parsoips, ctl. . . . 2 00 (a S 50 
Peppers, dry. It). 8 Iff 10 

Cante.oupe.,cr.l50® 2 50 8 f u f^ u - : ^ " 

mer, bx 15 (ft 40 

6) String beans, lb. I (ft 21 

10 Turoips, ctl 1 (0 (it 1 25 

1 1 BeetB, sk 1 25 (ft — 

10 Cabbage, 100 lbs 75 ® 1 00 

121 Carrots, sk 30 (ft 50 

15 GreeD Corn, sk. 25 (9 50 
15 do Sweet sk . 
25 Green Peas, tb.. 
10 Sweet Pea», It... 

6 Mushrooms, It,.. 
4 Rhubarb bx.... 

10 Cucumbers, bx. 
— 1 do pickling... 

9 Garlic, It, 

17 Tomatoes, rv., bx 

7 do Vacaville, bx 



DRIED FRUIT 
Apples, sliced, lb •'. «' 
do evaporated 
do quartered. 

Apricoto 

do bleached. . 
do evaiK.rated 

Blackberries 

Citron 

Dates 

Figs, pressed. . . 

Figs, loose 

Nectarines 

do evaporated 

Peachea 

do evaporated 
Pears, sliced 



9 Of 

10 & 

7 <P 

11 (a 
13 (ft 

mi 

18 (ft 

9 |b 
5 (fh 
3 I 

8 (ft 

12 (* 



If @ 
3 in 



25 (ft 

m 3 

3 (ft 4 

20 (it 30 

25 (ft 75 

40 <* 75 

lt<* 1 
75 «t 1 10 

35 (ft 50 



Domestic Produce. 



El'ra choice in good packages fetch an advanoe on top 
quotations, while very poor grades st 11 labs th tn the lower 
quotations. Wkhsesi.ay, July 18, 1888. 



BEANS AND PEAS. 

Bayo, ctl 1 90 ifi 2 15 

Butter — (0 — 

Pea 3 25 (a 3 fO 

Red 1 75 cr 2 00 

Pink 2 00 B 2 25 

Large White — <a — 

Small White.... 3 "0 (« 3 60 

Lima 3 50 M 3 75 

Fid Peaa.blkeye 2 00 (<* 2 20 

do greeu 3 00 iff 4 00 

do Niles 1 90 (re — 

BROOM CORN. 
South 'n V ton.. 60 00 (>r8Q 00 

Northern 60 00 1..T80 00 Bra/il... 

CHICORY. Pocaus 

California — @ — Peanut* 

Gi rman 6J ft 7 Filberts 10 CO 

DAIRY PRODDCE, ETC. Hickory 5 (ft 

butter. POTATOES. 

Oal. Com. to fair.tt,20 (it 24 Karly Rose 25 (ft 

do good to choice V6 (<I 271 ('Mle 30 (ft 

30 Peerless 35 (ft 

281 POULTRY AND GAMF 

20 Hens, doz 5 5.1 Of 7 60 

Roosters 6 00 S 7 50 

13 Broilers 2 00 % 4 50 

14 Ducks, tame 4 00 (ft 6 00 

IGeese. pair 1 25 (ft I 50 

28 ! do Goslingi. . . 1 76 @ — 
22 Turkeys, lb 16 @ » 



Extracted, light 4]C<< 

du dark i (it 

HOPS. 

Oregon 6 (oj 

Caliioruia 6 (sf 

ONIONS. 

Red 40 (ct> 

Silver-<kin 65 (ff 

NUTS - Jobbinu. 
Walnuts, Cal. lb 7 t<* 

do Chile 6i(ft 

Almonds, hd shl. 5 (ft 

Soft shell II (a 

Paner shell ... U vt 
9 (ft 
10 @ 
4 M 



do Fancy br'nds 29 if 

do pickled •;;•••> 

Eastern 14 (ft 

CHEESE. 

California, tb... 11 « 
Eastern style... 12 (ft 

EOUH. 

Cal. ranch, doz. 26 (ft 
do. store 20 



July 21. 1888.] 



fAClFie RURAId press. 



61 



Eastern 16 @ 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 16 00 @18 

Feertroeal 29 00 (3>30 

Gr'd Barley 17 50 @19 

Middlings 18 00 («19 

Oil Cake Meal.. 28 00 @29 

HAY. 

Wheat, per ton. 12 00 @>1R 
Whe«t and Oats 1? 00 <ai5 

Wild Oats 11 OC @13 

Clover 12 00 («14 

Tame Oata V) 00 @12 

Barley 8 00 @11 

Barley and Oats 10 00 @12 
Alfalfa, 1st cut'g 8 00 («10 

Straw bale 40 @ 

FLOUR. 
Extra, CityMills 4 00 & 4 
do Co'try Mills 3 75 (* 4 

Superfine 3 25 (£ 3 

GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl. 75 @ 
do Brewing... 92J@ 1 

Chevalier 1 10 (a 1 

do Coast 90 la 1 

Buckwheat 1 50 (» 1 

Corn, White.... 1 40 @ 1 

Yellow 1 25 & 1 

Oats, milling.... 1 40 (» 1 

Choice feed 1 30 & 1 

do good 1 27) (ft 1 

do fair 1 22J(ft 1 

do Gray 1 20 (a 1 

Rye 1 50 @ 1 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... 1 45 <a> 

do Choice 1 40 (» 

do fair to good 1 37j(<?' 
Shipping, cho'ce 1 35 (ft 1 

do good 1 32i» 1 

do fair 1 30 @ 

HIDES. 

Dry 11 @ 

Wet salted 5 @ 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 19 @ 

Honey in comb. 11 @ 
do fancy 14 @ 



33, 



Rabbits, doz 1 25 @ 

Hare 1 00 @ 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, 

Heavy, lb 11 @ 

Medium 12 @ 

Light 12jO 

Extra Light.. 13 @ 

Lard 9i(ft 

Cal. Sm'k'd Beef llJCft 

Hams, Cal 12J@> 

do Eastern... 14 @ 
SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 8ja 

Canary 3i@ 

Clover, Red.... 11 (ft 

White 20 @ 

Cotton 20 @ 

Flaxseed 2 «? 

Hemp 4 «' 

Italian Rye Grass 10 ® 

Perennial 7 @ 

Millet, German. 5 (ft 

do Common . . 5 (ft 

Mustard, white. 1|@ 

do Brown .... 2 (ft 

Rape li@ 

Ky. Blue Grass. 15 <» 

2d quality ... 13 @ 

Sweet V. Grass. 75 @ 

Orchard 17 © 

Red Top 9 @ 

Hungarian.. . 8 @ 

Lawn 30 (ft 

Mesquit 8 @ 

Timothy 7 @ 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 3 @ 

Rtfined 6 @ 

WOOL, ETC. 

SPR1NO-18S8. 

Humboldt and 

Mendocino 15 @ 

Sac'to valley 12J<3 

Free Mountain. 15 @ 

S Joaquin valley 9 @ 

do mountain. 10 @ 

Cala'v & F'th'll. 12 (a 

Oregon Eastern. — @ 

do valley — @ 



1 50 
1 75 



News in Brief. 

The Italian Chambers defeated the proposi- 
tion in the Reform bill to grant the franchise to 
women. 

The assessment roll of Santa Clara county 
foots up $57,284,852 for 1888. Last year the 
total was $41,881,930. 

The supposed hydrophobia patient at I'eta- 
luma drinks water, The case is to be diagnosed 
by all the Petaluma physicians. 

The Chicago police have arrested several 
men engaged in a plot to destroy life and 
property by means of dynamite. 

Texas fever has been introduced into In- 
diana by the railroad companies, who have 
buried dead cattle along their lines. 

The visible supply of grain July 14th was: 
Wheat, 22,418,000 bu.; corn, 9 332,000; oats, 
3,488,000; rye. 143,000; barley, 149,000. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army 
of the Republic has issued a general order ad- 
monishing the members to keep the organiza- 
tion free from politics. 

A railroad collision occurred near Pinole, 
Contra Costa county, on Tuesday, and fireman 
Frank Fish was killed. A number of freight 
cars were broken to pieces. 

Locusts have caused such havoc in Algeria 
that 60,000 workmen and 2000 soldiers are fight- 
ing them. The country is being devoured, and 
famine and pestilence are certain. 

The imports of merchandise at this port in 
June were $4,976,000, making a tntilfor the 
first fix months of 1888 of $27,328,750, against 
$22,238,000 for the tame time last year. 

Grasshoppers bring a dollar a bushel in 
Minnesota, and in Dakota the Barnes County 
Commissioners have this season paid a bounty 
of three cents each for 67.000 gopher tails. 

The schooner Oicar and Hettie arrived at 
Port Townsend last week with 100,000 pounds 
of flathead halibut from Queen Charlotte Island 
banks. The entire cargo will be shipped hist. 

Private advices from Nonquitt state that 
General Sheridan has not improved since going 
there. He is only prevented from getting 
worse by the constant attention of the doctors 
and nurses. 

The assessment-roll for the present year has 
been completed, and the figures show the 
taxable valuation of Sonoma county is $26,265,- 
120. The increase over last year's assessment 
is $2,800,000. 

It has been found that 50,000 people ride free 
every day on the local steam railroad in Oak- 
land. The C. P. Company is not allowed to 
charge any fare within the city limits by the 
terms of its franchise. 

There were 360 fire alarms rung in this city 
during the past year by the Fire Alarm and Po- 
lice Telegraph. There are 192 signal boxes in 
use, and 150 miles of wire. The department 
costi abont $17,000 a year. 

The Treasury Department reports the 
amount of bonds purchased under the call of 
April 17th to be $27,000,000, at a cost of $32,- 
648,039.90, the maturity value being $42,565,- 
933.11, a saving of $9,917,894.21. 

The Oregon Statesman says: It is estimated 
that the spring salmon pack on the Columbia 
river will be 300,000 cases, a falling off of 50,- 
000 eases from last year, and a great falling off 
every year since 1883, when it was 629,400 
cases. 

The four-masted ship lUndeneira has recent- 
ly finished a cargo of 1,458,654 feet lumber at 
Port Discovery for Hobson's bay, Australia, 
The largest cargo ever loaded on Puget sound 
was put on the Ellisland, 1,881,523 feet for 
Hobson's biy, June 26, 1888. 

J. Sen \ itch Hi. president of the Mission 
Soap and Canole Works of Sin Francisco, died 
suddenly on the train from Yuma on Sunday. 
Being a very corpulent man, the extreme heat 
of the desert affected him so seriously that he 
telegraphed from Indio to have a physician 
meet him at Banning, but before the arrival of 
the train at the latter station he was dead. 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, U. S. A.] 





Portland. 


Eureka. 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


S.Francisco. 


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- indicates too small to measure. Temperature, wind and weather at 12:jU m. (Pacific Standard time) 



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ALL STYLES BY 



D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, 221 & 223 Market St., San Francisco. 




JAMES LINFORTH, 

37 Market Street, San Francisco, 

general aoent for 

" Zimmerman " Fruit Evaporator, 
"Blymyer" Church, School and Fire Bells, 
"Victor "and "Niles" Sorghum and Sugar IBtHjl 
Mills ; Evaporating Pans. 

Draw Cut Choppers and Sausage Staffers ; r.ard ||| 
Presses; Tanking Outfits; Steam Jacket 
Kettles ; tard Coolers ; Steam Knglnes and 
Boilers from MURRAY IRON WORKS. 



Hawkeye Wood Saw Machines ; Horse Powers ; Enterprise Wind Mills, Pumps, Etc. 
Send for Illustrated Catalogues of the Goods You Need. 

Also Agent for DICKERT & MYERS' SULPHUR WORKS, Cove Creek, U. T. 



of Commerce bas learned with regret that the 
United States Attorney-General has authorized 
certain interested parties to commence a suit in 
the name of the Government, which will cause 
all the ground already traversed to be gone over 
again by inquiring into the validity of the 
titles given by the Government. It is claimed 
that if the suits are allowed to be commenced 
it will have the effect of casting a cloud upon 
California's prosperity by plaoing the validity 
of her land titles under doubt. The Presi- 
dent is asked, in view of these facts, to in- 
struct the Attorney -General to withdraw his 
anthorization of the action at law. 

The Chamber voted unanimously to indorse 
the memorial and fend it to Washington. 



Fine Fruits From Shasta. 

Editors Press:— Messrs. C. H. Street & Co. 
received at their office, 415 Montgomery street, 
this morning, from the orchard of A. W. Hub- 
bard, E q., of Happy Valley, a large box of 
most beautiful fruits grown on his ranch, eight 
miles northwest of Anderson, and the same 
distance southwest of Redding. Among them, 
large, ripe, very highly-colored E»rly Crawford 
peaches, large fine apples of several varieties, 
immense bunches of Zinfandel grapes, even 
thus early showing ripe berries, highly-colored 
pears, exceedingly large, highly-colored nectar- 
ines, plums, etc. These fruits show conclu- 
sively that away north in the foothills of Shasta 
the great commercial fruits are in every 
way as fine and very early, and the fruits of 
very much higher color and flavor. 

On these high, dry, rich, rolling lands in the 
pure mountain air, where wood, water, health 
and rain in plenty are Nature's free gifts, is the 
true home of the fruit-grower. There the or- 
ange and the apple, the fig and the olive join 
hands in the same orchard to bless the planter. 

July 13th. D. B. W. 

California Land Titles. 

At the quarterly meeting of the San Fran- 
cisco Chamber of Commerce, held July 17th, 
Colonel Harney introduced a memorial to the 
President with reference to land titles in Cali- 
fornia. The memorial sets forth that the most 
valuable lands in California owned and occu- 
pied by more than half the population of the 
State originate from Spanish and Mexican 
grants made to the former citizens of this coun- 
try, and that the United States Government 
agreed by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to 
respect the property rights of the former citi- 
zens of Mexico. After a period of 30 years of 
expensive litigation, during which land com- 
missioners appointed by the Government in- 
quired into the validity of the titles, they were 
finally approved and United States patents is- 
sued for them. These patents were usually 
purchased as soon as presented by men who 
relied upon the integrity of the Government. 
The memorial goes on to say that the Chamber 



Wells.Richardsom & Cote 

Improved 

utter 

Color, 

^ ( STRENGTH 
EXCELS IN J PURITY 




BRIGHTNESS 
Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 

Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Co's Improved Butter Color. 
Three sizes, 25c. 50c. $1.00. For sale everywhere. 

WELLS, RICHAR DSON & CO. Burlington, Vt. 

(33 Colors.) 




DIAMOND DYES 



^ are the Purest, Cheap- 
■ est,Strong©8t, and most 
Durable Dyes evermade. 
One 1 0c package will color 
1 to 4 pounds of DresR Goods, Garments, Yarns, Rags, 
etc. Unequalled for Feathers, Ribbons, and all Fancy 
Dyeing. Also Diamond Paints* for Gilding, Bronz- 
ing etc. Any color Dye or Paint, with full instructions 
and sample card mailed for 10 cents. At all Druggists 

WELLS. RICHARDSON & CO.. BURLINGTON. VT. 



Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Pre^s 
Patent Agency. 




SARSAPARILLA! 

The Best Blood Purifier and 
Tonic Alterative in use. 

It cures diBeaseoriginatlngfromadisordered 
state of the Itlootl or Liver. It invigorates 
the Htomarli, Liver and Bowels, re- 
lieving Dyspepsia, Indigestion and 
Constipation; restores the Appetite 
and increases and hardens the Flesh. 

It stimulates the Liver and Kidneys 
to healthy action, Purifies the Itlood and 
Beautifies the Complexion. . 

Sold by all Druggists. | 
O - . n. GATES c*5 CO. 

ill Sansome Street, S. F. 



Ocb U. S. and Foreign Patent Agenc/. 
presents many and important advantages as i 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of lonj 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects a 
inventions in our own community, and om 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
■aining official American and foreign reports, 
tiles of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. We transact every branch o» 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coud 
tries which grant protection to inventors The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO.. Patent Agents. 
No. 220 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 
S. F. Telephone No. 658. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG. 



CLIMAX SPRAY PUMPS, 

UNECJUALED FOR 

Durability, Convenience, Simplicity and 
Ease of Working. 

Send for Circular anu Prices. 

JA8. 3. NAISMITH. 
18 California Street, San Francieco. 



WANTED-A WINE MAKER. 

A first-class and experienced Wine Maker of steady 
habit9 wanted. For particulars address or interview 
R. C. TERRY, 
Clayton, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



62 



f ACIFIG I^URAb PRESS. 



[July 21, 1888 



H. P. GREGORY & CO, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

WEBBER'S CELEBRATED 




IRRIGATING 



PUMPS. 



Ws AbSO CARRY III BTOCR Til? LARORST LlKI OF 

MACHINERY 

In the UNITED STATES, 

Consistine of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 
description. 

ENGINES AND BOILERS 



A SPECIALTY. 




THE NEW HUBER 

Has Patent Return Flue Boiler; Wrought 
Iron and Steel Wheels, with springs in the 
Hub; 14-inch Steel Tire; i;usnioued Gear, 
and all latest Improvements. 

£^Tlireshers, all sizes. "Latest Improvements ' 
These Engines arc adapted for all kind of work; draw 
Harvesters, Plows, etc. Call and see E igino in opera- 
tion and get prices, etc., or send for prices and catalogue. 
D. J. LKKCH, California Agent, 

Kelseyvllle, Lbke Co., Cal. 



BETTER I BETTER 

Ii the motto of those that put together our' 

NEW MUSIC BOOKS. 

II.EA8E KX'-MINK 

Songs for Kindergarten and Prim- 

'arw Qrhnnle ••** > bvCtortrude Menard 
al y OlillUUIS, ai „i B«lle Uenard, wo i - 
50 delightful little songs for the children. 
Cr,nn Manual 60011 "• ,,v L- o. Emerson (40 
OUIIL) manual. , u) a truly progressive crura 
of exercises and songs 341 in nam her, in all Mm 
key>,aud with explanations; 110 are regular school 
s ngs. A valuahle musical text book. 

College Songs for Banjo, ; 

Honors, all famous ones, with hanjo accompaniments, 
making a most attractive hook. 

Classic Tenor Songs, ^L : ;'UrZ^ 

by 20 di^tin^ui»hcd composers, giving a KreU va 
riety. Such names as: Piusuti, AM, He'muml, 
G eng. Jensen, Uodard and Nikolai, amonig the 
authors, in ieatt* %ood and attractive music. This 
hook adds one tu our "classic" series which now 
includes 

SONG CLASSICS for Low Voiced, Bass and Alto. 
riANO CLAi-SlCS, 

CLASSICAL PIANIST, 

YOUNG PfiOPLBTB CLASSICS. 
(Price of each, 
i9*Mailed for retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

867 Broadway, New York. 



C. H. DITSON & CO., 




SEVVER 5 CHIMNEY PIPE,. 

DRAIN TILE, 
ARCMTECTURALTERRA CQTTA Et 
1358-1360 MARKET ST S : F. 



ros she es:t uipboved J, 5 i 

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS 

ADDRESS t» a * 

MENZO SPRING, «-«| 
?l 9 Geary St. l& 

|SAN FRANCISCO, Call? c a? S 




OFFICE B, 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 



PATENT OWNERS OF 



JUDSON POWDER. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank BlastiDg. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 

NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Explosives in tne World. 



GATHER SAMPLES OF GRAIN! 

DURING HARVEST 

AND OTHERWISE 

PREPARE COUNTY EXHIBITS 

FOK THE 



SACRAMENTO, Sept. 3d to 15th. 

$2500 CASH PREMIUMS FOR COUNTY EXHIBITS, 

IN ADDITION TO WHICH IS 

$1500 FOR INDIVIDUAL PREMIUMS 

That may he competed (or by the contributors to the County Collections. Those exhibits are seen during the Fair 
bv mote than 5<yx)0 different people, and are fully described by the press of the SfUe, and written up in detail by 
the Committee of Awards, w hich report is printed in the Annual Report of the State Agr cultural Society and dis- 
tributed throughout the civilized world. In no other 111 inner can the counties receive such a full, complete and 
comprehensive notice. The County Exhibits have proved the most effective means of advertising the resources, 
developments and advantages of the different localities of the State, and should be mide by authority ami with 
the aid of the Board , f Su|iervisors of ea ^h County. The State Agricultural Society will afford every facility for 
the exhibition of the products of the State, and would advise those Intending to exhibit to WRITE FOK SPACE 
AT ONCE. The first come will bo the first served. Premium Lists now ready. Ad Iress the Secretary lor informa- 
tion. EDWIN F. SMITH. Secretary. L. U. BHIPPCI, President. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

SHIPPING I COMMISSION HOUSE, 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Orain In Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wneat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 



E. VAN EVERY, Manager. 



A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



INSURE YOUR GROWING GRAIN 



CROPS 



IN THE FIREMAN'S FUND OF CALIFORNIA. 



Booth's Sure Death. Squirrel Poison 



STORAGE 



We have some extra room 
suitable (or storage pur- 
poses, which we will let on 
very reasonable terms. 
DEWEY at CO. , 2-'U Market btrcct, Ban Francisco, Cal. 




For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

tW Endorsed by the Grange and Farmers wherever used. ,£7 
The Cheapest and Best. 

Put up in 1-pound, 5-pound, and 6 gallon Tins. 
Kvery Can Warranted. 

This Poison has been on the market less than two years, yet in 
this short time it has gained a reputation of "Sure Death,' 
equaled by none. Bv its merits alone, with very little advertis- 
ing, it is now used extensively all over the Pacific Coast, as well 
as in Australia and New Zealand. 

BEND FOR TESTIMONIALS. 



Patented Jan. 23d. 188*. 

For Sale by all Wholesale and Retail Dealers 



MANUFACTURED BY 

BOOTH & LATIMER, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

S|>ecial Terms ou Quantities in Bulk. 



GRANGERS' CO-OPERATIVE BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SACHA.MEIHTO, C ' /V T_, . 

Hardware and O x'ocox*ios 

AS CHEAP AS THE CHEAPEST. 

Agents for Studebaker Wagons, Carriages and Buggies, Oliver Plows, 

and Cassldy Sulky and Gang Plows. 
Country Orders Solicited. T. A. LAUDER, Manager. 




DEWEY & OO.A^ii^of^Zi?. } PATENT AGENTS. 



Cornmisgion Merchants. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merchants 

AM' DBALKKS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, 3eans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisc 

[P. O. Box 1936.) 
^^Consignments Solicited. 

ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 



SUCCESSORS TO 



LITTLEFIELD, ALLISON & CO., 

501, 503, 505, 607 and 609 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 
Wool. 



MOORE. FERGUSON & CO.. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

—AMD— 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

tVPereonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ail 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



[ESTABLISHED 1354. J 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

39 Clay Street and as Commercial Street 
San Francisco, Cal. 
tT SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. "» 

C. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Ketuil Dealers in 

POULTRY, GAME AND EGGS, 

65, 86, 67, California Market, S. F. 



WITZEL & BARER, 

COMMISSI* IN MERCHANTS 

And W holesale Dealers in 
Provisions. Butter, Cheese, Kg/s. Honey, Etc (Butter 
and Cheese a Specialty.) 830 & 322 BatUiy St., S. F 

WETM0RE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Oreen and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc 
Consignments solicited. 413. 416 « 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 

EVELETH & NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Oame, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221,223 
225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



P. STEIN HAGEN & CO., 
Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

BRICK STORES '. 

408 & 410 Davis St., San Francisco 

WITTLAND & FREDRICKS0N, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 
ooNHiamnKTS soLiciTiD. 324 Davis St., S. F 



H.H.H. 

HORSE UNIMENT. 

'OR 

DAM 




„v~ tae Antinnated Horse I 

For the last 14 years the H. H. H. Home 
Liniment has boon the loading remedy 
luionK Farmers and Stockmen for tr« 
cure of Sprains. Brnises, Stiff Jointa, 
t iKivms, Windgalls, Sore Shoulders, etc. 
and for family Use is without an eqn&l 
ior HhenmatiBm, Neuralgia, ArheR, Paina. 
Bruises, < nts and Sprains of all characters 
The II. H. H. Liniment has many imita 
tv>ns, and we caution the Pnblio to Bea 
that the Trail" Mark " H. H. H." ia on 
svery Hottle before pnrcliasing. For eats 
•»vorywhere for tG cento aud fl.OO par 
Bottle. 

For Sale Dy all Druggists. 



Back Files of the Pacific Ki'Ral Press (unbound) 
ran be had (or £3 j er volume of Bix months. Per year 
(two volumes) *5. Inserted in Dcwe/s patent binder, 
50 cents additional per volume. 



July 21, 1888.] 



J&AClFie rural> press. 



63 




NEW 



o of 

ects 




FOR 1888. cfe^ 

teTOat New Catalogue for 1888, mailed free on appli 
cation, contains description and price of Vegetable, 
Klower, Grass, Clover, Tree and Field Seeds; Australian 
Tree and Shrub Seeds; native California Tree and Flower 
Seeds, Fruit Trees, and many new novelties introduced 
in Europe and the United States. 

THOS. A. COX & CO., 

411, 413, 415 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

Napa Valley Nurseries. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

RELIABLE. PROGRESSIVE. 
LEONARD COATES, Napa City, Cal. 



SAMUEL BRECK, 

Commission Merchant 

DEALER IN 

FARM SEEDS, BIRD SEED, 
FERTILIZERS, 

Cracked Bone & Shells for the Poultry Yard 

FARM AND MILL PRODUCTS, 
212 Clay Street. San Francisco, Cal. 




LAMBORN ROAD MACHINE 




TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO. - CALIFORNIA. 






Manufacturers' f all kin 
of Perforated Metal, Lip 
and Lip Hook Screens, 
round and slotted, or any 
other kind desired for c ean- 
ing and separating giain. 
Farmers will please take 
notice that the metal screens do not clog or choke up "as do 
the old wire screens her-tofore in ue. Also manufac urers 
of Quartz Screens. I' formation by mail. California 
Perforat ing Screen Co., 145 & 117 Beale St., S. F 

OThe BUYERS' GUIDE is 
issued March and Sept., 
each year. It is an ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pur- 
chase the luxuries or the 
necessities of life. We 
can clothe you and furnish you with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, walk, dance, sleep, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
styles and quantities. Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIDE, which will be sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 

MONTGOMERY WARD & CO. 

111-114 Michigan Avnnue. Chicago. 171. 

LICHTN'NC WELL-SINKINO 
MACHINERY. 

Our ENCYCLOPEDIA i on ain» 7im 
Engraving*, describing ill the tools nud 
machinery usid In the nrt ot Well-Slnk- 
pectmg Mucliincrv, Diamond 
iinted Rock Drills, and all 
tnev of Artesian Punipitij.' 
Applianres. Encyclopedia 
-CUt lor mailing. 

The American 
Well Works, 

AURORA, ILLS., 
V- S- A- 



H. M. NEWHALL & CO., 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products- 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents In all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO., of London : BOYLSTON INSURANCE CO., of Boston, Mass. 



STOCKTON NURSERY, 

Established 1853. 

ADRIATIC and SAN PEDRO FIGS. 

French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Rooted Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the season of 1887-88 free to all sending for them. All Trees, Vines, 
etc., guaranteed free from scale and other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 



B. C. CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST), 

Stockton, Cal. 



25 to 50 per cent Saved by Using 
"THE FAVORITE" SULPHUR BELLOWS, 

The greatest invention of the age for 

SULPHURING VINES OR TREES 

Patented Jan. 26, 1886 PRICES No. 6, 
$2.50; No. 8, *3.00; No. 10, S3 50. Sent on 
receipt of Postal Order or Check, or by 
Express C. O. D. AH kinds of Bel- 
lows made to order. 

California Bellows Manufacturing Comp y 

123 BEALE ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




PARSONS' FRUIT EVAPORATOR. 



An Established Success. 
CAPACITY 

Greatly Increased. 

Prices from $85 to $1000. 



Send for New I lustrated Circular 
and Testimonials. 




Scientific Principles. 

Produces the Best Results 
at the Least Expense. 

L. W. PARSONS, 

At San Jose Agricultural Works, 
SAN JOSE, CAL. 



CALCUTTA GRAIN BAGS 

In Lots to Suit AT LOWEST MARKET RATES. 



Quotations furnished on application. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

No. 108 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 



rp>e,A Oollnh t-.o »nrf fVr»Tr» 1-** TTr*T 



I W. BECKER. Proprietor 



SMALLEY 



GOODS 




Including EIVSI1.AOE ANI» 
FOIMIKK CUTTEKS, sWBEl' 
v\i> 'I'll UK. \I» II 4k ICS K row i its, DRAG 
AMI « iit< I I. \ It MAW MACHINED, I'AKM 
i:m;i \ km a.\ i> ri.ow *. are positively ahead ol all others in the country, and »o 
ranled. Shipped to any responsible farmer in the U. S. or Canada, subject to ISO 
' liny*' trial, and return at our cxmdm it not proving just as warranted. Tho 
HIM A I.I. K V llVCKi: r CARRIER (1H88 Patent) is the only one that can be 
iron ait any uujrle from 40 to 86 degrees, and is tli»- only perfect Silo Carrier In 
line market. Our ''Why It Pay*." or Practical Views from Practical Men, 

should be read by every tanner interested in stock rai>in:- ^-gg^THlL o r Dairying. 

i Moili'tl Jrrr to imv liildro--H, mi/it inn i iuj tin* i>"l"'' ^-<Z*^~~Z~^-' Also, c ml ;i I lis 

lull descriptive price list of Snml- -a^^^^^'V^^^^B^k Ooodn. 



SMALLEY MFG. CO., 

MANITOWOC. WIS. 



Ask for 

| Special Introduction 
prices and term*. 



S.VAI.I.KY TltKAIl run kit Wi l li OOVKKMIII. 



TIIK SMALI.KY CUTTKIl, HUH I ll IHOV kl> IIICKI.T I'ARKIKK. 

Applcton Mfg. Co., S. Canal St., Chicago— Ml 4I1E5ITS— Fuller & Maston Mfg. Co., Madison, Wis. 




THE HURRICANE — Size A. 

A mounted, horizontal double-ender. Size of hale, 
when in the press, 17x22>40 inches. Average weight of 
hale, 220 pounds. Capacity, from 16 to 25 tons per day. 
Uses 4 men and works with 2 horses. Requires no 
Tramping. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 
Price $1000. 

THE HURRICANE— Size B. 

Size of bale in press, 22x24x46 inches. Average 
weight of bale, 260 pounds. Capacity, from 20 to 35 
tons per day. Uses 5 men and works with 1 or 2 horses, 
at option of baler. Requires no Tkami'Ing. U*es rope 
or wire. Puts from 7 to 8 t ns in box in a box car. 

Price $1000. 

MONARCH CAR PRESS 

10 TONS BOXCARSGOO 

(MONARCH JRoBoinARveiitsSWO 

;THE ...fcCH * 

■b-vlON* IS THE 8ESTSMALI. 
BALE CAR PRESS INTHEJ 

WORLD* 




The SEIF-TRAMPING JUNIOR MONARCH 

sizR of bale in press, 22x24x46 inches. Avtrage 
weight of 1 ales, 260 pounds. Capacity, from 15 to 25 
tons per day. Uses 3 or 4 men, at option of baler. 
Woiks with 1 or 2 horses. Uses rope or wire. Dons its 
own Taami'ino. Tuts from 7 to 8 tons in a b^x car. 
Price $500. 

THE MONARCH. 

Same principle as Junior Monarch, onlv smaller and 
heavier. Size of bale, « hen in press, 17x20x40 inches. 
Average weight of hale, 220 pounds. Capacity, from 12 
to 20 tons per dav. Requires 3 men and 2 h rses. Uses 
wire only— rope will not hold. Dobs its own Tramp- 
ing. Puts 10 tons i r over in a b x ear. 
Price $GOO 




THE GENUINE PRICE PETALUMA. 

Size of hale in press, 24x24x50 inches. Average 
weight of bale, 250 pounds. Capacity, from 10 to 18 
tons per day. Requires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope 
or wire. Hay has to be tramped into the press. Puts 
from 5 to 61 tons in a box car. 

Price $350. 




THE IMPROVED EAGLE. 

Size of bale in press, 26x26x^0 inches. Average 
weight of bale, 235 pounds. Capacity, from 10 to 15 
tons per day. Requires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope 
or wire. Hay n.ust be tramped in the press. Puts from 
4J to 5J tons in a box car. 

Price $250. 



Tho above is the finest line of Baling Presses in the 
United States. They are noarly double the capacity of 
those of other makurs. 

ItarKor large, illustrated Catalogue of the same, ad- 
dress the 

PRICE HAY PRESS CO., 

San Leandro, Cal. 




HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS, TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at U«- 
chauicx' Fair, 1885. Windmills from J66. Horse 
Powers from $50. F. W. KROGH St CO., 6J 
Rente Street. Han Francisco. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson Sz Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., nhlcaero. Afrent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph H. Dorety. 62B Commercial St.. S. F. 



64 



f ACIFI6 l^URAb PRESS. 



[July 21, 1888 



CLIMAX HAY PRESS 

THE BEST LOW PRICED HAY PRESS IN THE WORLD. 

Will Bale from 10 to 15 Tons per Day. 

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BALING PRESSES 

Break Pin to 11 





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THE EASY ROAD CART. 



Our MODEL 4-Spring WAGONS. 



No. 1 - For one person, J inch Axle Price, $'2" 50 

No. 2— Two persons, 1 inch Axle Price, 27 50 





The only _A_ crude Wagon on the Coast. Hewai 
Model 4-Sprlngs. 

No. 100 A — Model 4 Spring. Double Collar Steel A\le«, Steel Tires, Leather Cushions, all 
•elected material, and elegantlv painted and Brimmed, Pole, Stw Straps, Neck Yoke and 
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No. 100 A — Model, 1> Axle, Pole and Brake, guaranteed the best material, without top, (140 
No. 100 A — Model, 1) Axle, Cu e and Brake, guaranteed the best material, without top, 130 

We furnish No. 100 A Wagon with i-tanding top. same ftyle as shown above. The back 
seat is movable. The Model la a great improvement on the Racine 4-Sprin f Wagon, better 
finished, bet cr material, and bettor style. 

This top lined with medium quality of cloth, blue, brown, green or oil cloth, trimmed 
with black enamel, duck or drill cloth, with hand loops, roll up curtains, and light iu back 
curtain. We make our own Tops. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 



THE "PUTNAM" CART. 

Just the thing for the farmer to go to town in, as it is much lighter 
than a buggy, only one-third as expensive, and costs but a quarter as 
much for repairs. Nothing but first class material used in the construc- 
tion of these Carts. 

They have 1] inch doable collar steel coaoh axles, and steel tires, 
white wood bodies, genuine Sarven patent wheels, solid back, flmge, 
nicely painted and neatly striped. 

No. 516 —Plain Solid Seat, Petaluma Cait, with Cushions, no 

Kick behind |32 00 

No. 516 A — Plain Solid Sest, Pttiluma Cart, with Cushion, with 

Hack t) carry box or package 33 00 

No. 516 D— Plain Cart, with Tip Over Seat, like out, to enter 

from behind, with Cushions and Rack 35 00 

BUY THE GOLDEN SHEAF BINDING TWINE. BEST AND CHEAPEST BINDING 

TWINE IN THE MARKET. 

421 to 427 Market Street, San Francisco. 




vtctnusisu" 
H.C MIUEA 

SICflCTAItr 




BRIGGS. FERGUSSON & CD. General Agents. 

OFFICES 31* CALIFORNIA ST.SAN FRANCISCO & RIVERSI0E.CAI. 



INCORPORATE 0(C6'"I887 
CAPITAL STOCK $ 600.000. 



THE ABOVE GOT WAS MADE FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OP THE IMPROVEMENTS MADE ON AND THE DELIGHTFUL 

SCENERY NEAR THE PROPERTY OF THE 

PALM VALLEY LAND COMPANY. 



If you want a first-class investment, 
If you are seeking a winter resort. 
If you are seeking a heaith resort, 
If you want to live in the finest climate in the world, 
If you want to live ir perpetual summer, 

The Palm Valley Land Company is an incorporation, the Directors being the following 
gentlemen, well known in business and financial circles throughout California : 



H. C. CAMI'BKM, Attorney, S. F. Savings Union President 

I. OVI I.L WHITE Cashier 8. F. Savlii B s Union 

I.. M. HOLT, Editor ■• Press and Horticulturist," or Riverside, t'al .Superintendent 

MAJOR O. C. IDILIB, C apitalist Sb „ Krau ,. jsco 

S. W. FERGUSSON, Bri KS s, Fer B „s,on & Co S » n Francisco 

A large amount of money has been expended by the Company in permanent improvements 

BRIGGS, FERGUSSO 

3X4 California Street, 



If you want to live where you can enjoy all there is in life 
really worth living for, 

Seek no further — PALM YALLHY presents all the above 
attractions. 

You will never he disappointed by purchasing here. 

and as a reault, six and a half miles of Ktilroad has been laid, connecting the Colony with the 
Southern Paoitic at Seven Palms. One hundred and sixty acres of Navel Oranges have been 
plant 3d, and the water system has been completed, for irrigation and domestic uses, and many 
other valuable and lasting improvements have been made. 

The Colony is located at the foot of the San Jacinto Mountains, one hundred and nine miles 
east of Los Angeles, in San Diego county, California. 

Don't fail to investigate this wonderful Colony, and if you want to invest your money where 
it will be safe, and where it will be sure to yield a handsome profit in a reasonable time, write 
for circulars and full in'ormation t<> 

N & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

Francisco. 






TWENTY 


-ZP-A-Q-E EIDITI03ST. 




Vol. XXXVI.-No. 4. 


SAN FRANCISCO, 


SATURDAY, JULY 28, 1888. 


J $3 a Year. In Advance. 

1 BlNOLK CoPIEn, 10 OTH. 





The Corn Palace. 

Probably no more unique recognition of the 
eminence and importance of a local product was 
ever conceived than that which was embodied 
last year in the design and construction of the 
" Corn Palace " at Sioux City, Iowa. It at- 
tracted wide attention as the original and only 
corn palace. St. Paul had its Ice Palace, St. 
Louis its Veiled Prophet and New Orleans its 
Mardi Gras, so Sioux City claims the sole right 
to the Corn Palace. And thus having present- 
ed something new under the sun, the triumph- 
ant materialization of an original thought, Sioux 
City proclaims itself " The Corn Palace City 
of the World," and claims that its erection 
of the royal house "fixes Sioux City for all 
time as the seat of empire for King Corn, the 
center of the great corn belt, with its illimita- 
ble resources, its tireless activities, with its 
unparalleled prosperity." 

The Corn Palace of 1887 was honored by a 
visit from President Cleveland, and it is stated 
that 80,000 persons were entertained within it 
during the time that Mondamin kept open 
house. In order to convey to our readers some 
idea of the magnitude of the labor and wealth 
expended thereon, the following figures are 
given: 

There was 300,000 fett of lumber consumed, 
15,000 bushels of yellow corn and 5000 bushels 
of variegated varieties; 500 pounds of carpet 
tacks; 3000 pounds of nails; 1500 pounds of 
small brads; 2500 feet of rope; 500 pounds of 
small wire; and 3500 yards of cloth. It took 
46 men six days to erect the palace, and nearly 
300 men and women to place the decorations in 
form. Ten teams were employed 15 days haul- 
ing corn and grains. Two steam saws were en- 
gaged constantly eight days cutting corn-ears 
into small pieces for decorative signs and orna- 
mental work. Besides this labor was all that was 
done by farmers in delivering grains from their 
own stacks. The total coBt of the palace was 
about $28,000. The building was 210 feet long 
and the general contour Moorish. 

Such being the success of the corn festival 
week of the fall of 1887, Sioux City will repeat 
the Corn Palace enterprise in 1888 on a larger 
and grander scale. With this object a stock 
company has been formed, and having valuable 
experience to draw on, it is intended to make 
this year's palace much more elaborate and at 
tractive than that of last year; also, to devcte 
a longer time, at least a month, to the festivi- 
ties. The adoption of articles of incorporation 
places the Sioux City Palace Exposition Co. 
among the permanent institutions of the city. 
The capital atock of the corporation is $250,000, 
and its promoters are said to be the ttrongett 
and most energetic citizens. 

Our engraving shows the Corn Palace of 1888 
now in process of construction. It is more pre 
tentious in style than that of last year. Nor 
man towers have risen high upon the founda 
tions which supported the Moorish pavilions. 
The building is otherwise extended. The expo- 
sition in the Palace will open September 24tb 
and continue until October 6th. Californians 
who expect to be in the Northwest during the 
progress of the affair should make a note of it 
and attend. 

Cotton- Worms and grasshoppers are doiDg 
much damage to the cotton crop in Villa Lerdo 
Durango, the greatest cotton-raising district in 
Mexico. 



The Mechanics' Fair is to open a week 
from next Tuesday, and preparations therefor 
are going forward actively. Applications for 



ever. The railroads are doing their part in 
granting free transportation for exhibits, one 
way or both, and cheap excursion rates. General 




m 




, j^Trfftoi'Spi^wi'W 



THE GREAT CORN PALACE OP 1888 AT SIOUX CITY, IOWA, 
space have been so numerous that individual I Superintendent Stout reports the whole out- 
exhibitors have to be somewhat limited as to look most encouraging, 
the show-room allowed them. Large displays 

are expected from Butte, Napa, Sonoma, Santa I The first carload of fresh halibut shipped 



' rt '■ xsx ,« 



f 



In the Apricot Orchard. 

One of the engravings on this page gives a 
sight of a few apricot trees in the orchard of 
L. W. and F. H. Buck in Vaca valley. The 
trees are six years old. The photograph was 
taken during the blooming and shows the gen- 
eral shape of the tree. A view of the tree in 
full leaf would make a prettier picture, perhaps, 
but not so instructive, for this shows the style 
of pruning employed to get the exuberant 
apricot into form and strength of limb to with- 
stand the wind and support its fruit. As the 
picture shows, the tree has been headed low 
and has been given the vase form by repeated 
pruning, as can be seen in the branching of the 
limbs. This is the method usually followed 
with the apricot. It will be noted that there 
are plenty of low interior fruit-bearing shoots 
which will bring a large weight of fruit directly 
over the center of gravity in the tree. 

The apricot needs resolute pruning in this 
State, as has been often described in the RrrRAL. 
The cutting back is proportionally severe, as 
the growth of the tree is rapid. In the interior 
valleys and in some parts of Southern Cali- 
fornia, the tree feels the knife both summer 
and winter, in some cases for the development 
of fruit buds, and in others for the strengthen- 
ing of the limbs. The apricot makes a glorious 
tree in California if it is handled aright. 

Dried apricots have sold well this year. One 
of the large growers of Pleasant valley told us 
last week that he had hU crop dried, shipped 
East, had received his money and -spent it all 
by the middle of July. This is another of many 
indications of the spirit of the fruit trade this 
year. We shall not have nearly enough dried 
apricots to supply the demand this year, and 
even with the fine crop of peaches there prom- 
ises to be no more than will be wanted at good 
prices — some say as good prices as last year. 
The immense Eastern shipment is really drain- 
ing the State of its fruit, but no one regrets it. 
There are plenty of young trees coming on, and 
there is plenty of land to plant more. But it 
will be well to make your bargain with your 
nurseryman early this year. The rush of last 
fall and winter has led the nurseries to make 
ready as many trees as possible for this year's 
trade; but to be sure that you will get what 
you want, send in orders early. 



SIX-YEAR-OLD APRICOT TREES OP L. W. BUCK & SON. 

Clara, San Luis Obispo, Kern and Stanislaus, i East from Astoria was sold by auction at Bos- 
nor will these be the only counties represented, ton on July I7th for 12J cents a pound. The 
The machinery department will be fuller than I result is quite satisfactory. 



Against the Standard Oil Monopoly:. — 
On Monday last the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission render ed a decision in the case of Scofield, 
Shurmeir <fc Teagle and others against the Lake 
Shore ft Michigan Southern Railroad, in- 
vclving oil rates from Cleveland to other cities. 
The commission rules that it is an unlawful 
preference when a railroad makes a rate in 
favor of oil shipment? in tankcar lots as against 
shipments in barrel carload lots. The practice 
is ordered to be correctsd, and the mode pre- 
scribed by which this must be done is by giving 
the same rates on each per pound. 



NBBBA8KA State Fair. — The 22ii Annual 
Exposition of the Nebraska State Board of Ag- 
riculture is to be held at Lincoln September 7th 
to I4th. The Press gratefully acknowledges 
the receipt of a pass complimentary. 



The Skeena river revolt continues to cause 
great excitement in the Northwest. The local 
militia at Winnipeg is prepared to start for he 
scene of the outbreak on short notice. 



66 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



[Jcly 28, 1888 



CORRESPONDENCE, 



Correspondent* are alone responsible for their opinions. 



Napa Valley Notes. 

Editors Press: — The spring and early sum- 
mer was quite cool with us, that is to say, we 
had no very warm weather. Now, in the mid- 
dle of July, the mercury on its upward march 
now and then ranges in the nineties, and some- 
times touches the 100-degree mark. The 15th 
and 10 th were the hottest days of the season 
with U8, after that the days were cooler. Oar 
temperature, on the average, is a very equa- 
ble one, and the climate of various portions of 
the county is increasing in popularity, as is 
evidenced by the large numbers of visitors who 
sojourn at our various health resorts during the 
summer months. 

The cool weather of the earlier part of the 
season was beneficial to crops of all kinds, and 
prophecies made two months ago are now be- 
ing fulfilled to the letter. The barley crop has 
been harvested, and much wheat, a number of 
threshing machines are now busy, and large 
yields are reported from fields in every direc- 
tion. Kirley is heavier than for several pre- 
vious years, very plump and of good color. 
Of wheat the same can be said, and farmers 
are happy. Some hay has been baled, much 
more remains in the held, stacked for the most 
part. Several cargoes have been sent to San 
Francisco, considerable has been sold in the 
larger towns of the county, though, on 
the whole, the movement has not been great. 

Large quantities of apricots, peaches, black- 
berries, and other fruits are being shipped to 
San Francisco and other markets. Our apri- 
cots are very fine; the better varieties of 
peaches, of which there will be a large crop, 
are rapidly ripening. Heavy consignments of 
blackberries are sent from our larger berry 
farms to Solano and Yolo counties as well as 
to the metropolis. The largest blackberry 
"patch" in the county is W. A. Trubody's, 
some 10 or 15 acres being Bet out in these 
vines. 

Oor Bartlett pear crop will be larger than 
ever, and it will not be long before the fruit 
will ripen. Several orchards were sold at a 
good figure early in the season. We hold our 
own with " the most favored locality " in raising 
pears, the Winter Nelis variety, possibly, ex- 
cepted. 

A new fruit-drier, situated near the depot, in 
Napa City, is doing a good business, turning 
out fine samples of dried fruit. The large and 
well-titted-up fruit cannery, in this city, is still 
awaiting some man of enterprise. The property 
can be purchased at a low figure, and there is 
no better location in the State. 

All our residents, especially farmers, are in- 
terested in the new agricultural society organ- 
ized here a short time ago, with a capital of 
§40,000. The society has secured a ten years' 
lease of about 60 acres of land adjoining Napa 
City, upon which a race-track, one mile long, 
and having a width of GO feet, is now nearly 
finished. This will, it is said by experienced 
horsemen, be the finest track in the State. A 
large pavilion has been secured in town in 
which will, this fall, be exhibited the products 
of our oounty. 

The initial fair of the society will be held 
during the first week of October. A fine speed 
program has been arranged, and doubtless the 
attendance will be large. It is thought, once 
the track is in good order, and conveniences for 
stabling horses provided, this point will become 
a favorite one with many horsemen for winter 
training. For this purpose Napa has an un- 
equaled climate. 

The spirit of progress is noticeable in every 
section of our county, notably in Napa City and 
St. Helena and the immediate vicinity of these 
thriving towns. Of late, town property has 
been more sought after than country real es- 
tate, but a turn in the tide is looked for this 
fall. No better farms — none more productive 
—can be found anywhere than those situated 
within the borders of Napa county. 

Mention should be made of the outlook for 
the coming vintage. Everything has been fa- 
vorable for a bountiful crop from the beginning 
of the season. The fruit has set well. The 
vines never looked better. Extensive prepara- 
tions are being made for the vintage, which 
will commence in a month or two, in all the 
cellars in the county. Naturally our wine-pro- 
ducers do not take kindly to the late cut in 
prices of wine, as they know their wine is of a 
superior quality. 

Napa county's reputation as a health resort 
is yearly spreading. In every part of the county 
are to be found visitors at the springs, boarders 
at the more private resorts or in private fami- 
lies, this year in larger numbers than ever before. 
When we become restless, when the migratory 
spirit takes possession of our people during the 
summer, we journey to some point on the coast 
or camp among the mountains in our own or 
sister counties. 

Parties from distant places pass through 
Napa City almost daily, their destination being 
Like, or the upper portion of our own county. 
They return from time to time with counte- 
nances bronzed, ravenous appetites, reinvigo- 
rated constitutions. 

Of course the Republicans of this county 
were particularly proud, and Democrats but 
little less so, that our fellow-citizen, Hon. M. M. 
Kstee, was so highly honored at Chicago. Mr'. 



Estee was heartily welcomed upon his recent 
arrival home. He has done so much for our 
farming and other interests, we are so much in- 
debted to bis exertionf , that the congratulations 
extended him were sincere and hearty. K. 
tfapa, July 18, 1888. 



JH^UIT CD ARRETING. 



California Products Abroad. 

Editors Press: — As stated at the close of 
my last letter, I called at Messrs. Crosse & 
Blackwell's and asked to Bee Mr. Black well, and 
in a few moments the gentleman made his ap- 
pearance, and after stating my business, I 
asked : 

" Do you think there would be a market here 
for California apricots in cans and jars ? " 

" ( >h, there is already a market here." 

" Is there any other apricot in the market 
here ? " 

"Yes. Chief among them are the apricots 
of L'sbon." 

" How does the California apricot compare in 
size and flavor to those of other countries? " 

"The Lisbon apricot is larger and finer." 

" I cannot take this statement for granted, 
for I have seen the best of the Mediterranean 
apricots, and all whom I have seen pronounce 
the California fruit to be the best." 

" Well, we shall open some samples and show 
you." 

The samples were opened, one from Lit bon 
and the other from the Blank Packing Co. of 
California, and sure enough, the size of the Cal- 
ifornia fruit was fully as large as the Lisbon 
sample. The size, however, was the only point 
of resemblance, for while the Lisbon fruit was 
clean and carefully selected, the California 
fruit was slovenly put up, the steaming of a 
portion was overdone and in some underdone, 
or the fault lay in the selection of over-ripe and 
under-ripe fruit. The can of the California 
sample, too, having been poorly soldered, parti- 
cles of black spots could be seen floating around 
in the syrup. The flavor of the syrup of the 
Lisbon sample was superior to the California 
sample. The Lisbon sample was peeled and 
the California sample unpeeled. Take it all in 
all, the Lisbon sample had an advantage in 
" putting up," but as far as apricots are con 
cerned, they were in no way superior to the 
California samples. Both samples, however, 
were in no way a real test as far as size is con- 
cerned, for the sample of California apricots 
that I have seen at Vienna could " take the 
shine " out of the London sample, and the apri- 
cots that were sold on my place last year to the 
Capital Packing Co. of Sacramento were larger 
and finer than those I saw in Vienna. 

There is certainly something " rotten in Den- 
mark " when we attempt to build up an industry 
in foreign countries by doing so Wrong aide up 
irilhoul can in place of "right Bide up with 
care." 

The slipshod method would be more becom- 
ing an old wornout country like Portngal than 
the brand new, free and enlightened State of 
California. Does it pay to do slipshod work ? 
No, indeed. Every such shipment of trash 
like the California apricots I find here is a nail 
in the coffin of prosperity for California, and no 
one would be more frank to make the same re 
mark than would the manager of the company 
which packed them, were he preseut at the 
comparison of samples to-day. 

Now, Mr. Manager, note the effect of poor 
workmanship: 

" What is the wholesale price of California 
apricots in these cans? " (one-pound tins.) 

" E'ght shillings per dozen cans. " 

" What is the wholesale price of the Lisbon 
apricots of the same sized cans and the same 
weight?" 

" Twenty four shillings per dozen cans." 

" Why is there such a great difference ?" 

"Why? don't you see?" 

I did see, but my thoughts were not at all 
complimentary to the California Packing Co. 
I saw clearly that the concern did a mischief to 
the great industry of California, that in doing 
so they were creating a poor reputation just in 
a market where we should not be placed at 
such a disadvantage, that the packers were 
money out by their method of defective work- 
manship, clearly money out. How ? We will 
see. 

"Are there any Lisbon apricots in one-pound 
packages that you can get for eight shillings 

($2) a dozen ?" 
" No, we cannot." 

It will be seen that Messrs. Crosse & Black- 
well frankly acknowledge that they are unable 
to buy a pound of Lisbon apricots at the price 
at which they offer to sell the California fruit, 
and as Mr. Black well judges the fruit of the 
one cannery sample, so he judges the California 
apricot. It is high time to stop this misrepre- 
sentation, this blamable disadvantage, and to 
counteract a growing tendency to disparage the 
products of California in a market, which, if 
we were properly made known, would become 
a source of perpetual revenue. 

It is high time California and her produce be 
placed before the people of Europe in a true 
light, and this can best be done by holding 
here in London an exhibit of the products and 
resources of California. Were this done, we 
could find not alone a market for our fruits, but 
for our wines as well, and with proper efforts 
the pure wines of our great State would nod a 



demand that is now exclusively controlled by 
countries that produce the bulk of their rub- 
bish by means of chemicals. 

I asked Mr. Blackwell if there was any mar- 
ket for canned Bartlett pears, and he said : 
" Bartlett pears from California sell well." 

" What prices do they sell for at wholesale ?" 

"From 10 to 12 shillings a dozen for 24-pound 
cans." (§2.50 to $3.) 

What the Frult-Growera Should Do. 

The forming of the Fruit Union was the firBt 
step toward progress, and now there remains 
some other work to be done by the California 
fruit-growers equally as important as the work 
they are now doing. The work that I refer to 
may be divided into two headings, one method, 
and the other labor. 

Method — There should be a systematic 
method adopted, whereby preserving, canning, 
packing, labeling and classifying may be done 
so as to produce a relative uniformity of appear- 
ance, size and quality, so as to enable foreign 
buyers to determine with some degree of cer- 
tainty the relative merits and value of packages 
and quality and ingredients. 

The labels of quality should be furnished to 
the growers or cinners by the secretary of the 
California Fruit Union at a slight advance above 
cost, which, when obtained, should be affixed 
to the can or package under the direction of an 
examiner, the examiner to be appointed by the 
secretary of the Fruit Union. 

The duty of the examiner should be to exam- 
ine quality and quantity of each lot and furnish 
quality labels in accordance with quality. 
False labeling, or labeling of false quality, 
should render the examiner liable to instant 
dismissal and the canner liable to a fine or ex- 
pulsion from the Fruit Union. 

The signature of the president and secretary 
of the California Fruit Union should be printed 
on each libel, and the design of the label regis- 
tered, thereby making it a penal offense to copy 
or imitate it, the cost of this supervisory sys- 
tem to he met by the advance charged on each 
label affixed. The growers and canners under 
this system should forward circulars to all for- 
eign markets, and, if practicable, also a com- 
mercial traveler should be sent out with sam- 
ples, who, when in Europe, could at the same 
time obtain detailed information as to improve 
ment in methods of preparation, with a view of 
their adoption at home. David Lubi.v. 

[Mr. Lubin gives the name of the cannery 
which put up the apricots which he found in 
London, but we do not see that any good pur- 
pose can be served by printing it. Rather let 
the lesson be general and a strong one, too. 
We heard too much of poor canned apricots a 
few years ago, and had hoped that the evil had 
b^en checked by its own unprofitableness. — 
Eds Press ] 



Horticulture 



Walnut on Oak Clearings. 

Editors Press: — I have been requested by 
prominent walnut-growers of this State to give 
my views upon the effect of oak trees on wal- 
nuts, and ask space in your columns to do so. 

The Goleta and the Carpinteria valleys are 
the home of the walnut, as they grow here as 
near, if not nearer, perfection than in any part 
of California, and nearly all of the land util.zed 
in walnuts was once (and not many years ago) 
covered with a heavy growth of oak timber. 
My attention has been called to this subject on 
several occasions from the remarks published 
from the essays of Mr. Ellwood Cooper, and I 
have taken considerable pains to inform myself 
upon the subject, and Mr. Cooper is the only 
authority that I can find that considers them in 
the least injurious. [Mr. Sextnn expressed his 
views in last week's Rural. — Eds. Press.] 

One of my oldest and best producing trees, 
which is now 16 years old, and from which I 
gathered last season 410 pounds of walnuts, and 
this season it is loaded with nuts, occupies the 
identical spot where once stood a large oak tree. 

I am superintendent of the largest walnut or- 
chard in California, belonging to myself and 
Messrs. Price, Cassell and Roberts of San Fran- 
cisco, and it is land selected by myself for the 
express purpose of raising walnuts, and nearly 
all of the land was once covered with a heavy 
growth of oak timber. I have not the least 
misgivings as to the result, so fir as the injury 
from oak trees is concerned. Walnut trees oc- 
casionally die as well as others, and the cause 
should be laid where it belongs. In removing 
one of my dead trees a few years ago, out of 
curiosity to ascertain the cause of its dying, I 
dug down some ten feet from the surface and 
found that the tap-root had penetrated a strata 
of gravel, some two feet in depth, and being 
cold and wet and lacking nourishment it nat- 
urally died. 

It has seemed strange to me that Mr. Cooper 
should take the position that he has, when he 
knows as well as I the age, production and 
present condition of the walnut urchards in this 
vicinity and other places adjacent, and also 
knows the condition of the land before planted 
to walnuts. 

When a walnut orchard 20 years old and up- 
ward, growing upon oak-timber land, increasing 
in its production with age, and pays $2.50 per 
acre net, I fail to see much injury from any 



source. And I give it as my opinion, based 
upon my own observation and from what in- 
formation I have been able to obtain from 
others of good authority, that the position 
taken by Mr. Cooper cannot he substantiated. 

W r . N. Roiserts. 

Golela, Santa Barbara Co. 



Non-Pruning Fruit Trees. 

Editors Press :-— Mr. D. B. Wier seems to 
have solved the vexed question of pruning sat- 
isfactorily, to his own mind at least, by advis- 
ing the Utopian idea of not pruning at all dur- 
ing the first 12 to 15 years of a tree's growth. 
In thus cutting this Gordianknot of pruning he 
has outgeneraled the great Alexander, who was 
obliged to do some cutting with his sword. 
Mr. Wier says: "Cut not at all, except to 
shorten in some rampant branches," which he 
does not call pruning, thus differing from Web- 
ster and all the great authorities on fruit cult- 
ure, who define pruning to "cut off branches." 
Mr. Wier specially objects to cutting any 
branches from the insioe of a tree. "Keep 
knife, saw and ax entirely away from that part 
of a tree; let the branches cross and recross at 
their own sweet will, but let them alone. 
Nature designed them to grow in that way for 
the future welfare of the tree. If you cut, you 
spoil !" How infinitesimal wnuld those gieat 
authorities on pomology — Djwning, J. J. 
Thomas, Barry, Elliott, Warder and others — 
appear were they in existence at the present 
time to advocate, as they did, a system of vig- 
orous pruning ! A fine lot of flavorless, color- 
less fruit we should have were a tree left to 
grow as "nature designed it." No sun, no 
bird nor human being would be able to pene- 
trate the top of a tree left to grow as nature de- 
signed it, with the limbs and branches "cross- 
ing aad intercrossing at their own sweet will." 
Unfortunately, too many all over the country, 
but especially here in California, have practiced 
the let-alone system of allowing their trees to 
grow according to their "own sweet will." 

Mr. Wier's recommendations about not prun- 
ing have not the merit of being applicable to 
any locality or to any climate, especially not to 
that of California. He states, however, that his 
remarks " are intended to apply wholly to the 
prairie States of the West, where trees only 
make a moderate growth each year." Then why 
urge such remarks in a paper devoted largely 
toward promoting interests of the Pacific Slope? 
[To lead to discussion and better general un- 
derstanding of the subject. — Eds. Press ] An 
experience of over 50 years' fruit culture and an 
opportunity of seeing large orchards in New 
York, the Eastern States, the Mount Hope 
nurseries and orchards of Ellwanger &. Barry, the 
orchards in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia and my own 
State of Michigan, convinces me that Mr. 
Wier's recommendations of non-pruning are not 
applicable anywhere. " Train up a child in 
the way he should go " has no more significance 
than train up a tree in the way it should grow. 
Neglect the training of either the child or 
the tree and you have a failure. 

But Mr. Wier objects to the goblet-shaped 
top of a tree because "the result would be a 
tree that would all split asunder with its first 
heavy crop of fruit unless every branch was 
propped up." How does Mr. Wier know this 
would be the result? Has he had any expe- 
rience in this mode of training trees? Certainly 
not, as he advocates letting the tree grow as 
nature designed it to grow. Now I claim, aud 
can prove, that just the opposite result will be 
the case. If any one will come to my place I 
will show them trees pruned goblet-shaped — 
that is, with a top precisely the shape of a 
goblet bowl, square at the top, hollow in the 
center, the whole surface of the limbs drawn to 
the body of the tree — covered with fruit-spurs 
bearing fruit, the limbs shaded with tufts of 
leaves, preventing sun-scalding, and all the 
limbs so stocky and firm, by reason of their be- 
ing shortened in, that no props are needed and 
no long step or fruit ladders are needed to pick 
the fruit, as it is all within reach. In the same 
orchard I will show apricot trees all split down 
with their load of fruit, and many limbs of ap- 
ple and plum trees broken down, all on trees 
that have been " left to their own sweet will." 

Train a tree goblet-shaped, with its head low 
down like our live oaks, cut back all rampant 
upright branches and limbs, so as to induce a 
sturdy, Btrong support to the fruit near the 
body of the tree, encourage the growth of fruit- 
spurs on limbs near their base, and'even on the 
body of the tree quite low down, and no props 
will be needed to support the overburdened 
limbs. Never cut off shoots or suokers, or 
water-sprouts as they are sometimes called, close 
to their base, but leave two or three buds to 
develop into fruit-buds or spurs. In this way 
the frnit is all within reach without the use of 
tall fruit ladders. 

Mr. Wier's views seem to be of a theoretical 
rather than of a practical nature. Many things 
work beautifully in theory, but fail utterly in 
practice. A grain of experience ia worth a 
pound of theory at any time. I came to this 
coast a few years since endowed with a life-long 
experience at the East, and for a long time 
practiced and advocated the methods in vogue 
there, but I soon found the conditions here are 
so different from what they are there that a 
different course must be pursued to insure suc- 
cess. A certain writer has said : " California 
beats the devil," snd I think it does. 

I am glad, Mi Editor, you have, invited dit» 



July 28, 1888. 



PACIFIC I^URAb p>RESS. 



67 



cussion on this important subject, as a friendly 
discussion of any subject will have a tendency 
to call out different views and elicit more or 
leas interest. I should not have alluded to 
this subject at all had not Mr. Wier forced me 
to do so in self-defense. I have not the 
vanity to thick I am infallible nor that my 
views and suggestions are superior to those emi 
nent lights and authorities above quoted. 
Santa Rita. J. S. Tibbits. 



Oak Lands and Pruning. 

Editors Press : — Fruit-growers are so busy 
during the day and tired at night at this season 
that they barely catch time to skim through the 
Rural, or methinks the statements in some of 
the late numbers would have been given venti- 
lation ere this that would upset some of the 
theories. 

Oak Lands for Fruit. 
Fruit doesn't do well on land where oaks have 
grown ! What say you, residents of Sutter 
and Butte counties who " point with pride " to 
your remaining oaks as an evidence of the 
adaptability of your land to fruit culture, and 
" view with alarm " the efforts of other sections 
to grow fruit on treeless lands ? The only fault 
that I could see with these lands was that the 
crop is so great — as on Gen. Bidwell's Rancbo 
Chico — that sufficient help could not be en- 
gaged to gather it. If the English walnut will not 
grow on such land, the California black walnut 
will grow anywhere on bottom or irrigated land 
and the English walnut can be budded or 
grafted iDto it. But I think the English 
walnuts will grow, for this reason, I chopped 
out an old tree and planted a young English 
walnut in the space occupied by the 
old stump. Said neighbor B: " That tree 
will die." Quote neighbor C: "My father 
always dug a big hole and wheeled in 
earth from another locality, and in that way 
the tree lived." That tree grew oneinch the first 
season and but two inches the next. I then 
dug out the earth to a depth of about a foot, 
put in six inches of sheep manure and covered 
with soil. That tree has made it a point to 
cause every one that notices it to exclaim: 
"My, how that tree does grow." So I take it 
that it is not so much the fungus from the fer- 
menting sap of the old roots that kills the trees 
as it is the fact that the old tree had exhausted 
the soil near the trunk of the requisites for 
tree growth and depended upon its feeders at 
the ends of the long roots for nourishment. 
As the young tree's roots are short, it cannot 
reach out and feed from so great a surface. 
Give your young orchard a good dressing of 
manure in the early fall; let the winter rains 
leach it out. and the result will be as an old 
German at Placerville put it: "I manure my 
orchard with ground bone; my ! you should 
see how green, like velvet, the leaves are, and 
such fruit ! Peaches as big as your fist, and 
delicious." 

Pruning. 

Mr. Wier is another whom I think Califor- 
nia fruit growers will agree to disagree with in 
his Eastern methods of pruning as applied to 
California. Why, bless you, Mr. Wier, it is 
our warm, sunDy climate that causes our fruits 
to excel. Did you ever find the fruit on the 
lower branches of the northwest side of the 
tree to compare at all favorably with that on 
the southeast? I think not. The sun doesn't 
strike that side, and, in consequence, the fruit 
lacks the size, color, and flavor of the sun- 
kissed fruit. I pass an orchard frequently 
where no limbs have been removed, and the 
consequence is the tree is one compact mass of 
shoots with no fruit growing, except at the 
top, and that (by reason of the tree having ex- 
hausted itself in making wood) is small and 
poor in quality. 

Then, again, Mr. Wier thinks an apple tree 
" by cutting back could be confined to a 20- 
foot space." I have trees 30 inches in diameter, 
spread of 60 feet, and 40 feet high. What 
would such a tree do in a -0-foot space ? It 
would soon be climbing heavenward, and all of 
the fruit would be on the very top. That may 
do for grain or any crop that grows all at the 
summit, but not for fruit. "Cutting back " 
does very well on many varieties, but woe to 
the orchardist who tries it on apple trees, for 
wherever he cuts off a limb two suck- 
er sprouts start out, and the long, limber 
branches which grow from them remain to re- 
mind him of his folly and to cause him to cut 
clean and close up whenever he has occasion to 
remove a limb. If we are to let nature alone, 
what is to prevent the sucker or water-sprouts 
frrm choking the tree-tops? 

Each fruit requires a special method in prun- 
ing. If I were to set out an orchard now I 
should head it low as soon as the limbs had 
grown eight inches, pinch them off and cause 
them to fork again. After that I should leave 
the tree pretty much to itself, except the peach, 
which I would crop off square across the top 
every fall. But I would take the precaution 
to set my trees twice as far apart as Mr. Wier 
directs, for we will, in t'me, all agree with Mr. 
Runyon of Courtland, who said : " If 1 were 
to take out every other tree, then thin out tho 
fruit on the trees remaining to one-half, I 
would have much better and a larger yield of 
fruit." 

Mr. Wier and all our Eastern friends will 
find that, with the rest of us, tbey have it all 
to learn over. California i" peculiar to herself. 

Murphy's. E. H. Schaeffl«. 



JI[he ]S table. 



Breaking and Training Colts. 

A correspondent of the Kansas City Live- 
stock Record gives the following suggestions: 

In breaking or training colts for road or 
farm, get an active, patient horseman to take 
charge of them, and, as far as possible, avoid 
everything likely to scare or hurt them. Train- 
er should begin work by moving about in their 
stalls till something of their tempers is learned. 
If nervous, confidence must bB gained by pat- 
ting, stroking and rubbing on the nose, face, 
ears, neck, shoulders, back, legs, etc. By so 
doing, most colts will quietly permit lifting of 
their feet and free handling all over. Should 
really bad temper be exhibited, hard measures 
may have to be adopted before they are taugbt 
that it need not be shown. When a thorough 
understanding has been established between 
man and colt, a bit should be put in the colt's 
mouth, after which he should be taken out and 
made to walk, trot, and stand when asked. On 
being returned to the stall, let him again be 
well handled, his legs rubbed and his feet lifted, 
etc. Portions of harness should next be placed 
on crib or manger, that by seeing and touching 
them, he may learn they are harmless. This 
learned, they should slowly be raised and quiet- 
ly put on, after which the colt should be 
walked, etc., in them out of doors. 

A roadster colt should be made well ac- 
quainted with the bit before he is mounted or 
put in harness. Mounting should be practiced 
in the open field and on the naked back till 
quietly submitted to, when mounting on a 
saddle will seldom be otjected to. Both cart 
and roadster colts should first be made to pull 
on traces. To do this the trainer and another 
should hold the colt by a rein each, on op- 
posite sides of the head. To each trace a rope 
should be attached and the ends given one to 
each of two men well apart, behind the colt. 
When he moves forward they should gradually 
tighten the ropes until pulling is established. 
At the same time they should approach each 
other and make the traces press hard or light 
on his sides and thighs, as he seems disposed to 
bear them. By this means he will in most 
cases soon come to draw a log or light harrow 
quite pleasantly; if not, repeat the lesson till 
he does so. When a cart colt comes to pull 
quietly by himself, he should be yoked on an 
active and good-tempered companion. The 
new arrangement may annoy, but if nothing 
hurts or frightens him, the annoyance will soon 
pass and he will gradually settle to his work. 

All young horses are apt to "bolt" when 
first put to draw anything they are unaccus- 
tomed to. Care should be taken to prevent 
this, otherwise disagreeable or worse results 
may follow. RoadsterBare generally more sud- 
den in their movements than cart horses; hence 
such movements should be specially guarded 
against. Before being put on a road in har- 
ness, a roadster should be ridden behind, before 
and alongside another horse in a trap. A gig is 
perhaps tbe best conveyance for him to be first 
harnessed to, and an open field the best place 
for him to start it in. In driving, use a bit not 
likely to hurt, hold the reins tightly till the 
colt is accustomed to them. Oooe on the road, 
give a turn on it daily, overlook petty faults, 
punish only when gentle means of correction 
fail, but never unless the colt knows what he 
is punished for. Harness is apt to chafe tbe 
skin of horses unaccustomed to it. Chafed 
parts should be bathed, and have cooling lotions 
applied to them. 



Why You Should Curry Your Horses. 

A correspondent of an exchange furnishes 
some good ideas in the following in regard to 
currying horses: The skin of animals is a very 
active excretory organ, supplied with an almost 
indefinite number of pores, each one of which is 
the opening of a small spiral duct through 
which there is a continual discharge of watery 
fluid and such other useless matter as is carried 
there by the blood. Besides these, there are 
numberless small glands which secrete an oily 
fluid. This oily substance keeps the skin soft 
and flexible, and furnishes the hair with the 
requisite amount of nourishment and keeps it 
sott and glossy, as each hair has one or more of 
these glands attached to its bulb. The super- 
ficial layer of the skin is continually wearing 
away, and is replaced by a new growth, or by 
the deeper layer. 

The wear or waste, which comes off in the 
shape of small flakes and constitutes scurf, must 
be removed with a currycomb and brush. 
When a horse is worked hard the secretion of 
watery fluid is heavier than when idle, and 
comes to the surface in the form of sweat. Per- 
spiration goes on incessantly, even when the 
horse is idle, but it dors not become apparent, 
as it is evaporated as fast as it comes to the 
surface. If the sweat is a 'lowed to dry on the 
skin, quantities of dust will accumulate and 
mix with it, filling up the pores, and conse- 
quently prevent perspiration. This gives rise 
to many evil consequences. It may, and often 
does, cause inflammation of the numberless 
glands and tubes which form a network just 
beneath the surface of the deeper layer of the 
akin, and since perspiration is obstructed the 
skin becomes dry, rongh, hard and diseased. 
The impurities which cannot escape through 
the ekin accumulate in different places, and 



give riae to blisters, boils, etc. ; if these are not 
removed there is danger of blood poisoning, or 
they may develop other diseases of a serious 
character. Not only the skin becomes diseased, 
but the whole system is more or less deranged, 
as the functions performed by the skin neces- 
sarily devolve upon the other excretory organs 
of the body, consequently overtaxing them with 
work. 

All this may be prevented by a regular and 
judicious application of the currycomb and 
brush, and. by frequently washing the animal. 
Since prevention is better than cure, all horse- 
owners should use every precaution to prevent 
the many evils which may come about conse- 
quent upon carelessness and neglect of keeping 
the animal clean. 



Preserving Eggs. 

Although there are dozens of methods for 
preserving eggs, yet but few of them are worthy 
of notice. Limed eggs have been almost un- 
salable this year, and the lime method will soon 
be discarded. We give below a few rules that 
will enable our readers to preserve eggs in a 
good condition for at least three months, 
though eggs have been kept as long as six 
months by the process. 

1. Always use fresh eggs, and do not rely 
on those from your neighbor. You must know 
that every egg is fresh, as one stale egg may in- 
jure all. 

2. Use eggs only from hens not in company 
with cocks, as such eggs will keep three times 
as long as those containing germs of chicks. 

3. Keep them in a cool place — the cooler 
the better. Anywhere near 40° above zero 
will answer, though 60° will be cool enough for 
a few months. Only be careful that eggs do 
not freeze. 

4. Turn them half over three times a week, 
to prevent them from adhering to the shells. 
The turning of the eggs is very important, and 
is one of the secrets of success. 

5. No packing material is necessary. Sim- 
ply lay them on racks or shelves, though if pre- 
ferred they may be packed in boxes, in dry 
oats, and the boxes turned. 

6. Solutions, greasing the eggs, egg-preserv- 
ing preparations, etc., are unnecessary, as some 
of them injure the appearance of the eggs. 

7. Wash every egg clean before placing it 
with the others. 

If the above rules are followed, there will be 
no difference between eggs so preserved and 
those that are fresh. No person can succeed in 
preserving eggs who buys them from all 
sources, and who does not know just when 
every egg was laid, and it is on that point so 
many failures occur. You cannot place any 
dependence on eggs except from your own hens. 
Even your neighbor is sometimes unable to 
prevent getting a stale egg in among the fresh 
ones. Never use stale eggs as nest-eggs, or 
allow setting hens to be in the room with your 
layers. The greatest care should be exercised 
and the eggs kept always cool. — Farm and 
Fi? eside. 

California Chicken Hygiene. 

Geo. B. Badger of Hay wards gives the 
Cockier the following : Before coming to Cali- 
fornia I kept a small flock of chickens on Long 
Island, New York, and was very successful; 
but how different out here, and all because I 
did not treat them as this climate demands. 
One year in this section has taught me some 
things, but I have paid for it all. At present I 
will speak only of that dreaded disease, " rouo." 
Now, don't jump at once and say : filthy 
houses, bad ventilation, improper food, impure 
drinking water, too fat. "Too thin." My 
houses are kept clean and are well ventilated. 
I give fresh water each day; they had plenty of 
exercise, soft food in the morning and grain at 
night. Suddenly, in the month of January, one 
of my Plymouth Rocks squinted at me, twisted 
her neck, rubbed her face against her back. I 
took her in charge at once and put her in a coop 
alone. Case after case followed, about 15 in 
all. Of my eight Plymouth Rocks, each in 
proper order, developed this interesting disease. 
I cured each of the females, but the two males 
stubbornly refused to come about, but made 
the final lear> into the great unknown. Of the 
others affected, all were of the Plymouth Rock 
tendency in color, but were mongrel towl; 
but the strange part was that none of my Leg- 
horns showed any symptoms of sickness. My 
flock numbered about 100 head, about 70 being 
White and Brown Leghorn mixed. Now it 
occurs to me that roup in chickens is equivalent 
to that most frequent complaint on this coast, 
namely, catarrh, so troublesome to the genua 
homo, probably far more prevalent near the 
coast than it is back aways. I U'St only two 
females, but think that the trouble in caring 
for them entirely out of proportion to their 
value, more especially as they never seemed 
to be the same fine bird again. I believe that 
if every one would conscientiously weed out 
their sick chickens, and never set an egg from a 
hen that has ever shown signs of physical 
weakness, we would strike the evil at its 
foundation; patience, and the result will 
surely come at last. Nature herself would do 
it if not interfered, with, 



(§>HE "V^rlYARD. 



History of a Raisin Grape. 

The following brief and interesting history of 
a raisin grape appeared in the Merced Star from 
the pen of B. Marks, a well-known writer on 
agricultural and horticultural topics in the San 
Joaquin valley: 

In January, 1880, it was a little stick 16 
inches long, about as large around as one's little 
finger at the largest end and tapering to the 
size of a pipestem. It had just been cut from 
an old vine and had six buds distributed along 
its sides. At the highest market value it was 
worth one-quarter of a cent. 

Abont February 1st it was planted 12 inches 
deep in the midst of a square piece of land 
measuring eight feet on a side. Two buds were 
exposed above ground; the land, at $100 per 
acre, cost ab^ut 14 cents. 

About September 1st a precocious bunch of 
grapes was pinched off to repress unseemly for- 
wardness and to impart a modest demeanor and 
habits of moderation in the infant vine. 

In January, 1881, the two branches which 
had grown three feet long from the two buds 
were cut off so close to the vine that only two 
buds were left on each branch. The vine then 
looked very much as it did when it was only 
a little stick the year before. 

About May 1st the branches which sprang 
from the four buds had grown to be over four 
feet long, and had reached out toward and 
touched similar branches on sister vines eight 
feet away. 

About September 20th nice little bunches of 
Muscat grapes were cut from the branches 
near the vine and laid upon the ground. The 
bunches weighed together a pound and a half. 

September 29th the bunches had flattened 
down as though they had been gently pressed 
by the warm hand of the sun; the upper part 
had changed in color from its greenish amber to 
the purple brown of the raisin. The lower part 
next to the ground had changed in like manner, 
but not in the same degree. The bunches were 
turned and left on the ground uncared for, as 
before, until October 6th, when, being now per- 
fect raisins, they were taken up and placed 
with other bunches of raisins in a plain box 3 
feet long, 2 feet wide and 1 foot deep. They 
now weighed only half a pound together, hav- 
ing lost a pound in their tussle with the sun. 
In this " sweat-box " they were sold to the 
fruit-packer for two and a quarter cents, or 
at the rate of four and a half cents per pound. 
At this rate the whole family of sister vines on 
an acre yielded $1.30. Several other small 
bunches of grapes had grown and set for a sec- 
ond crop, but were disregarded. 

Tbe packer merely lifted the two little 
bunches carefully out of the sweat-box and 
placed them neatly and tastefully in a pretty 
pasteboard box, lined with paper, elegantly en- 
graved and beautifully colored, with '1\ pou